Kojo Hyengshō Sanan
|Kojo Hyengshō Sanan|
|Type||Private company, majority state-owned|
|Traded as||Stocks at the Pyingshum Stock Exchange|
|Industry||Railway infrastruture and transport|
|Area Served||Kojo and environs|
Kojo Hyengshō Sanan ("Kojo Railway Company") is a private joint-stock company with most of the stocks being held by the Republic of Kojo and a few by private entities. The subsidiaries responsible for rail infrastructure are required by law to be under full government control. Its main services include the IC and CC high speed train services, the more regionally operating KCP and KC rail network, some night trains and seasonal long-distance car trains called KHS Smart Traveller (which uses open capacities at night and cargo railways) and general rail cargo transportation (KHS Cargo).
There are 4 main types of trains provided by KHS for national rail passenger transportation (excluding come local public transit systems also operated by KHS and the above mentioned niche services).
The IC (InterCity) is Kojo Hyengshō Sanan's high-speed intercity transportation service. Its THC carriages run on tracks mostly separate from other railway traffic; only on minor branches they share tracks with either regional or freight trains. The IC and reach speeds up to 320 km/h in regular operation. The network is of highest importance for the connectivity between major urban areas in Kojo.
There was a proposal for an ICTR, an InterCityTransRapid, which would have been a state-of-the-art maglev train line that runs from Pyingshum south to Jaka, and then west along the coast until Ataraxia City. These plans have been postponed for an indefinite amount of time due to high costs projections and questionable benefits.
Pyingshum is the terminus of most IC routes, and Aku-Dyanchezi, Kibō-Dyanchezi and Limbē-Dyanchezi are Pyingshum's 3 far distance railway stations. Some sub services follow the same path, but with for example only every second train serving additional stops at one or both ends. These services are distinguished by letters following the service's number. Express services, which connect only few of Kojo's biggest city's amongst each other during peak inter-city commute hours, mostly without stopping at intermediate stops, are numbered like "IC E12". They have a slightly different on-board service, and in some cases (like IC E4 and IC E5 to Yoyomi) even take a slightly different route then the usual line. The following table shows all IC Services in the interior of Kojo:
- stars indicate that there is a parallel CC route carrying significant ridership
|THC 1||THC 2||THC 3||THC 4|
|1a||0||0||8 (4 doubles)||0|
|1b||0||0||7 (7 doubles)||7 (7 doubles)|
|2a||0||0||0||16 (8 doubles)|
|2b||0||0||0||12 (6 doubles)|
|3a||0||0||10 (10 doubles)||10 (10 doubles)|
|3b||0||0||6 (6 doubles)||6 (6 doubles)|
|8a||0||0||3||6 (3 doubles)|
|8b||0||0||20 (10 doubles)||0|
|9b||0||0||6 (3 double)||0|
|9c||0||0||0||4 (2 double)|
|E2||0||0||0||6 (3 doubles)|
|E4||0||0||4 (2 double)|
|E5||0||0||0||2 (1 double)|
|E6||0||0||2 (1 double)||0|
Kojo Hyengshō Sanan (KHS) employs similar rolling stock as the Ataraxian COFAX. These THC trains (Ataraxian: Train à Haute Célérité) are manufactured by the binational train manufacturer XXX, whose research facilities and production plants are to be found on both sides of the border. This cooperation has proven very helpful in establishing international train services between the two countries. The following table lists the number and type of THC trains used on KHS's IC routes during service, excluding a buffer of vehicles for maintances etc. These values are estimates, as special events or technical difficulties with rolling stock might demand more flexible use of resources. Double tractions are counted as two separate trains. IC 3a runs in double traction only during summer holiday seasons, as shown here. Other lines as well might not always run in double traction, especially on some days of the week.
Classes of Travel
Most seats on the IC are standard 2nd class. There are 4 seats per row and no on-seat service, but passengers are free to enjoy a meal or purchase a coffe or snack in the restaurant carriage. WiFi and power outlets have been universally available on all IC seats since 2013.
The 1st class sections are usually positioned between the restaurant carriage and the end of the train. Other bonuses include wider seats (three instead of 4 seats in one row), more leg room, on-seat service and other small amenities. Also, at large railway stations 1st class passengers have access to premium lounges and fast-lane customer service.
On a few selected international routes to Ataraxia and UL019, that is on the Ókusidong Sótoez (Occident Jumper) E2 from Pyingshum to Ataraxie-Ville via Finkyáse, and on the 3a from Pyingshum to Tsuyenji and onward to UL019, KHS offers the exquisite Suéperyoer Class (Supérieur in Ataraxian branding). In that section, passengers are attended to by designated personell. The seats can be turned freely to face each other, and all have an integrated yet removable working space. Every seat is a window seat and spaced generously, creating an atmosphere closer to that of a hotel lobby than that of a train.
In addition to the premium facilities available to first class passengers, Suéperyoer passengers are offered luggage service and all-round attendance at the stations in Pyingshum, Finkyáse, Ataraxie-Ville, Yoyomi, Kwaengdō and Tsuyenji.
The pricing system is relation based, with every point-to-point connection on a single service being manually given a standard price; this is based on a base fare for every service plus an additional amount of money for every route section between two stops.
When booking up to 30 days in advance, a 30% discount on the standard price for that relation and train is given and reduced to a 20% discount up to 7 days in advance. Customers with a membership card get a 10% discount up to 2 days before departure. Depending on how many empty seats on a given train remain, a prolonged discount of 30, 20 or 10% might be advertised for that individual train up to departure, to encourage customer to spread utilization throughout the day. As a result, journeys around noon are mostly cheaper than the same journey in the morning or evening, when demand is higher. Additionally, the standard price can already vary depending on the time of day or weekday before discounts are applied.
Additionally to the time of travel, the type of ticket also can cost extra; the cheapest way is a train bound ticket, which is only valid for a specific train at a specific time. A flexible ticket which is valid all day usually is just slightly more expensive than the most expensive travel time of that day. Seat reservation for 2nd class costs a standard 70 Zubi and is already included in first class.
First class tickets are usually around 75% more expensive than the equivalent 2nd class seat. On trains where the Suéperyoer Class is offered, those seats are usually sold at around 350% of the 2nd class price. When transferring from IC trains to other IC or CC services, the average base price of all services taken is calculated and taken as the total base, with all individual route sections then being added up. The handful of IC Express services are all priced individually, with mandatory seat reservation, as are all international journeys.
Current and future expansions
The only major ongoing expansion of the Kojolese high-speed railway network currently takes place between Tarappel-Finglyúson and Manman; while the section between Pyingshum and Tarappel-Finglyúson is already upgraded to high-speed rail standards, the CC trains still share an old and tightly wound route up to Manman in the east. Especially to enable future IC services to UL019, and to increase capacity on the then freed-up old route for freight and more diversified local trains, a roughly 50 km long, new section of dedicate high-speed rail is built between Tarappel-Finglyúson and PH just west of Manman.
Additionally, there are several sections of track currently only used by CC services that were identified to be upgraded to enable regular IC services running there. The most prominent example is the section between Rō and Arákkanai via the new Belfe bypass. Currently, IC trains terminate in Rō, and Arákkanai is connected to Pyingshum by an hourly CC services that calls on only 2-3 stations more than the IC and runs parallel with the IC once in Rō. By adding an additional sets of double track between Rō and Arákkanai the IC service is ought to be extended to Arákkanai, increased in frequency, and replace the CC.
The CityConnect is a slightly downgraded version of the IC. Where possible it runs on IC tracks, on non-IC relations it usually shares tracks with other trains. The maximum speed of the THC 1 trains is 280 km/h, however this speed is only achieved on sections shared with IC trains. On conventional tracks the upper boundary is usually around 200 km/h.
Only on very few routes the CC runs parallel to it's faster alternative, the IC. Mostly the CC offers direct high-speed connections between cities that do not have such a connection via the IC, and also serves a couple of medium sized cities that are not served by the IC at all. Also, carriages tend to be slightly less comfortable and modern than on the IC, as 1st generation THC trains are used. The following table lists all CC services in Kojo:
|No°||Rolling Stock||No°||Rolling Stock|
|18||2||31||4 (2 double)|
|21||11 (4 double, 3 single)||33||4 (2 double)|
|23||6 (2 double, 2 single)||35||3|
|26||8 (4 double)|
For the most part, older THC 1 trains are used. The only exceptions are special trains for large events or replacements when the usual rolling stock is not available. The table to the right gives an overview over how many trains are roughly set aside for each individual route, not taking into account repair cycles or buffers:
The fares for CC trains are generally generated by the same procedure as on IC trains, including the early booker and other incentives. As a rule of thumb, where CC services overlap with IC services, the price for the CC can be expected to be around 10 - 25% cheaper than the same journey on an IC, however sometimes at the cost of a slightly longer travel time. Prices on CC-only connections depend on the level of comfort and speed offered on that particular route, and can reach from just slightly more expensive than regional trains to IC levels.
There are a number of stretches, especially in sparsely populated regions on the end of CC routes, where CC trains de-facto serve as regional trains, since they are the only trains running. In most cases, passengers travelling on those remote sections must only pay regional fares, and season tickets are valid as well. Those relations are found on the IC 14 between Donzomi and Nainmijaeuel and on the IC 18 between Chin-Jōrin and Shangmē.
KC and KCP
The Kūyú-chegicha (Regional Rail) is the lowest national class of train; it stops at most settlements with railway halts, and sometimes works similar to an S-Bahn or similar mass transit networks in urban areas. For example, the city of Wenzū and it's surrounding have a particularly dense KC network, however no other heavy rail mass transit system. With few exceptions, the maximum speed for these trains is 120 km/h.
The Kūyú-chegicha Papáchē (Regional Rail Express) is the express variant of the slower KC. It doesn't stop at every halt along its route, but nevertheless accesses many rural regions otherwise not serviced by the IC or CC. It's also used for inter-city travel between close cities, since fares are cheaper as the high-speed variants. On a small number of lines this service runs at up to 180 km/h, however usually 160 km/h is the upper limit.
In a couple of agglomerations, most notably around Pyingshum, where travel demand is very asymetrical and onvolves long journey times for distant commuters, there is a third, hybrid type of regional rail, the Kūyú-chegicha Soémipapáchē (KCS). Those semi-express trains run with a KC stopping pattern before reaching a usually fairly large town in the wider commuter area of the core city, where they then change into express trains that continue to the larger commuter center with much fewer stops on the way. That way, distant commuters from small towns and villages don't need to change trains or take a slow local train all the way to their destination. Also, a high KCP frequency is maintained between major towns in the commuter area and the core city.
The regional services' pricing scheme is independent from long-distance services (IC and CC) and differs across Kojo. Usually, for any given region in Kojo, one of the three following situations applies:
- No local unified tariff area; mostly in rural areas, where KHS is the only provider of public transportation services (usually besides some regional municipal bus lines). Faring usually follows a relation-based model or other local approaches. Examples include wide areas of the sparsely inhabited west, the north or Wāfyeíkko-iki in the east.
- Unified tariff area excluding KHS services; in these cases, a city and it's surrounding lay in a municipally organised tariff area, where local transit tickets are accepted by all operators (for example both in busses and trams as well as the metro) except KHS services, such as KC and KCP. This is usually the case where the regional railway services bring in passengers mostly from places outside the commuter area, and are not intended for inner-city commuting. Examples are Pyingshum and Jaka. Both cities feature non-KHS owned and operated heavy rail services that connect even distant suburbs to the city centre, and KHS lines only stop two or three times inside the city boundaries before terminating at one of the terminus stations, which makes them interesting for long-distance commuters. In such areas, KHS is not obligated to act in accordance with those tariff areas, but usually sets up its own local pricing scheme which ensures that parallel routes to local mass transit are slightly more expensive than the slower network to avoid overcrowding yet still attract some solvent inner-city passengers and stay attractive to long-distance commuters.
- Integrated unified tariff area; this applies to cities where KHS's regional rail services function as an integral part of the city's local public transportation network. Examples are the region around Wenzū, where a very high frequented KC network serves as a de-facto Ésubān, or Kippa, which has a separate Ésubān network but which is operated by KHS as well. Many dense polycentric areas are also organised in that way. In those integrated areas, every kind of public transit (except long-distance services such as IC and CC) falls under the local unified pricing and ticketing scheme, usually based either on distance, fare zones or travel time.
There are 4 membership types with KHS; Bronze Card, Silver Card, Gold Card and Unlimited Card (Platinum).
Bronze Card members enjoy minor benefits, such as prolonged early-booking discounts and an easy online overview over their travel history as well as access to some seasonal limited offers. This membership is for free, and is held by nearly all costumers who travel by train on a regular basis.
The Silver Status grants a global discount of 25% on all bookings made with KHS (excluding the early booking discounts), and costs 2,500 Zubi per year for 2nd, and 5,000 for 1st class (for certain groups reduced price, 2nd class: 2,000 Z). This membership is often temporarily given away for free for 3 test months to attract new regular customers in the long run. If not prolonged, it just devolves into a standard Bronze membership until upgraded again.
The Gold Card grants the same type permanent discount at 50%, at a cost of 10,250 Zubi for 2nd, 20,500 Zubi for 1st class (reduced, 2nd class: 8,200). However, the 2nd class Gold Card grants access to regular 1st class customer services at railway stations.
The prestigious Unlimited Card, or Platinum Card, allows for unlimited travel on all KHS trains. (Free) reservation is only compulsory for some night or car trains. The price for 2nd class version is 95,000 Zubi for one year, 1st class comes at a price of 150,000 Zubi.
There are a handful of regular night lines, operating around once to four times a week, which are focused on serving travel demands from one end of the country to another or to neighbouring countries. The sleeping carriages are constantly refurbished, which makes it an attractive alternative to travelling in the day and spending an additional day in an hotel even to middle income tourists.
There are some seasonal car train services to popular holiday connections in neighbouring countries.
KHS Smart Traveller
During winter, sommer and special holidays, KHS offers some additional, slower long-distance connections from across the country to particularly sought-after destinations. This train sets usually go across the country, collecting passengers at many different cities, and then continue to their destination over night where passengers can then deboard in the early morning. This product is targeting mostly young and less financially sound customers, and employs older sleeping carriages.
KHS's cargo subsidiary offers a wide range transport services; due to the comparatively small size of the country in regards to long distance freight trains, most of these connect either the harbours in the south with the forests and mines in the north or the gravel pits in the west, or extend to neighbouring countries in the east and west.
- The prestigious Platinum cards are included in the remuneration for members of parliament.
- IC 10 was a highly controversial project, as especially it's northern section didn't connect any new major population centres to the network and it was seen as rather redundant. Proponents claim that it was necessary to make the overal system more resilient, as now there are two IC-only connections from Pyingshum to Kippa and further down south, greatly increasing capacity and reliability of services.