Mapping aviation facilities and considering how countries connect to each other can be an enjoyable part of mapping on OGF. Once you have begun to build an international airport, the question arises: "what are some destinations from here?" Here are some things to consider when deciding where to fly.
Figuring out where to fly
Step 1: How well mapped is your city?
Before even thinking about air travel destinations around the world, first ask yourself: how much has your city been mapped?
|This city is basically just a label on the map||Do more mapping first|
|Rough sketch, some highways and other roads||Do more mapping first|
|Lightly developed, small areas of detail||Continue to Step 2: consider a few flights to major cities nearby|
|Moderately developed, significant areas of detail||Continue to Step 2: consider as many flights as appropriate|
|Highly developed, extensive areas of detail||Continue to Step 2: consider as many flights as appropriate|
Step 2: Create a range map
If your city is developed enough to set up some flights, create a range map to find likely destinations. Remember that many OGF locations are further apart than might be thought on first glance. Paxtar has put together an amazing tool here that can draw circles to show the range of various types of aircraft. To create this map:
- Where it says "Location 1," paste the URL link to the location of your airport. Click "Capture," and then click "Mark" directly below it to mark your airport location as a red dot on the map.
- On the next line below "Mark," enter 3000 in the "Radius" box and click "Draw" to draw a red circle on the map.
- Replace the 3000 with 6000, replace FF0000 next to it with FF8000, and click "Draw" again to draw an orange circle.
- Replace the 6000 with 12000, replace the FF8000 next to it with FFC000, and click "Draw" again to draw a yellow circle.
- Replace the 12000 with 15000, replace the FFC000 next to it with DDDDDD, and click "Draw" again to draw a gray circle.
——— The red circle (3000 km radius) represents the approximate limit for short haul flights. Small airports may be limited to short haul flights only; and even at larger airports, most destinations will typically be within this range. From the busiest airport in the real world, Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International, about 80% of destinations are short haul.
——— The orange circle (6000 km radius) represents the range for medium haul flights. From Atlanta, about 10% of destinations are medium-haul. These flights are usually between large cities or other important destinations.
——— The yellow circle (12000 km radius) represents the range for long haul flights. From Atlanta, about 10% of destinations are long-haul. These flights are usually between large cities, and require long runways as well.
——— The gray circle (15000 km radius) represents the limits of ultra long haul. These flights are rare and typically run only between major world hubs. From Atlanta, fewer than 1% of destinations are in this category. Most airports have no ultra long haul flights.
Step 3: Find destinations within the ranges on your map
Next, compare the range map you've created with the list of airports. Remember that:
- Most destinations are short haul, within the red circle. Smaller and even medium airports may be limited to this zone entirely.
- Fewer destinations are medium haul (within the orange circle) or long haul (within the yellow circle), usually between large cities only.
- Ultra long haul flights (within the gray circle) are very rare, only between major world hubs. These are also very expensive to fly and require certain types of aircraft. Most airports have no such flights.
- Beyond the ultra long haul area, direct flights are usually not feasible, but a layover can be arranged at a big hub airport somewhere.
Also, keep in mind:
- Just because you can have a flight to a particular destination does not mean you should. Check the World Air Freedoms below to see if the country you are thinking of developing flights to imposes any limitations on this: some countries restrict flights to their national flag carrier, others are less restrictive. Some countries even prohibit flying over their territory!
- Similar cultures, economies and politics will increase the likelihood of flights between two locations. Dissimilar destinations will have fewer flights.
- Distance makes flights less likely, and additional flights to nearby cities even less likely. Example: London-NYC has approximately 30 daily flights, while London-LAX has only 11. For reference: London-San Diego 4, even though San Diego is a large city.
- Long-distance flights to small destinations are less frequent, and sometimes seasonable. More often a flight will go to a city along the way, or in the area, and a local airline will carry passengers to the final destination. Airline alliances are important in this regard, so consider the connections these collaborative partnerships offer.
- When looking at nearby destinations, there tend to be fewer flights if the cities are within convenient rail or driving distance.
World Air Freedoms
The world air freedoms are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airlines the levels of privileges to enter, operate, and land in another country's airspace. The use of the terms "freedom" and "right" confer entitlement to operate international air services only within the scope of the multilateral and bilateral treaties that allow them.
The first two freedoms concern the passage of commercial aircraft through foreign airspace and airports, the other freedoms are about carrying people, mail, and cargo internationally. The first through fifth freedoms are officially enumerated by various international treaties. Additional freedoms have been added as part of bilateral or multilateral arrangements through individual countries; these are not broadly applicable or recognized. The lower-numbered freedoms are relatively universal while the higher-numbered ones are rarer and more controversial.
How air freedoms work
The World Air Freedoms apply only to commercial aviation and are not relevant to military aviation of any kind. The terms 'freedom' and 'right' are a shorthand way of referring to the type of international services permitted between two or more countries. Even when such services are allowed by countries, airlines may still face restrictions to accessing them by the terms of treaties or for other reasons.
|1st||the right to fly over a foreign country without landing||Tarott – Maguériz by a Kalmian company, overflying Sathria|
|2nd||the right to refuel or carry out maintenance in a foreign country without embarking or disembarking passengers or cargo||Tarott – Maguériz by a Kalmian company, stopping for fuel in Sathria|
|3rd||the right to carry passengers and cargo to and from your country to the other||Tarott – Bezantyra by a Kalmian company|
|4th||the right to carry passengers and cargo between the country and another while not offering flights to one's own country||Bezantyra – Maguériz by a Kalmian company|
|5th||the right to carry passengers and cargo inside the foreign country, continuing to one's own country||Maralgola – Bezantyra – Tarott by a Kalmian company|
|6th||the right to carry passengers and cargo inside the foreign country without continuing to one's own country||Maralgola – Bezantyra without leaving Sathria, by a Kalmian company|
Freedoms granted by country
|Important technical notes to users|
|You are welcome to add your country to the list, but please keep entries in alphabetical order. Excessive notes will be condensed or deleted.|
The below table shows a list of countries with their status and the level of freedoms they grant to operators from other countries. For countries signatory to the convention, foreign operators need only conform to the level of freedom granted, and do not need to negotiate separate aviation treaties.
to fly over this country
to stop in this country for fuel or maintenance
to fly between this country and the operator's home country
to fly between this country and another country
to fly within this country, with int'l connection
to fly within this country, without int'l connection
|Barzona||Barzona and Carante:
|Federal States||All domestic flights must be operated by a domestic airline. 4th Freedom rights are granted on a case-by-case basis. For more information, see Collab:Federal States/Aviation.|
|Freedemia||TCC registered airlines only.||All domestic flights must be operated by a domestic airline.|
|Iscu||The rights to domestic flights are held by AirIscu, but are put up to bidding every five years.|
|Khaiwoon||There are no scheduled domestic flights of any kind within Khaiwoon.|
Others (incl. Callinatlacan):
|4th and 5th are regulated, all fully domestic flights are limited to Teotiyolcani companies.|