Singkangia

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6, -8.7, 162.2
Republic Of Singkangia (ROS)
Republik Singkangpura (Melayish)
                           新慷国共和国 (Babelic)
кангпубик сингкангра (Kanglapolish)''
Singkangian FlagCoat of Arms
FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
""ич кангси, ич кангиа, ич сингкара""
"One people, One nation, One Singkangia"
Anthem:
Ich Kangia, Ich Singkangia
[[File:

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CapitalSingkangia
Official languagesKanglapolish
 • National languagesKanglapolish, Babelic, Ingerish, Melayish
Ethnic Groups
(2012)
Kanglaporean 52%

Melayi 23% Commonian and other Archantan natives (including Babelicans) 15% Karolians 3%

Others 7%
NationalitiesSingkarean
DemonymSingkarean/ Singkangian
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
 • PresidentTou Neng Tang
 • Prime MinisterHoi Seng Leng
Area
 • Total15,000 km2
Population
 • Estimate (2016)11,809,000
GDP (PPP)
 • Total$208.051 billion
 • Per capita$174,979
HDI (2015)Increase 0.908
very high
CurrencySingkarean Pound (SKP)
Drives on theleft
Internet TLD.sk

Singkangia, officially the Republic of Singkangia, is a sovereign city-state in Archanta of 11,809,000 people, with a tropical climate and a mulit-racial society. To the north and east is Wintania, to the west is Tripoline and it faces the Gulf of Archanta to the south. Singkangia is a unitary, multiparty, parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The Singkangia's Action Party (SAP) has won every election since the Singkangian Communist Party broken up in 1961[1].

Singkangia had been occupied by many foreign powers, but indirect or directly, as it is a good location to trade and is along a trading route from the Gulf of Archanta to the Ardentic Ocean. Singkangia has some mixed feeling towards democracy and communism, having went through a period of communism and eventually under a democratic government. As far as possible, it had tried not to involve much in communist and non-communist wars, but thankfully there is no communist war in which Singkangia has to take sides (so far)[2]. Singkangia today has a large modern economy, and possibly the richest country more well-off than other Archantan Nations, despite lacking natural resources and sufficient manpower.

Etymology

The English name of Singkangia came from the native Melayish name for the country; Singkangpura (Sing(a) is lion in Melayish, Kang is named after the first ruler of the Singkangian Kingdom, Kang Si Lo, and Pura is city in Melayish. ), though other accounts also said that 'kang' stands for 'the people' in Kanglapolish. The original name was Singanegari, after Seng Utama Tengku established the area he settled as a country[3].

The full name for Singkangia, however, in Melayish is: Singangeri, diperintah oleh pemerintah emas Kang Si Lo, Berlian dari Archanta, Negara bahagia dari Archanta Utama dan Kediaman raja agung, which translates Singangeri, ruled by the golden ruler Kang Si Lo, the diamond of Archanta, the happy nation of Archanta Major and residence of the Great King[4].

History

Early Singkangia

Founding of Singkangia

Based on Singkangian Annals, and other written accounts, Singkangia was established when the Melayian Kingdom was invaded and subsequently demolished by Commonia in 1263. The runaway and last prince of the Melayian kingdom Seng Utama Tengku settled on the area where Singkangia is today. According to legend, he saw an animal which he mistook it as a lion, thus naming the area Singanegari[5].

The Singkangian Annals, found in 1996. It is one of the most important documents in Singkangia

There were no proper government at the time, only wise men and chiefs, selected by the prince, controlled the area at the time.

Before this time, there were tribes in Singkangia, which settled as long before 20000BC[6].

Singkangian Kingdom (1285-1490)

Main article: Singkangian Kingdom

After the death of Seng Utama Tengku (1284?-1290?), Kang Si Lo became the first king (or Sultane) of the Singkangian Kingdom. In his vainity he named the nation Singkangpura[7]. The Kingdom of Sinkangpura was established as a trading port city. It was a good trading port due to the fact that it is along the trading route from Rhododactylia to the south and central Archanta. This had much influence on Singkangian culture, and shaped Singkangia's identity.

Kang Si Lo died in 1309, with his son Kang Cha Ki ascending the throne. He helped develop Singkangia, and also developed good ties in other countries in Archanta. He ruled the kingdom for 62 years, thern he was taken over by Tong Mua Di in 1371. Eventually, the last king of the Singkangian Kingdom Tong Pa Cha took over in 1423, after the passing of his father. The Singkangian Kingdom did not last long until its invasion by a bigger power in 1490.

Invasion and occupation by Nabibia (1490-1550)

Battle between the Nabibian troops and the Singkangian Troops

The Nabibian Kingdom expanded in East Archanta in the mid 1490s. Singkangia suffered a defeat by Nabibian troops, and was conquered. It officially became part of the Nabibian Kingdom, which was then in control of western Wintania. The Nabibian King himself with his army camped outside the walls of Singkangia, and broke through. The king of Singkangia fled but was pursued by the Nabibian troops and was overtaken. He was captured and executed near Base Lake. Much of Singkangia was burned down, and then rebuilt by the Nabibians in charge of Singkangia[8].

Colonisation by foreign powers (1550s-1899)

Karolian Colonisation

By the mid sixteenth-century the Karolians coastal states all had sizable navies and had begun to venture further afield in larger ships, many even travelling as far as central Archanta. The colonies established were generally small coastal enclaves and no serious attempts at acquiring foreign territory were made, such as Singkangia. This was because Karolia itself was an exporting country and also goods purchased from other colonists could almost always be sold on for profit at home, diminishing the need to conquer land[9].

Ingerish Colonisation

However, the Karolians did not have its grip on Singkangia for long, as Sir Thomas Cambridge Raffles came to Singkangia and signed a treaty with the Sultane Habib Hussein of Nabibia (now Wintania). Raffles arrived in Singkangia on 26 March 1768 and soon recognised the island as a natural choice for the new port, with fresh water supplies and its geographical location. The island was nominally ruled by the Sultan of Nabiba, who was controlled by the Karolians. However, the Sultanate was weakened by factional division and his officials were loyal to Tengku Rahman's elder brother Tengku Habib (or Tengku Long) who was living in exile in Balavalonia. With help, Raffles managed to smuggle Habib back into Singkangia. He offered to recognize Hussein as the rightful Sultan of Singkangia and provide him with a yearly payment; in return, Habib would grant the Ingerish the right to establish a trading post on Singkangia. A formal treaty was signed on 6 June 1768 and modern Singkangia was born[10].

The Karolians were not satisfied, but war broke out in 1778 between an alliance of Säntjana, Osmila and Majoslinna against Fontjäna and Paliiso, which despite a temporary cessation of hostilities in 1781-1783 resumed again with Kanton and Samacja joining the fight. The war ended in 1788 with no decisive victory for either side and further damage to the Karolian economy. Other mercantile states began to eye the territory for possible colonial conquest. Karolia eventually gives up to keep Singkangia.

Raffles left Major John Franklin in charge of the new settlement, with some artillery and a small regiment of soldiers. Establishing a trading port from scratch was a daunting endeavor. Franklin's administration was fairly funded and was prohibited from collecting port duties to raise revenue as Raffles had decided that Singkangia would be a free port. Franklin invited settlers to Singkangia, namely people from Archanta and Uletha.
The Plan of the Town of Singkangia.

By 1800, the population had swelled to more than 80,000 and more than half were mainly from Northern shores of Archanta and Uletha. Many immigrants came to work at rubber plantations and, after the 1830s, the island became a global centre for rubber exports. The Ingerish built a large naval base in Singkangia for defence.

Sadly, Raffles was not happy with most of Franklin's decision, as this created a disarray of the colony. There were much mixture of the native groups, and thus Raffles drafted a plan on how the town should be like. Today, remnants of this organization can still be found in the ethnic neighborhoods. Also, Franklin had resorted to selling licenses for gambling and the sale of opium and slaves, which Raffles saw as social evils, so as to generate faster revenue[11].

Franklin was stripped off his post after he was fined for allowing slave trading in Singkangia. He was replaced by Henry Benjamin as governor. On 7 June 1853, Benjamin signed a second treaty with the Sultan, which extended Ingerish possession to most of the island. The Sultan and his officiers traded most of their administrative rights of the island, including the collection of port taxes for lifelong monthly payments of $1500 and $800 respectively. This agreement brought the island under the Ingerish Law, with the provision that it would take into account Melayian customs, traditions and religion[12].

Early 20th Century (Road to Independence)

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One of the signs and posters put up in Singkangia to promote Ingerish
The 1st Legislative Council in 1915

Communist Singkangia (1948-1961)

Pre-communist Period

Before the 1948 elections, the SNP went towards a nadir of corruption. This, in turn, displeased the people, and the SNP gained less supporters. Eventually, in 1948 the result was that the Singkangia Democraic Communist Party (SDCP) took over the government by force, overthrowing the SNP. Immediately, the Communist regime was enforced and put in place.

Flag of the SDCP

Communist Developments

Main article: Democratic People's Republic Of Singkangia

Ming Sa Hang became the next prime minister of Singkangia, but he called himself the 'Supreme leader' Of Singkangia. Ishak Surnako was murdered and was replaced by General Bryce Ryan Riddle. Ming Sa Hang was greatly responsible for the rapid industralisation of Singkangia. However, he began severing ties with other countries, and reemphasizing national and economic self-reliance enshrined in his 'Independent' Idea, which promoted producing everything within the country.

A Propaganda Poster in Singkangia

Singkangia became the major exporter for rubber, tin and tropical fruits, namely the 3 yellows of Singkangia: Bananas, mangoes and pienapples. However, the communists did not accept imports from other countries, saying that it will damage the 'independent' policy. The communist government also emphasized on building a 'Singkangian Singkangia', preventing racial riots or strikes to take place. The communist then composed the song "Ich Kangia, Ich Kangsi, Ich Singkangra", which later the title became the nation's motto and the song the national anthem.

1952 Great Famine

In 1952, a widespread famine took place in Singkangia, making it almost impossible to grow tropical fruits. The Communist government then confiscated most people's supply of food to store its supplies as part of the Communist propaganda, making people to be unhappy. Sa Hing began the idolising of the great leader. Sources from Singkangia suggested that Singkangia spent 40% of its national budget on the "idolization" of leaders.

Last Days of Communism

The famine took a big toll on Singkangia's economy, and efforts were made to modernize Soviet communism, and made significant changes in the party leadership. However, Sa Hing's social reforms led to unintended consequences. Because of his policy of 'glasnost', which facilitated public access to information after years of government repression, social problems received wider public attention, undermining the Communist Party's authority. Revolutions took place, plunging Singkangia to be in a chaotic scene once again. A Concentration camp was set up, which was called Langerki, to imprison the revolutionists. The ongoing war to expand its communist influence proved the Communist planned economy to be ineffective. By 1960 the Communist government had lost control over economic conditions. Due to price control, there were shortages of almost all products, reaching their peak in the end of 1961, when people had to stand in long lines and to be lucky enough to buy even the essentials. Eventually the communist government realised that could not control Singkangia anymore. Sa Hing committed suicide, and the Singkangian Democratic Communist Party broke up eventually in 1961.

Republic of Singkangia (1961-present)

For 5 months after the SDCP broke up, Singkangia was without a proper government, and the future seemed bleak. The remaining communists tried to rule Singkangia, but then they decided to hold a general election to take over them as they were unable to cope without support. The 1961 elections saw the Singkangia's Action Party winning the elections, with Li Ka Yong as the next Prime Minister of Singkangia. Li Ka Yong's emphasis on rapid economic growth, support for business entrepreneurship, and limitations on internal democracy shaped Singkangia's policies for the next half-century. It accepted the AN's offer to join, and joined the AN in 1967, becoming one of the earliest members of the AN. It became the first post-communist country to reach its pre-1950s GDP levels, which it achieved by 1975 largely thanks to its booming economy. Today, Singkangia became one of the most developed and peaceful countries in Archata, and is striving for progress under the SAP.

Infrastructure

Transport in Singkangia

Cars and roads

See also: List of Expressways in Singkangia

A clean, well-maintained expressway

As Singkangia is a small nation with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted so as to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singkarean Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for a decade and a half. The cost of the Singkarean certificate of entitlement alone is also a quarter of the car[13]. Car prices are generally significantly higher in Singkangia than in other Ingerish-speaking countries and Archanta. As with most Ingerish colonises, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left[14].

Public Transport

Singkarean residents also travel by bicycles, bus, taxis and the metro system Singkangian Underground (SU).

SMRT Trains

Two companies run the train transport system—SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation. There are six taxi companies, who together put out over 28,000 taxis on the road. Taxis are a popular form of public transport as the fares are relatively cheap compared to many other developed countries. Buses are run by three companies- SBS Transit, Singkangia Tower Transit (STT) and Singkangia Master Transit (SMT), all under a 'Bus Contracting Model' where operators from other countries bid for routes.

File:Singkangia crowded trains.jpg
A crowded Underground station during peak hours

Singkangia has been praised for having the most efficient public transport system. There is a great emphasis by the Government to promote the utility of public transport over private transport[15] However, over the past few years, the public transport network has come under tremendous stress as population growth outstrips infrastructure growth. Commuters are affected by problems such as long queues, longer waiting times, and overcrowding in buses and trains[16]. The Singkangian Land Transport Authority (SLTA), the regulating body for transport in Singkangia, is implementing various measures to improve the quality of the public tranport system[17].

Sea and air trade routes

Singkangia was strategically located along the Gulf of Archanta, one of the most important shipping lanes in the world. Therefore Singkangia has one of the busiest ports in Archanta, namely its only Port of Keppong , handling over 10.3 million TEUs in 2013. Singkangia holds an important airport in Archanta, with many international air routes passing through Singkangia's Changke International Airport.

File:Singkangianairport.jpg
Changke International Airport Tower in the horizon

Technology and Communications

Information and communications technologies (ICT) is one of the pillars of Singkangia's economic success. The World Economic Forum's 2015 Global Technology Report placed Singkangia as the most "Tech-Ready Nation". It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity.

Singkangia has the world's highest smartphone penetration rates. Overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 148 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people, as of 2016.

Water access and sanitation

A reservoir In Singkangia used to collect water


Access to water in Singkangia is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Innovative integrated water management approaches such as the reuse of reclaimed water, the establishment of protected areas in urban rainwater catchments and the use of estuaries as freshwater reservoirs have been introduced along with seawater desalination to reduce the country's dependence on water imported from other countries.

Singkangia's approach does not rely only on physical infrastructure, but it also emphasises proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development. The Singkangian Utilities Board (SUB) is set up to educate people to manage use of water[18].

Government and Politics

Supreme Court Building 2, Aug 06
Singkangia is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system. Executive power rests with the Cabinet of Singkangia, led by the Prime Minister and, to a much lesser extent, the President. The President is elected through a popular vote, and has veto powers over a specific set of executive decisions, such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a largely ceremonial post[19].

The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of the government. Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into the Parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) basis and represent either single-member or group representation constituencies. The Singkangia's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since the Singkangia's Democratic Communist Party (SCP) broken up before the 1961 election.

The legal system of Singkangia is based on Ingerish common law, but with substantial local differences. Trial by jury was abolished in 1982 so that judicial decisions would rest entirely in the hands of appointed judges. Singkangia has penalties that include judicial corporal punishment in the form of caning, which may be imposed for such offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. There is a mandatory death penalty for murder, as well as for certain aggravated drug-trafficking and firearms offences.

Singkangia has been consistently rated among the least corrupt countries in the world. Singkangia's unique combination of a strong almost authoritarian government with an emphasis on meritocracy and good governance is known as the "Singkangian model", and is regarded as a key factor behind Singkangia's political stability, economic growth, and harmonious social order. However, in Singkangia, there were limited and restricted freedom of speech, which are imposed due to riots in the past caused by comments made by the public. All public gatherings of five or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be held only at the Speakers' Corner. Sometimes a law passed by parliament can be challenged, if they gather 50,000 signatures against the law within 70 days. If so, a national vote is scheduled where voters decide by a simple majority whether to accept or reject the law.[20].


Foreign Relations

Singkangia is part of the Assembly of Nations (AN)[21]. Singkangia's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Archanta and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region. It has diplomatic relations with more than 180 sovereign states. It also maintains its close relationship with its neighbour Wintania, though hostile with Troipoline over protests by Troipoline that Singkangia's army base should not be there, as it seems as a threat to invade Troipoline[22].

Singkangia is a rather neutral country. Having went through communism and now under democracy, it still has mixed feelings towards both. When Glaster was seperated, Singkangia had established ties between both countries, and tried to solve conflicts between the two countries. Eventually, Glaster was fully integrated into 1 country by early 1980[23].

Military

The Singkangian Military Forces (SMF) is the of the most technologically advanced in Archanta. It comprises the Singkangia Land Forces (SLF), the Singkangia Navy (SN), and the Republic of Singkangia Air Forces (RSAF). This principle translates into the culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence. The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military—high by regional standards—and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence, as Singkangia is one of the most vulnerable countries to terrorism and invasions.

Education

Singkangia's education system is one of the best in Archanta. The Singkangian Ministry of Education (SMOE) aims to help our students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realise their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. Compared to other education systems in Archanta, it is rather more flexible and diverse. The aim is to provide students with greater choice to meet their different interests and ways of learning. Being able to choose what and how they learn will encourage them to take greater ownership of their learning[24].

Education takes place in three stages: primary, secondary, and pre-university education. Only the primary level is compulsory. Students begin with six years of primary school, which is made up of a four-year foundation course and a two-year orientation stage, which ends with the a major exam Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE). After that, the score from the PSLE will determine the type of course in Secondary School.

After students are streamed at secondary schools, the special and express tracks are 4-year programs leading to Ingerish O Levels. The normal stream may take a student on a 5 year journey to the same destination but via N Levels, with choices of following academic or technical curriculum, depending on the chid's ability. In all cases, the values of the outcomes are the same. The main difference is the time taken to qualify.

Level/Grade Typical age
Preschool
Kindergarten 4–6
Primary school (Children enter P1 in the year they turn 7).
Primary 1 7
Primary 2 7–8
Primary 3 8–9
Primary 4 9–10
Primary 5 10–11
Primary 6 11–12
Secondary school
Secondary 1 12–13
Secondary 2 13–14
Secondary 3 14–15
Secondary 4 15–16
Secondary 5 (if they take the 5 year course) 16–17
Post-secondary education
Junior College, Polytechnic or Arts Institution, followed by University education Ages vary

Meritocracy is a core principle of governance and education in Singkangia and it is defined as a system that rewards according to ability and/or achievements and not by birth or privilege. It is believed that everyone has the opportunity to succeed in life on the same tests and challenges. This system has helped to promote a competitive environment for students to strive for excellence in both academic or non-academic aspects[25]. However, in recent years there were criticisms that parents who are more educated or have higher social-economic status levels are able to provide more academic support for their child. As a result, students with more academic support have a higher starting point academically are able to do better than their peers. This was seen as a flaw in the system, and the government are pumping in resources to ensure everyone are given equal opportunities to succeed[26].

Healthcare

Singkangia's healthcare system is based on a model of shared responsibilty where citizens and the government share the cost of healthcare[27]. It is praised for having the government to spend less on healthcare and yet allow Singkareans to have equal access to healthcare[28]. This model of shared responsibilty comprises the 3Medis- Medisave, MediShield Life and Medifund. To ensure further affordability of healthcare in response to rising healthcare costs, healthcare costs continue to be heavily subsidised by the government by implementing a string of various schemes[29]. Despite all this, many have urged the goverment to bear a larger share of the healthcare costs[30].

Geography

Singkangia is relatively flat and hilly. There were no mountain ranges, but rainforests with natural lakes, and reservoirs and water catchment areas have been constructed to store fresh water for Singkangia's water supply. Most of Singkangia is no more than 15 meters above sea level, with the highest point only at 29 metres. It has a a group of islands, most of them uninhabited and protected by the Singkangia's National Environment Agency.

Ayer Gajah Lake in Mangdai Rainforest during sunset.


Climate

Singkangia has a tropical rainforest climate with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C. Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon in the coastal areas, while inland areas have a lower relative humidity of 67% in the morning and 62% in the afternoon. While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to January. [31]

Singkangia
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
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23
 
 
168
 
 
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30
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SNEA (Singkangia's National Environmental Agency)
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
9
 
 
85
72
 
 
5.4
 
 
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6.9
 
 
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6.2
 
 
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7.6
 
 
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12
 
 
87
75
 
 
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86
73
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

Further contrasts that prevent true all-year uniformity are the monsoon seasons which happen twice each year. The first one is the Northeast Monsoon which occurs from mid-November to early March. The second is the Southwest Monsoon season which occurs from June to September. Periods between monsoon seasons receive less rain and wind. During the Northeast Monsoon, northeast winds prevail, sometimes reaching 20 km/h (12 mph). There are cloudy conditions in December and January with frequent afternoon showers.

Spells of widespread moderate to heavy rain occur lasting from 1 to 3 days at a stretch. It is relatively dry in February till early March although rainfall still exceeds 120mm. It is also generally windy with wind speeds sometimes reaching 30 to 50 km/h in the months of January and February. During the Southwest Monsoon season, southeast winds prevail. Isolated to scattered showers occur in the late morning and early afternoon.

Economy

Singkangia has a highly-developed economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. It also had a huge proportion of immigrants from other countries, making Singkangia to have the most number of manpower in Archanta to help in its growing economy[32]. Even though Singkangia's economy has stagnated and declined during communist times, making it unable to export fruits, rapid idustralisation from those times helped staged the foundation for Singkangia's economy[33]. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singkangia is consistently perceived as one of the least corrupt countries in the world.

Due to Singapore's small domestic market and limited natural resources, the country needs to continue to continue attracting Multinational Corporations (MNCs) which help to sustain her competitveness. This strategy has contributed to Singkangia's strong and stable economy. However, the presence of MNCs has created challenges for Small and Medium Entreprises (SMEs). SMEs in Singkangia are important as they contribute more than 50% of the economic output and 70% of employment in Singkangia. The SMEs has many challenges to face with the MNCs such as shortage of labour and expertise, insufficent profits and small domestic market[34].

Currency

Singkangia used the Singkarean Pound, named after the people who helped Singkangia's economy. It is normally abbreviated with the pound sign £, or alternatively S£ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. 1 pound equals to 20 sen, which equals to 50 el and then 100 bar, which is worth 1000 kav. The kav is much less in use.

Trade and Industry

Imports

On top of Singkangia’s import list is petroleum that represents 35% of its total imports, followed by computer and computer spare parts that represent 10%. Singkangia imports petroleum gas in smaller amounts. Singkangian companies also import broadcasting equipment and office machinery. Most part of imported products by Singkangia came from most parts Archanta, and thanks to the canal in Mecyna and an international agreement signed, all ships can use the canal (with the exception of warships which are bound in war) to trade with Singkangia. Also, including a free-trade agreement with Khaiwoon, trade has increased, importing more products from Uletha.

Exports and manufacturing

The economy of Singkangia is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Singkangia exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually. Singkangia is a very high-tech country, exporting and manufacturing Computers ($208B), Broadcasting Equipment ($157B), Telephones ($107B), Integrated Circuits ($61.5B) and Office Machine Parts ($46.9B) made in Singkangia. However, over the recent years, Singkangia has also been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of counterfeit goods[35]. The Singkangian Government is currently making an effort to crack down on those companies, as investigations revealed that these companies are a perfect cover for smuggling operations in the region.[36].

Employment

Singkangia traditionally has one of the lowest unemployment rates among developed countries. Although it has been recognised that foreign workers are crucial to the country's economy, the government is considering capping these workers, as foreign workers make up 80% of the construction industry and up to 50% of the service industry. To keep an effective tap on the issue of immigration and to also attract foreign talents at the same time, the Ministry of Manpower (MoM) issues employment pass under three categories viz: P1 Employment Pass for those individuals with monthly earning of $8,000 and up, P2 Employment Pass for individuals with monthly earning of $4,500–7,999 and Q1 Employment Pass individuals with at least a monthly earning of $3,000[37].

Keppong Port, one of the the busiest port in Singkangia

With many jobs available, it is not so difficult to get jobs in Singkangia compared to other countries. However, biasness and unfair treatment towards workers is common, and many loopholes are seen in the laws implemented by the Ministry of Manpower. The Singkangian Government is currently trying to implement effective laws, so far, without success.

Tourism

Singkangia presents tourists with a variety of activities. Tourists in Singkangia can visit places with rich culture and heritage, with a variety of attractions and facilities. The Integrated Resorts (IRs) such as The Bayfront@Mariana are large scale developments with a mix of facilities for large-scale events with entertainment and performance venues, hotel, retail and gaming[38]. The IRS helped position Singkangia as a major centre for entertainment and conventions by catering to both business and leisure tourists[39].

Tourism is to provide employment and businesses opportunities to many Singkareans, and a good incentive for Singkangia to improve infrastructure and boost its economy, through foreign exchange and generating tax revenue. However, Singkangia cannot pursue tourism to support its developemnt due to its limited resources[40].

Demographics

Singkangia is a multi-racial society, thanks to migration of many settlers from other countries and races during the colonisation of both Ingerland and Karolia over 300 years. As of mid-2016, the population estimate was 11,809,000, out of which 72% were Singkareans, the remaining 18% were either foreigners or holds Singkangian Permanent Residentship (SPR)[41]. 90.3% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singkangian citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the average household size is 3.43 persons (which include dependants who are neither citizens nor permanent residents). Most of them (about 86%) live in apartments. Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one living room) apartments or in private housing. Live-in foreign domestic workers are quite common in Singkangia, with about 224,500 foreign domestic workers there, as of December 2013[42].

The median age of Singkarean residents is 39.3, and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population. To overcome this problem, the Singkangian government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singkangia for the past few decades. The large number of immigrants has kept the population from declining, but then a source of nuisance to most Singkarean Residents due to sterotypes.

Language

A construction sign in Singkangia showing 3 of 4 languages spoken in Singkangia.

Even though Kanglapolish is the official language, Ingerish was commonly spoken, as Ingerish is the language of instruction in all public schools,[43] and all subjects are taught and examined in Ingerish except for the "mother tongue" or 3rd language language paper. Also, public bodies in Singkangia, such as the Singkanrean's Public Service, (which includes the Singkarean Civil Service and other agencies), conduct their business in Ingerish, and official documents written in a non-Ingerish official language such as Babelic, Kanglapolish or Melayish typically have to be translated into Ingerish to be accepted for submission[44].

Singkareans are mostly Bilingual, or sometimes Multilingual, as not only Ingerish was taught, but also Mother Tongue (and other cases 3rd Language) was taught so as to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. Kanglapolish, however, has a symbolic rather than functional purpose. It is used in its motto, national anthem 'Ich Kangia, Ich Kangsi, Ich Singkangra', citations of Singkarean orders and decorations, and in military commands. In general Kanglapolish was only spoken by Kanglaporeans, the majority of the population[45].

Race and religion

As of 2012, 52% were made up of Kanglaporeans, 23% were Melayis and 15% were Commonian and other Archantan natives. Others from Uletha, Antarephia and Tarephia made up the remaining 10% of the population, which includes mixed parentage across ethnic groups.

Culture

Singkangia's culture has shaped over history, from Karolian and Ingerish Colonisation, invasion by Nabibia, an influx of settlers from other nations even from as far as Khaiwoon and its decade of communism. Singkangia has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures.[46]. Former Prime Ministers of Singkangia have stated that Singkangia does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singkareans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs[47]. Each Singkarean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singkareans who speak Ingerish as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Babelic as their native language tend to lean toward Babelican Culture. Melayish-speaking Singkareans tend to lean toward Melayian culture, which itself is closely linked to Isalamish culture[48]. Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singkareans as a crucial part of Singkangia's success, and played a part in building a Singkarean identity[49].

Cuisine

The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country, and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism. In Singkangia, food is viewed as crucial to national identity and a unifying cultural thread. Singkarean literature declares eating a national pastime and food a national obsession. Food is a frequent topic of conversation among Singkareans. Religious dietary strictures do exist; Musalims (or Isalamishs) do not eat pork, and there is also a significant group of vegetarians. People from different communities often eat together, while being mindful of each other's culture and choosing food that is acceptable for all[50].

Other than Sinkarean cuisine, it is also common in Singkangia to find restaurants specialising in cuisine from a great variety of countries around the world, such as Karolian Food.

Food menu showing types of food sold in Singkangia
Chicken Curry Noodles, a simple yet popular delicacy in Singkangia

Most of Singkangian food can be eaten at markets informally known as pasar malams, meaning night markets in Melayish. Despite the name, such markets do not operate throughout the night, but from early evening till around 9 to 11pm. In these markets, they are very famous for their Steamboat lorries, which are lorries equipped with steamboat ingredients and the steamboat.

Music

Singkangia music is quite unique due to fusion of Melayian and Babelic Music with other music from Uletha, including Karolia. For centuries in rural communities it was to a great extent an individual's skill at singing or playing an instrument or two that decided their social standing and suitability to govern or marry, as it was considered to be a measure of their ability to empathise and communicate with others. Music has been encouraged since young, and is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and times like harvest. Singkangian Music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums used in Singkangian Music derived from Melayian Music[51]. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments are often made from natural materials. Besides drums, other percussion instruments (some made of shells) include: the rebab (a bowed string instrument), the serunai (a double-reed oboe-like instrument), the seruling (flute), and trumpets. The music itself combines western polyphony with Babelic melodies and scales.

The Singkangian Wind band, made up of young people aged 13 to 16.

Pop music, however, lacks in popularity in Singkangia even after the ban on pop, jazz and rock imposed by the Communists had been lifted in 1992. Before then, it seemed to contribute to noise pollution, and therefore not encouraged.

Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singkangia as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".

Art and Architecture

The Communist Government have emphasised on building grand and glorious buildings, passing a law that they must stand tall and look new for at least 100 years [52]. Today, grand buildings such as the old Parliament Building in Farahda, the Mangdai Palace and the Singkangian Underground Station's can be seen, still shining in its glory and beauty, and are important landarks in Singkangia [53].

Sports and recreation

Singkangia was famous for their unique hybrid sport- known locally as Dodge football. Other popular sports in Singkangia include association football, badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding, sailing, and skate boarding[54]. Badminton matches in Singkangia also attracts thousands of spectators, and table tennis also is ranked one of the top in the world. Water sports are popular since it is near coastal areas, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is another popular recreational sport in Singkangia[55] .

References

Notes

  1. the Singkangian Information Press, archived June 2017
  2. A balance needed towards Communism and democracy- A speech by Defence Minister in 1989
  3. Singkangian Annals -Etymology of Singkangia
  4. The Declaration of the Singkangian Kingdom, recorded in a scroll dated as far back as the 1300s
  5. Singkangian Annals -Origins of Singkangia
  6. Singkangian Infopedia- Origins of Singkangia
  7. Singkangian Annals - the Singkangian kingdom
  8. The Singkangian Annals-The fall of Singkangia
  9. The Karolian Colonises- List of nations under Karolian rule
  10. Singkangia's Infopedia- Ingerish colonisation
  11. Days with the Ingerish rule, by Hajang Ku. Published 1987
  12. Records of Archanta: Archanta Major- Singkangia 1890-1925. Retrieved 13 January 2011
  13. Driving in Singkangia, published by the Singkangian Land Transport Authority.
  14. Tips to driving in Singkangia- published by the Singkangian Land Transport Authority.
  15. Adapted from a speech by the Transportation Minister Kahban Wah, 28 March 2013
  16. Opinion from on the public transport system published The Singkangian Times- retrieved 23 July 2013
  17. An extract from a statement by the Chairman of the SLTA on 9 January 2014
  18. Importance of Water Usage, adapted from a speech by Chairman of SUB, archived 27 February 2014
  19. The Singkangian Government System by the Council, retrieved 2016.
  20. Direct Democracy in Singkangia by the Council, retrieved June 2014
  21. "List of Countries Recognised by Assembly of Nations". AN. St Richards, Pretany. 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  22. The Singkangian Times- Relations with Troipoline strained.
  23. The Singkangian Times: Glaster Reunited! 1980
  24. Singkangian Ministry of Education Website(SMOE)
  25. From a speech by Yin Jak Young, the Education Minister published in the Singkangian Times, 27 April 2011
  26. An opinion article on Singkangia's Meritocratic Education system, published in the Singkangian Times, 23 July 2009
  27. Singkangian Health Minister Speech in Parliament- 28 March 2009
  28. Guide to Singkangia's Healthcare System
  29. Proposals for National Budget 2015 by Singkangian Health Minister
  30. The Singkangian Times Forum 2016
  31. Metrological Association of Singkangia
  32. Speech from Minister of Manpower, archived in 23 July 2015
  33. How we prospered- by a Singkarean Businenessman
  34. Why we need both SMEs and MNCs- by Zhuokon Yi 3rd Edition
  35. Opengeofiction Economic Information
  36. The Singkangian Times: Singkangia to crackdown on smugglers through Big Companies, archived 12 December 2014
  37. Capping foreign workers- Speech in Parliament by Minister of Manpower, 24 October 2011
  38. The Bayfront@Mariana Website-facilities offered in The Bayfront
  39. Why we needed IRs- A speech by the Finance Minister over the controversial debate to build IRs, retrieved 28 July 2014
  40. The Singkangian Times- Balance needed for tourism as Parliament discusses on tourism, retrieved 23 August 2015
  41. Singkangian Office of Stastics (SOOS), 2016 population archive
  42. Singkangian Housing Development Trust statistics 2016
  43. Singkangian Education Ministry(SEM)
  44. Working as a public servant- by Puba Pang, an MP working in the Parlaiment of Singkangia
  45. Statistics of Singkangia 2012- Language Use Study. Singkangian Office of Statistics (SOOS) 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  46. Speech by former Minister Chongtong Dou on 20 December 1978 at the Singkangian National University
  47. Speech by Hoi Seng Leng in Parliament 23 November 2005
  48. Summary of Singkangian Culture by Fooklong Dei
  49. National Day Rally 2009
  50. Guide to Singkangian Cuisine by Haochi Sia
  51. Guide to Singkangian Music
  52. Rally by the Communist Government 1951, archived 6 August 1997.
  53. Singkangia Tourism Board-The notable spots standing beautiful 2016
  54. Department of Sports Singkangia - Lists of Common Sports recognised, 2014.
  55. Scuba Diving becoming more popular in Singkangia- The Singkangian Times, retrieved 19 June 2013.

While much effort has been down to track down the sources of information stated, we may have overlooked any. Please go to the discussion page to tell what references have been missed out.

See also

Democratic People's Republic of Singkangia



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