Unified standard dollar
USD), commonly abbreviated USD, is a supranational reserve currency issued by the World Currency Bank, an independent monetary agency affiliated with the Assembly of Nations. The USD was first introduced in 1984 by an AN resolution to serve as an alternative to a large number of various reserve currencies in use by financial institutions around the world, and to act as a standard benchmark against which other currencies can be measured and compared. Several times it has been adopted by countries during periods of extreme financial distress, and has also been deployed by the AN on a number of occasions to act as a temporary stabilizing currency in war zones and other areas of crisis.
In various parts of the world, a wide range of critics on both the left and right have accused the USD of paving the way toward eliminating national currencies and bringing in "world government," a charge its promoters vehemently deny. Supporters say it has merely brought greater stability to international financial systems and served as a much needed option for governments and others seeking a safe-haven currency with worldwide appeal and independence from any national regime.
Today the USD's main competitor as a reserve currency is the extranational unit resource (EUR). As of March 2015, the exchange rate was 0.92 EUR to 1.00 USD.