The name Fayaan is derived from the Fayaan settler family, who settled in Noordkaap region during the 16th century. Originally the country was named the "Confederate Union of North Munion" but the name Fayaan was chosen in 1806 to avoid international tensions on the use of the name Munion.
|History of Fayaan|
|• Early colonisation||1500-1610|
|• Golden Age||1610-1700|
|• Ingerish Occupation||1690-1789|
|Independence to Military Rule||1755-1801|
|• Independence Wars||1755-1789|
|• First Republic||1801-1938|
|• Civil War||1931-1938|
|• Military Rule / Second Republic||1938-1968|
|• Golden Decade||1974-1986|
|• Economic Crisis||1986-1994|
|• Tech Age||1994-|
Little is known about the period before Ulethan colonisation. Fayaan was inhabited by Ouisx, Corxich and Huny tribes. Agriculture was probably introduced around 500 BCE? but even in 1500 CE many tribes still lived a hunther-gatherers. The Bai founded several coastal cities and trading posts on the west coast between 1000 and 1500 CE. In southern Fayaan several Kue villages existed.
Colonial Period 1500-1755
Early Lentian colonization 1500-1610
The Lentian explorer Erik Meulenaers with his vessel 'Eenhoorn' is the first known Ulethan visitor of the Fayaan western coast in 1473. Lentian merchantes gained interest in Fayaan as a trading centre for exotic fruits and spices. A private trading company led by the Asselmans and Goedhuys families founded the city of Noordkaap in 1489 (according to oral traditions) or 1492 (according to inscriptions in the Noordkaap Church). Over the next decades, Lentian merchants united in a trading company called Koloniale Kompagnie van Archanta Minor (KKAM) which founded trading centres along the Fayaan western coast. The KKAM encouraged the settlement of both Castellan and Lentian farmers and craftsman, taking also advantage of religious tensions in Uletha.
Golden Age of Colonialism 1610-1690
By the early 1600s, the KKAM structured their Archanta Minor colonies into different governates, each centred around a major trading post: Noordkaap (Noordkaap and Witzandmond), Citroenkust (Zonnevliet), Grootmui, Sint Sebastiaanshaven, Hallond, Santa Cruz, Hoopsbaai, Villa Ronda, Huysburg, Klaarmeer, Yldago, St Baafsland, Triumfo and Vuysburg. Large plantations were erected where tropical fruits and spices were grown. Also, logging become was important, resulting in an increasing shipyard industry that provided Lentian trading companies with ships. The ports towns developped as trading centres between Bai and Uletha.
During the colonial period, society developed in a very strict hierarchical way. Colonies were governed by a governor who was controlled by merchant guilds and agricultural estate owners. Craftsmen and agriculture labourers remained poor and had no political power. In 1630 the Noordkaap Governate was the first to establish an elected parliament Staten Generaal, but only major taxpayers had voting rights. Soon followed the other governates.
Ingerish Period 1690-1765
The wealth of Fayaan attracted the attention of Ingerland. Social unrest increased in the late 1680s. The KKAM had few military forces and had difficulties suppressing revolts in Santa Cruz, Triumfo and Hoopsbaai. Ingerland seized the opportunity and send a fleet to the Hoopsbaai/Santa Cruz area in 1680, under the pretext of defending Ingerish trade routes against piracy. With the KKAM structure weakened by internal struggles and revolts, they were unable to give a proper response. The governates if Santa Cruz and Huysburg raised an own fleet, which was destroyed during the sea battle of la Selva (July 4th 1690). Dyuring the following months Ingerish troops occupied easily the different Fayaan governates, except for Noordkaap. In the same period, the Vuysburg was lost to Kue forces.
Formally the Fayaan region became the Ingerish Protectorate of Northern Archanta. In 1692 New-Willhead was founded as the new governate capital on the southern shores of the Hoopsbaai - near the location of the contemporary parliament in Fayaan City. From New-Willhead the protectorate was governed with an iron hand. Ingerish was introduced as the official administrative and trade language, even though few people spoke Ingerish. The Northern Archanta economy was reshaped to produce and export agricultural goods and mining products. Merchants lost much of their political power, though New-Willhead and Huysburg remained important trading centres.
Independence to Military Rule
Liberation movement and unification (1755-1801/1868)
Fayaan impoverished under Ingerish rule as most profits flowed back to Ingerland. Poor governance caused a further economic downturn. As a result, Ingerland also lost interest in Fayaan, and there was less and less investment. During the 1750s, pirates became active in the region and several towns were looted. In 1755, a rebellion broke out in Citroenkust which started the First Independence War (1755-1765). Local militia supported by Noordkaap soon took over power in many towns. In the next years Citroenkust, Grootmui and Sint Sebastiaanshaven were liberated from Ingerish occupation. In 1765 the Treaty of Huysburg ended the First Independence War and nothern Munion became independent as Union of Northern Munion.
Peace was only of a short duration. Inspired by the First Independence War, a rebellion broke out in 1780, starting in Santa Cruz. This started the Second Independence War (1780-1789). Huysburg was liberated by Unionist troops in 1783, while Castellan militia captures Santa Cruz (1784) and Puerto Cruz (1788). With the Hoopsbaai bay blocked by a Unionist fleet and the city of Hoopsbaai besieged for 4 months, the Ingerish governor surrendered in May 1789, four weeks before an Ingerish rescue fleet arrived. Negotiations led to the Treaty of Hoopsbaai in August 1789, which ended the Second Independence War. This treaty dictated that the Ingerish were exempt from most trade taxes and could retain small garizons in the cities of Hoopsbaai, Huysburg and Puerto Cruz. Hallond joined the Union of Munion, while Santa Cruz (and the other Castellan towns) and Hoopsbaai became independent states.
During the following years the Santa Cruz and Hoopsbaai states couldn't establish a strong central power. Gloriosa ceded from Santa Cruz in 1789 and joined the Union. A strong pro-union political and civil movement formed, and in 1801 Huysburg joined the Union. This movement became also more popular in the Santa Cruz state, and in 1809 negotiations started for the Castellan regions to join the union. This led in 1814 in the reform of the Union towards the Confederation of Fayaan, joined by Santa Cruz. Fayaan was the name of a mythical 16th century settlers family which occurs in many mythical tales in the colonies. It remains uncertain if the family really existed, although a Fayaan estate in the Noordkaap State is known since 1590 (pre-dating the myths).
Meanwhile the Hoopsbaai state remained heavily divided. Having strong ties with Ingerland and a major Ingerish population, support for joining the Confederation was low. The Hoopsbaai state lacked central power, and local militia ruled most of the territory. Especially from 1820 on the Hoopsbaai state sunk into chaos and violence, which is often referred to as the Hoopsbaai Civil War (1820-1839). By the end of the 1830s Confederate supported militia controlled most of Hoopsbaai, and in 1839 Hoopsbaai formally joined the Confederation of Fayaan. This also marks the retreat of the last Ingerish garizons, except for the Hoopsbaai Citadel where they remained until 1872.
First Republic (1801-1931)
The Confederation of Fayaan was organized as a confederation where the member states had still relatively much political power. With the joining of the Hoopsbaai area in 1839, also the east coast was reorganized and Struiskust and Hoogkust officially became member states. Before, Hoogkust was governed by the Hoopsbaai State, while Struiskust was occupied by the Gloriosa State since 1789, but also claimed by the Huysburg State.
In 1686 Hoopsbaai city was renamed to Fayaan City, ending decade ling discussions about changing its name to Bay of Hope. The Federation government also officialy moved to the city, whch was still the economic center of the Federation, despite the chaos of its civil war.
The early days of the First Republic were characterized by economic growth, especially towards the east and at cost of the indigenous populations. The confederation had chosen a liberal and progressive constitution in 1801, which enabled international trade and later on also first industrialization. Intense trade relationships with both Ulethan states and the Bai estrengthened the economy. Especially Witzandmond was an important international trading center, and from the 1840s on this role was slowly taken over by the Hoopsbaai region (Fayaan City). During the first half of the 1800s the economy was mainly based on agriculture, international trade and some logging and wood export. In the late 1840s the Witzandmond area saw it's first industrialization, followed by the Hoopsbaai area in the 1850s. A modern railway network was constructed from the 1850s on, boosting further industrialization. With rich coal and iron reserves, Fayaan could develop as an industrial nation. Profiting from its location along international maritime trade routes, it also developed an important textile industry.
From the early 1900s, social unrest increased. A combination of high taxes and high government expenditures, corruption and increased competition from other countries resulted in an economic crisis. many factories, especially in the textile industry closed. This resulted in strikes and political instability. During the late 1890s army expenditures had increased a lot, which made the army an important political and social factor, that forcefully suppressed strikes and social unrest. In 1923 the (socialist) president Hannes de Garcia Leenman was assassinated, and the following elections were won by Marius Fillen from the Freedom Party. Those elections were generally considered to be highly impacted by fraud by the military. On June 2nd 1926, Fillen was assassinated, allegedly by communist insurgents. Vice-president Erik Panhoudt took power with the support of the military. he soon started an anti-communist and anti-socialist campaign. Panhoudt was re-elected in the 1927 elections, which was considered relatively fair. But social tensions grew in the next years, with many street protests and strikes. Slowly Fayaan evolved to a kind of civil war, with communist and socialist militia taken over large parts of the city of Witzandmond and also being active in the Fayaan City and Huysburg areas.
Munion Civil War (1931-1938)
The May 1931 elections ended in chaos, with massive street protests by both leftists and nationalists. Nationalist groups occupied many election stations in Fayaan City, while communist militia prevented free elections in Witzandmond. With less than 26% of cast votes counted, General Jan-Frans Ghyslinck of the right winged Freedom Party was declared winner. In the weeks following the elections, the military suppressed any protests and many left wing politicians were arrested and executed (1931 Blood Days). Although not formally ending the democracy, 1931 is often considered the start of the military rule. During the first years many state and city administrations opposed the federal militarized rule, often resulting in violent conflicts and an internal civil war like episode. Only in July 1935 the federal government gained full control of Witzandmond, which marks the end of widespread rebellion against the federal government. Until 1938 rebelling left winged militia controlled some smaller rural inland areas, but some guerilla left winged troops remained active in forested mountain areas until the early 1950s.
In January 1932 Kue militias were reported to have attacked Fayaan after crossing the Vang Ngat Strait, but this was probably a false-flag operation. This incident was used by the Fayaan military to attack northern Kuehong. Facing heavy and unexpected resistance from Kuehong militia and citizens, these attempts were generally not successful. By early 1934 Fayaan was fully participating in the Munion civil war with Fayaan troops fighting along Bai and Cinasian troops. Southern Fayaan was attacked several times by Kue militia, destroying several towns like Puerto Triumfo. Fayaan Military forces were known for their cruel treatment of the Kue, and many human rights violations have been reported. Peace talks ware started in summer 1937 and a temporary ceasefire was agreed on 1 December 1937. In January 1938 Fayaan agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from the O-Man region. In April 1938 the Fayaan military retreated behind the 1931 borders, followed by the signing of a formal peace treaty on May 8th 1938.
Although officially the Munion civil war is still today often framed as an external conflict, many armed conflict occurred between the military and different Fayaan militia between 1931 and 1935. Data on casualties of the domestic conflict are lacking, but the death toll was probably 10 000 to 15 000, while probably about 20 000 were imprisoned. The Munion was was also the start of the Fayaan exodus, that continued also under the military rule until 1943. About 175 000 communist, socialist and liberals supporters left the country. An additional 25 000 leftist militia members joined Kue Freestate forces and other militia in the Munion War. Of those probably less then 2 000 survived, most of them assimilating in the Kuehong society.
Military Rule - Second Republic (1938-1968)
After signing of the Munion peace treaty in May 1938, Fayaan Military announced the second republic on June 7th 1938. Martial law was introduced on a permanent base. All key political functions were taken over by the military. After the Munion Civil War there was few political opposition.
During the early years of the Second Republic the economy was transformed to a government controlled Authoritarian Capitalisms with a strong influence of some large foreign multinational companies that gained key positions in resources and the industrial sector. With a strong state control of the economy, labor wages were held very low. In addition many citizens were forces into cheap labor jobs, often as part of a sentence for political or social activities during the civil war. Profiting from this cheap labor, the state organized large scale exploitation of natural resources (e.g. through many new mining projects). In 1942 president Ghyslinck launched a national infrastructure plan, and over the next decades the highway and railroad infrastructure was upgraded, while many harbors were also modernized.
On Oct. 3, 1943, Fayaan was hit by a major hurricane. The northwest coast was hit especially hard. There were 5,780 fatalities and more than 150,000 others were left homeless. The towns of St. Sebastian Harbor and Taurburg were under water for many weeks and were largely destroyed. In the following years, both were rebuilt in a modernist manner. For Sebastiaanshaven, part of the historic city was rebuilt.
When President Ghyslinck died suddenly from a stroke in 1949, vice president General Pedro Sanchez Willems took over power. Unable to get full support of the military top, he was soon replaced by General José Manuel Eijckman Roncali. Eijckman Roncali was a military hardliner who continued Ghyslincks policy and enforced the state control on economy and society. When a general strike broke out in Hoopsbaai in 1953 it was bloodily suppressed, causing more then 1500 casualties. Personal enrichment of the military top caused a growing gap with both the middle class and the workers, and by 1960 social unrest increased. Worried about a large-scale revolt, the military top took advantage of health problems to replace Eijckman Roncali with the young and popular General Ferdinand Maerlinck in 1962.
Maerlinck soon sailed a more liberal capitalist economic policy and partly curtailed the unlimited power of the military elite. More social rights were introduced and a minimum wage was introduced in 1965. The economy had already been partially reformed in previous years with more emphasis on technological industrial production, and under his rule, this process was accelerated. Fayaan became a significant producer of technological products such as radios, TVs and automobiles. On the other hand, access to education was democratized and a link to the military top was no longer required to attend higher education. Education was nationalized in 1938, but primary and secondary education was liberalized again in 1960, followed by higher education in 1962.
Under Maerlinck's rule, the middle class grew rapidly. On the other hand, unemployment returned for the first time since the Civil War, and poverty among the lowest social classes also increased.
Meanwhile, there was great international pressure for more democratic reforms. Unexpectedly, in May 1968, Maerlinck announced free elections on Aug. 1, 1968. Maerlinck founded the Nationalist Republican Party, and with barely an organized opposition, the elections seemed to be game won. But the international youth movement of the summer of 1968 also resonated with Fayaan's young new middle class, and the youth overwhelmingly supported the newly formed Social Democrats party. Still, Maerlinck eventually won the election with 64% of the vote, allowing him to take office as the first president of the Third Republic on Sept. 1, 1968.
Third Republic (1968-)
Early years 1968-1976
The early years of the Third Republic were characterised by further liberalisation of the economy. Under President Maerlinck, there was further substantial investment in education. Whereas the economy during the Second Republic was characterized by large enterprises and state initiative, the combination of government measures and liberalisation caused a boom in personal entrepreneurship and the creation of many SMEs.
The 1972 elections were unexpectedly won by leftists, bringing President Rooyacker to power. Under his rule, the army leadership was purged of the most radical elements. He pursued a socio-economic policy strongly focused on protecting workers' rights. However, this curbed entrepreneurship, which resulted in slower economic growth. This resulted in political instability and made the leftist bloc less popular, and after the 1976 elections it took until 1996 for a new leftist president to come to power.
Economic development 1976-1996
Between 1976 and 1996, governments were formed by coalitions of the Conservatives, Nationalists and Liberals. Under pressure from the Liberals, the economy was further liberalised and diversified. On the one hand, there was an important manufacturing sector based on both large companies, often left over from the Second Republic, and SMEs. Manufacturing industry focused on electronics and household goods. In addition, the food sector was also further developed, processing raw foods into higher-value products.
By 1966, it had already been shown that large reserves of oil could be found in Hallond, but because of their great depth, exploitation was not yet advantageous. With higher global oil prices in the late 1970s and technical developments for drilling, large-scale oil extraction at Hallond began from 1978. In 1981, the new petrochemical port of St Sebastiaanshaven opened, making exports easier.
In the 1970s, the tertiary sector also developed further. The excellent port infrastructure, liberal rules and tax exemption for goods transit made Fayaan an ideal transport hub, with all the services associated with it. Fayaan City Airport had already been modernised in the 1960s, but was further expanded under President van Eyck - Seranno to 3 runways in 1986. A further expansion to 5 runways followed in 1994, and to 6 runways in 1997.
Van Toorburg became president in 1992 and he formed a mid-term government of conservatives and nationalists. He soon lost the Liberals' proxy support, followed by a deep political crisis. In February 1993, he had to resign early as the first president of the Third Republic. He was succeeded by his vice-president Liefmans, who formed a government of conservatives, nationalists and socialists. His reign was marked by numerous political crises, during which the leader of the socialists (Beernaert) was able to raise his profile. Beernaert became very popular and won the subsequent elections, ending 20 years of right-wing politics in 1996.
Left-wing governments under the economic crisis 1996-2004
Already in the early 1990s, economic growth stagnated due to complex factors such as shifting international shipping routes, rising wage costs and reduced oil revenues. Under the rule of President Beernaert, this stagnation deepened into a crisis. Rising bankruptcies were accompanied by rising unemployment. Reduced government revenues were first countered by increased corporate taxes, but this exacerbated the crisis. Nevertheless, Beernaert remained popular, mainly thanks to a whole range of social measures. After his re-election in 2000, the Liberals joined the coalition, and economic policies were revised. Business taxes were reduced for SMEs and innovation was encouraged. At the same time, the government invested in a number of major infrastructure projects, such as the start of construction of a high-speed rail network. However, there were growing technical problems around oil extraction which continued to reduce oil revenues. This ensured that economic recovery remained limited.
In 2004, Liberal President Asselmans came to power, providing further economic stimulus. Government investment in oil extraction continued, and a number of new fields yielded encouraging results. Under her liberal policies, with the help of socialist, ecologist and communist voices, important social liberalisations were also introduced, such as new abortion and euthanasia laws.
Fayaan is located on the Archanta continent, at its most northeastern tip on the Munion peninsula.
Situated in a zone of colliding plates, plate tectonics has played a major role in the geological setup of Fayaan. Contemporary topography is driven by the Munion/Fayaan orogeny, but different older phases can be found.
The early Paleozoic geology is poorly understood. Scattered remnants of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks indicate mainly marine environments. But most pre-Devonian deposits went through an important metamorphic phase later on, and limited information is preserved. The Devonian Taur Massif includes lots of traces of older Massifs, but the nature and age of possible pre-Devonian orogenic phases remain contested.
Plate collisions resulted in a mountain-forming stage during the Devonian, in Fayaan referred to as the Taur orogeny. Continents of the Devonian Period are not directly connected to the contemporary period, and Fayaan was probably located at the northern edge of a large continental plate that collided with a marine plate. It is generally accepted that contemporary Fayaan was situated in the southern hemisphere in a dry (south) to monsoon subtropical (north) climate. Several Devonian massifs have been identified, with important sedimentary basins in between.
- In the centre of the country three large Devonian Massifs occur: Taur Massif (named after Taurburg), Koksberg Massif (named after ) and Rossier (named after the village ) Massif. Their connection during the early Devonian remains a point of discussion, but at least during the late Devonian the Koksberg Massif was separated from its neighbours, possibly through two rift structures, as is evidenced by late Devonian hillslope, fluvial and estuarine sediments found in between them.
- They are surrounded by three sedimentary basins: a poorly understood marine basin at the north of Noordkaap; the Selva Basin to the west with plenty of coastal, deltaic and shallow marine deposits; the Gloriosa Basin to the east with some coastal and shallow marine deposits, but also lots of deeper marine deposits
- The Triumfo Masif has been identified in the south, consisting of heavily transformed and metamorphosed marine sediments from Cambrian and (to a lesser extent) the Ordovician age.
- Few Devonian sediments have been identified between the Triumfo and Koksberg/Rossier Massifs, and evidence points out that this was probably a plateau region with a desert climate. Also south of the Triumfo Massif a plateau occurred with an arid climate. Southeast of the Massif coastal to (deep) marine sediment have been found.
Mountain building coincided with volcanic activity, of wich remnants have mainly been found in the Triumfo and Taur Massifs.
Devonian mountain building continued at a lower speed during the Carboniferous period. A much wetter climate suggests a position near the equator. This resulted in an important erosion and sedimentation phase. The Taur Massif had probably the highest uplift rate, and large amounts of erosion filled in the surrounding sedimentary basins. Both west and east of the massif large amounts of river, delta and estuarine deposits can be found, often containing natural gas and/or coal. The Koksberg Massif had less or no uplift and was by the mid-Carboniferous already eroded to a low hilly landscape. The Rossier Massif was probably a low mountain range, with mainly sediment deposition to the west and south.
The Triumfo Massif was still an actively being uplifted, with some (more limited) uplift of the plateau region south of it. A large subsidence trench formed west of it (St Baafs Trench). Most eroded sediment ended up in this trench, with less sediment to be found to the east of the massif. By the late Carboniferous, the ocean north of Fayaan closed, resulting in more shallow marine sedimentary deposits and finally by the end of the Carboniferous only continental (mainly fluvial) deposits remain.
During the Perm period, one global supercontinent formed, which dramatically changed the physiography of Fayaan. From a mountain/island region just south of a major ocean, it became an inland plateau region. Fayaan was located at a tropical to subtropical northern hemisphere latitude in an inland position. Climate varied between a continental monsoon climate (early Perm) and a dry continental climate (late Perm). Minor uplift still occurred in the Taur Massif, but most of Fayaan was a rather flat inland plateau , in which the remnants of the older Devonian Massifs were only slightly higher than surrounding plateaus.
The Trias was much alike the Perm: Fayaan was located inland with a dry to monsoon subtropical climate. Sedimentation was limited, although an increased number of fluvial deposits can be found from the Late Trias. An endorheic marly lake occurred south of the Taur mountains, which had eroded to a low mountain belt by then.
During the Trias the supercontinent started breaking up at different rift zones, but is was only during the Jura that new oceans started to form. Archante and Uletha split, creating a new ocean west of Fayaan. Meanwhile also a rift zone occurred within Archanta, opening up another ocean south of Fayaan. The Munion peninsula had a general west-northwest to south-southeast orientation with Fayaan located at the south-southeastern tip, and rotated to its contemporary south-southwest to north-northeast orientation from the Jura period on. Eustatic sea level rise resulted in flooding of many continents, and so did Fayaan. During the early Jura the Taur Massif was still an island, but by the Mid Jura all of Fayaan was covered by a shallow ocean, in which typical Juarssic red sandstone were deposited at the edges of the former Taur and Triumfo Massifs.
During the Cretaceous Period the contemporary continents started to get their shape. For Fayaan this meant plate tectonics resulted in the creation of a new uplifted region extending from Que Hong in the south, in Fayaan called the '''Klaarmeer Plateau'''. In south Munia it had a more pronounced mountain charcter, but in Fayaan it was a low plateau landscape, with altitudes not exceeding 100 m a.s.l. Tropical weathering was more important then erosion, and limited amounts of sediments have bene deposited east and west of it. The older Devonian Massifs to the north had now entirely disappeared. Instead a volcanic phase created a line of volcanic islands with a large coral reef system surrounding it. Most of Fayaan was covered by a shallow tropical warm sea around this coral reef, with lots of calcareous deposition.
By the end of the Cretaceous, at the onset of the Cenozoic, things started to change dramatically: the volcanic island zone was the place of a new uplift phase that triggered the Fayaan Orogeny.
Fayaan is located in the subtropical climate zone, and has a strong marine influence. The climate is largely influenced by the central mountain belt and it's location between two oceans. This results in a large diversity in both precipitation and temperature. On average, the winter climate is dominated by cooler oceans and westerlies, resulting in most precipitation on the western mountain flanks and the West coast, while the east is in general drier and warmer. Late spring and early summer are overall drier, although large thunderstorms occur especially in the south, especially in years where the ITCZ is located more to the north. In August and September, sometimes even October, tropical storms and hurricanes occur and form a kind of monsoon season with a dominance of easterly winds and especially a wet climate in the east. In late autumn they make place for more westerly winds which bring regularly big storms and precipitation, especially to the west.
When comparing climate data for Fayaan City and Gloriosa, Gloriosa has a drier winter to early summer, but is much more influenced by the summer monsoon. It is also warmer during the first half of the year, also because here westerlies bring inland air and not cooler ocean air, but from August on temperatures are influenced by the monsoon season. The inland city of Klaarmeer is shielded by the mountains from both easterly hurricanes and westerly storms, and precipitation is more evenly distributed over the year, with a peak due to thunderstorms during summer. During winter temperatures can drop below freezing, and in some years ice forms on the lake.
The natural vegetation pattern of Fayaan follows the large climatic zones. Natural vegetation in the western coastal lowlands, now often removed for agriculture, is an evergreen subtropical forest, with many coastal marshes and estuaries. With increasing height, more and more deciduous trees occur, but height levels for tree species depend largely on the location. In the higher mountain regions these deciduous forests are replaced by evergreen conifer forests, and at the highest altitudes by a shrub-heather vegetation. The eastern flanks of the mountain ridges are often drier with a more monsoon like climate. Here coniferous trees occur often up to a lower altitude, with below only a small deciduous forest zone. Large parts of the eastern foothills and plateaus are covered by tree savannah and sometimes more open grass savannah, alternated with subtropical dry broadleaf forests. Some of the typical escarpments that are often covered in fog and rain are covered by a subtropical evergreen rainforest. Coastal lowlands are again wetter and covered by a dense subtropical dry broadleaf forests.
Big 7 and more
A major attraction for tourists are the Fayaan Big 7, seven spectacular mammals. These are:
- Munion Lion (Panthera leo asselmansi): a subspecies of the Lion confined to Munion. Has a highly fragmented distribution and was on the brink of extinction during the 1950s. Breeding programs were somewhat successful. Global population now estimated at 600 in the wild (and about 300 in captivity), of which 350 in Fayaan. Largest groups in NP Savanneland and Herman Asselmans NP.
- Wood Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros leemansi): a small and dark skinned rhinoceros species, with a highly fragmented distribution in northern Archanta. Global population estimated at 4000 in the wild (and about 250 in captivity), of which 720 in Fayaan. Occurs mainly in wooded Savannah and open woodland, with largest groups in NP Savanneland and Herman Asselmans NP.
- Black Wood Bear (Melursus melursus):
- Fayaan Elephant
- Munion Giraffe
- Sandy Gazelle
- White-headed Savannah Eagle
Government and Politics
Since 1968, Fayaan is a representative democracy organized as a federal semi-presidential republic. Each of the member-states are themselves organized in a democratic way, lead by a parliament-elected governor or state-president. Each of the states are divided into several provinces (exact name differs between states), which are again divided into several municipalities (which can be granted the title of City).
(Province, Provincie, Kwartier)
|-||Municipalities and cities|
|State||State Capital||Province||Province Capital|
|Santa Cruz||Santa Cruz de la Selva|
|Capital State||Fayaan City||Province Roodwoudkust||Zeesterstrand|
|Provincie Rio Palmeras||Wolvenburg|
|Paarl Kwartier||Paarl City|
|Ooster Kartier||Forests Kwartier|
|Fayaan City Kwartier||Fayaan City|
|Villa Ronda State||Villa Ronda|
|El Triumfo||El Triumfo|
Heads of state
|Term of office||Political party|
|1818-1822||Fayaan Nationale Party|
|1822-1826||Fayaan Nationale Party|
|1826-1834||Fayaan Union Party|
|1834-1838||Fayaan Nationale Party|
|1838-1842||Fayaan Union Party|
|1842-1846||Fayaan Union Party|
|8||Maxim De Rode
|1854-1862||Fayaan Union Party|
|11||José Mando de Garcia
|1866-1870||Fayaan Union Party|
|1870-1878||Fayaan Union Party|
|13||José Mando de Garcia
|1878-1880||Fayaan Union Party|
|Fayaan Union Party|
|1882-1890||Fayaan Union Party|
|17||Carlos Mendez Azara
|Conservative Union/Freedom Party|
|24||Hannes de Garcia Leenman
|27||General Jan-Frans Ghyslinck
(1884 - 1949)
|Term of office||Political party|
|1||General Jan-Frans Ghyslinck
(1884 - 1949)
|[1 September 1931]
7 June 1938
|8 April 1949||none
(formerly Freedom Party)
|General Pedro Sanchez Willems
|8 April 1949||26 May 1949||none|
|2||General José Manuel Eijckman Roncali
|26 May 1949||8 December 1962||none|
|3||General Ferdinand Maerlinck
|8 December 1962||31 August 1968||none|
|Term of office||Political party|
|1 September 1968||31 August 1972||Nationalist Republican Party|
|1 September 1972||31 August 1976||Social Democrats|
|3||Hans Van Toorburg
|1 September 1976||31 August 1980||Conservative Union|
|1 September 1980||31 August 1984||Nationalist Republican Party|
|5||Willem van Eyck - Seranno
|1 September 1984||31 August 1992||Liberal Union|
|6||Hans Van Toorburg
|1 September 1992||3 February 1993||Conservative Union|
|4 February 1993||31 August 1996||Conservative Union|
|1 September 1996||31 August 2004||Social Democrats|
|1 September 2004||31 August 2008||Liberal Union|
|1 September 2008||31 August 2012||Republican Union|
|14||Charles Wyms - Calvo
|1 September 2012||31 August 2020||Liberal Union|
|1 September 2020||in office||United Ecologist|
Gloriosa has long been a remote and sparsely populated part of the Selva Colony. Fortaleza Victoria and Guadanza have been founded in the 1550s, and Fortaleza Victoria acted as the local capital. The city of Gloriosa was settled around 1580, and remained a small fisher village for the next century. During the 1600s the region was a remote farming area, with especially along the rivers several large fruit plantations. Rhinosterdam was founded in 1607 as a small fort and stopover point for sailing ships by Noordkaap. During the next decades the Rhinosterdam-Gloriosa area slowly grew to a small port area, where westbound ships waited for better weather during periods of storm around the Noordkaap.
After the Ingerish occupied Fayaan they wanted to build a larger port on the east coast as an eastbound trading hub and as a save harbour during stormy periods around Noordkaap. Although Annabaai was better located, they met much Noordkaap resistance in their attempts to conquer the city. In 1702 they decided to focus on Gloriosa in the Rio Guadanza delta, with major investments in the Gloriosa harbour infrastructure. A sub-governate was established in the city in 1704, and soon the city population grew from 250 to about 5000 inhabitants, with about a 1000 more in Rhinosterdam. However, on 8 October 1713 a major storm flooded the entire delta area, and most of Gloriosa and Rhinosterdam were destroyed with about 3500 casualties.
In 1715 local plantation owner Henry and politician Henry Fleming presented a plan to rebuild the city and develop agriculture in the delta area in a systematic way. This plan was based on dividing the fertile lowlands in systematic rectangular parcels which were sold to future settlers. Based on his plans the downtown Gloriosa area (Vieja Gloriosa) was rebuild from 1716 on, protected by a seaside citadel and landside city walls and embankments. The plans however overestimated the future growth of Gloriosa as a city, and by 1735 only 4000 people lived in the city (and probably around 300 in Rhinosterdam) and most of the intra muros area remained orchards.
In 1735 the Gloriosa-Hoopsbaai road over Kamp Jacob was opened, providing an easy connection to the western colonies. More and more lands were settled, especially in the Delta and the coastal plains south of the Delta. Plantation agriculture spread over rural Gloriosa, and citrus fruits, mango and olives became most important export crops. While the Ingerish retreated from Selva in 1784, coastal Gloriosa was occupied until 1791, when Gloriosa joined the Union of Northern Munion. Until 1907 a small Ingerish regiment (counting 70 soldiers) was allowed to stay in the newly built citadel of Albufera, protecting Ingerish trade interests and assuring Ingerish ships could use the harbour.
During the 1700s and until about 1870 Gloriosa remained a very rural region focused on agriculture production and mining. Although localized mining occurred before, mining really took of from 1830 on when several smaller iron mines opened. In the late 1800s most important mining products of Gloriosa were iron, copper and sandstone. Most of the mining products were exported to other states. After the first cotton plantation started in 1845, cotton soon became an important export product.
From 1870 on the city of Gloriosa industrialized, with first mainly food processing and cotton mills. An agriculture machinery factory opened in 1877, while the Gloriosa Sugar Mill was the largest in the country by 1885. The original citadel was disused since the end of the Ingerish occupation and made room for some ship wharves in the early 1800s. Merging of smaller wharves resulted in the creation of the Gloriosa United Shipbuilders in 1882, which soon became a major shipbuilder, especially focussing on larger merchant sailing ships. Having about 6000 employees in 1910, the company totally missed out on the development of engine-powered ships and went bankrupt in 1923. Since then the Wharfside became first a slum, to be transformed to an upper class business district in the 1960s. In 1908 some smaller military industries merged to the RWAF, and in the 1910s the military industry became important for Gloriosa. With increasing industrialisation also the urban population grew. By 1905 Gloriosa reached 50 000 inhabitants and also other cities grew.
Gloriosa suffered relatively much under the Munion Civil War, being cut of much of its southern trade partners. Communists had many supporters in urban Gloriosa. Communist militia occupied most factories and the harbor during the 1931 unrests, but federal troops captures the harbor in early 1932. By August 1932 the entire city was under antionalists control. Communist militia retreated to the countryside, and remained active until 1935. Both the road and railroad towards Hoopsbaai were targeted often, and interruption of railroad traffic lasted until 1939.
During the military rule Gloriosa was fastly developed and industrialized. With communists having fled the city, the city of Gloriosa became a stronghold of the military rulers. Many poor Castellan speaking supporters of the government in the western states were offered jobs and government housing in Gloriosa. Military industrial production of RWAF boomed, and Gloriosa became also a major machine and car producer.
After the military rule, Gloriosa remained a strong supported of the conservative parties. The delta region, couthern coastal plain and main river valleys further developped towards a strongly urbanized region, depending much on smaller industrial companies, except for Gloriosa city where large industries such as RWAF, Gloriosa Sugar Mill and United Gloriosa Fruits dominated. The teriary sector developed a lot from 1975 on, with banking, insurance and travel companies. Maenhout Electronis boomed as a busines and major employer in the 1980s.
Between 1995 and 2010 the delta region suffered from tough times with decreasing heavy industrial production. With an economy based on smaller industrial companies the coastal plain and river valley cities were less hit by this crisis. Unemployment increased dramatically, to reach about 17% in 2005. Escpially the Rosas suburbs suffered from high criminality and gang related violence. The harbour became an important hub for illegal narcotics smugglers. Much changed when Julio de la Selva (Republican Union) became state president in 2008. With a very oppresive and violent policy criminality and gangs were suppresed. Economic reforms and subsidizing resulted in a renewed industrialization with a focus on high tech electronis and pharmacy. These reforms cost a lot, and the state has a very high debt as a result.
Today Gloriosa profits from this renewed economic bloom. Unemployment levels are below 5% and criminality numbers are among the lowest of the country. Many high tech jobs attract a lot of national and international migrants and down town Gloriosa is a bustling metropolitan city. The state also remains renown for police oppressions and many problems with civilian rights.
Rhinosterdam is a Special Province with a separate status. For many domains, such as police and justice, economy or culture the province doesn't fall under the state jurisdiction. Lentian is the only official language, and culture and education fall under the authority of the Noordkaap state. Compared to the rest of Gloriosa the Special Province has a much more liberal government and regulations. It is a major trade and service hub and its eastern district is known for its hotels and casinos. Rhinosterdam is characterized by high-rise buildings.
This results from the special history of Rhinosterdam. In 1607 Noordkaap founded Rhinosterdam as a merchant hub to control the coastal trade. During the 1600s Noordkaap controlled most of the left bank of the Delta. The city was fortified and a small citadel protected it from pirate attacks. During the Ingerish conquest most of the west bank was occupied, but the walled city and citadel remained under Noordkaap control. The 1713 flood destroyed all but the citadel, and in 1714 Noordkaap and Ingerland agreed on a special status of Rhinosterdam within the Ingerish protectorate. Noordkaap militia were allowed to maintain control of the citadel and Gloriosa harbor remained open for Noorkaap traders, but Rhinosterdam was governed by the Ingerish as a special municipality. In 1791, when Gloriosa joined the Union of Northern Munion, Rhinosterdam became again a part of the Noordkaap state, although it lost about 80% of the previous special municipality. With this enclave posing much governance problems, the military rule placed Rhinosterdam again under Gloriosa State control in 1947, but granted it a status of Special Province with its current complicated governance system. Noordkaap State demanded a returning Rhinosterdam in 1976, and again in 2006, but this was not granted by the federal parliament. A major change came to Rhinosterdam when the totally ruined citadel was demolished in 1988, and a new bayside city district was build.
In 2010 the states of Noordkaap and Gloriosa signed a treaty about the special status of Rhinosterdam. Noordkaap is now responsible for education and cultural in the Special Province, which were before organized by the province itself. Also three other municipalities were added to the Special Province, all three of them falling under the special status during Ingerish times and having lost this status in 1791. This treaty is highly disputed in Noordkaap, and in 2022 the Noordkaap State again formally requested the return of Rhinosterdam (and some other territories). The Gloriosa State parliament has threatened to retract the special status of the Rhinosterdam province.
Struiskust is located at the east coast. Its geography is characterized by a number of coastal islands, separated from the coastal plain by shallow bays with mainly tidal flats. The coastal plain is a densely populated flat area. Inland it borders the rolling foothills of the central mountain belt. Moortricht, the state capital, is also the biggest city and economic center of the state. Also the axis between Moortricht and the Hoopsbaai area and Huysburgh and the coastal plain are densely populated.
Before 1950 Struiskust was a rural agriculture state, with a focus on wheat, olives and citrus fruits. The larger cities had several food processing industries, while there were also lots of small textile factories. Moortricht has been a major merchant port and military stronghold, but was in major decline after 1900. During the 1950s, under the military rule, the infrastructure was drastically improved, with modern high quality roads to Fayaan City and new docks in the Moortricht harbor. Moortricht further industrialized, with a focus on food processing and textile industries. Since the 1950s population pressure from Fayaan City led to migration to Struikust.
Today the industrial economy of rural Struiskust is characterized by many small SMEs spread over the various towns and villages, with a focus on food processing, construction and mechanics. Textile industries have disappeared. The industrial sector of Moortricht is focused on the chemical sector and related textile industries (with a large outdoor brand production site), food processing industries and technology production. The city holds an important electronic chip production site. Tourism has become increasingly important for the state, mainly focused on coastal tourism and art tourism to Moortricht. Moortricht still holds an important historical merchant function. Several international trade companies are located there, and it still serves as a trading and export hub for olive oil and fruits.
Hoogkust is located along the southeastern coast of Fayaan. It has a relatively low population density, with most people living in the Hoogop-Leeuwenkamp urban area and in the state capital Arva. Most of the state is rural and dominated by an agricultural economy. The Hoogop-Leeuwenkamp area has important mining and refinery activities, but has been specializing in high tech economy (mainly robotics) over the last decade or so. The economy of the Arva region is based on services, with also major digital economy companies. There are several harbors along the coast, mainly for export of electronics, mining and refined products. Coastal tourism is also an important economic sector.
Contrary to other states, Hoogkust has a system of incorporated municipalities (including cities), meaning that (large) parts of its territory don't belong to municipalities. Non-incorporated territory, including many hamlets and villages, are governed by the state. Municipality borders also change, increasing municipality area when needed. Each two years Hoogkust State determines new municipality borders.
is probably the oldest permanently inhabited town of Fayaan. Situated on a rocky outcrop along the coast, it was an ideal defensive position. But many traces remain unexplored, as they are buried under the contemporary city. Pottery traces indicate the presence of a settlement around 4000 BCE. Continuous archeological remains since 400 BCE suggest it has been inhabited since then. Pottery and coins from the Sonhave culture mixed with many traces from more southern cultures indicate it was a small trading town between 400 BCE and 100 CE. The city was probably burned around 100 CE, a period of general turmoil in this region and also the end of the Sonhave culture. For the next centuries fewer remains have been found, indicating it served as a local fisherman village. In the courtyard of the contemporary castle remains of a small defensive castle from around 600CE have been found, which has been attributed to the proto-Corxich culture. Around 900 CE the city clearly grew in importance and more important pottery and other remains can be found. Probably it served as the regional Corxich capital.
Today, railway transport in Fayaan is managed by the public company Fayaan Nationale Spoorwagmaatschappij - Fayaan National Railway (FNS/FNR). It operates a standard gauge (1,435 mm) network, with some industrial narrow gauge lines. About 92% of the network is electrified. Since 2018 all sections have 25 kV AC railway electrification.
Historically different private companies operated the network. The first railway line opened between Fayaan City Noord and Bruinville in 1845, and was owned and operated by the private company Fayaan City Railway Company (FCRC). In 1846 it was already extended to Santa Cruz Sur. Between 1850 and 1880 railroad construction boomed, connecting most cities and towns of Fayaan. Between 1900 and 1940 several lines got abandoned and the network became in a state of disrepair. Under the military rule all private companies were nationalized, and in 1948 a large rationalization was implemented, in which smaller lines and many small stations were closed. During the 1960s and 1970s the network was further modernized and speeds on lines increased. In 1989 the first high speed line (250 km/h) opened, the (largely underground) connection between Fayaan City Noord and Fayaan City Airport. This line was extended to the new Santa Cruz Futuro station in 1994. A large investment plan was launched in 2012, and will result in an entire high speed network, with speeds between 200 km/h and 350 km/h, by constructing new lines and upgrading existing lines. The initial deadline of 2025 has already shifted to 2035.
Urban and Regional Public Transport
Urban and regional public transport is organized by the member states of Fayaan. Each state has its own public company that manages subway, tram and bus transport.