Difference between revisions of "Government of the Bai Empire"

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| lower_house = Yihuiting
 
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| custom_label2 = Examination Yuan
 
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| political_parties = {{legend|#8DC681|Xingongrenhui: 1345 seats}} {{legend|#A356DE|Lixiandang: 308 seats}} {{legend|#FF0000|Shihuidang: 120 seats}} {{legend|#3333FF|Renmindang: 48 seats}} {{legend|#FED105|Xianjing Baiguodang: 34 seats}} {{legend|#7CAFEB|Baiguo Gaige Lianmeng: 12 seats}} {{legend|#7FFF00|Tongyi Gongren Lianmeng: 7 seats}} {{legend|#0570FF|Ziyou Xianfahui: 6 seats}} {{legend|#B7410E|Qiongzhu Laodongdang: 5 seats}} {{legend|#B47EEA|Nongyehui: 3 seats}}  
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{{legend|#8DC681|Xingongrenhui: 148 seats}} {{legend|#A356DE|Lixiandang: 37 seats}} {{legend|#FF0000|Shihuidang: 21 seats}} {{legend|#0B4E2C|Xianfa Ziyoudang: 19 seats}} {{legend|#3333FF|Renmindang: 17 seats}} {{legend|#AAA468|Shihui Ziyoudang: 12 seats}} {{legend|#FED105|Xianjing Baiguodang: 8 seats}} {{legend|#7FFF00|Tongyi Gongren Lianmeng: 6 seats}} {{legend|#7CAFEB|Baiguo Gaige Lianmeng: 4 seats}} {{legend|#0570FF|Ziyou Xianfahui: 2 seats}} {{legend|#B7410E|Qiongzhu Laodongdang: 2 seats}} {{legend|#000000|Independent (politician): 18 seats}} {{legend|#DDDDDD|Vacant: 34 seats}}
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{{legend|#8DC681|Xingongrenhui: 1345 seats}} {{legend|#A356DE|Lixiandang: 308 seats}} {{legend|#FF0000|Shihuidang: 120 seats}} {{legend|#3333FF|Renmindang: 48 seats}} {{legend|#FED105|Xianjing Baiguodang: 34 seats}} {{legend|#7CAFEB|Baiguo Gaige Lianmeng: 12 seats}} {{legend|#7FFF00|Tongyi Gongren Lianmeng: 7 seats}} {{legend|#0570FF|Ziyou Xianfahui: 6 seats}} {{legend|#B7410E|Qiongzhu Laodongdang: 5 seats}} {{legend|#B47EEA|Nongyehui: 3 seats}}  
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Revision as of 00:27, 24 November 2022

Government icon (black).svg
Government of Bai Empire
Semi-constitutional parliamentary monarchy
CapitalXiongjing
Head of state
• EmpressHexi Empress
Zongli Dachen (Chancellor)Huang Cailin
LegislatureImperial Congress
• Upper houseGaojiyuan
Bai Gaojiyuan 2022.svg
• Lower houseYihuiting
Bai Yihuiting Election Results 2022.svg
JudiciaryImperial Supreme Court
CensorateImperial Censure Commission
Examination YuanImperial Civil Service Commission
AN

The Government of the Bai Empire is a semi-constitutional parliamentary democracy that consists of the monarch and the five branches of government, modelled on the political philosophy of Bai democracy set out by Prince Hu Fengyao and Ying Masun. Historically, Bai was under an absolute monarchy prior to the Middle Bai Dynasty, with de facto separate branches of the Censorate and Examination for government officials. The current system introduced the legislature and the judiciary.

The current government was founded on the 1962 Fengyang Constitution of the Bai Empire. Unlike most nations, the government is divided into five independent branches: the Executive Yuan (cabinet and monarch), the bicameral Imperial Congress (parliament), the Judicial Yuan, the Censure Yuan (audit agency), and the Examination Yuan (civil service examination agency). The Head of State is the Emperor and the Chancellor (Zongli Dachen) leads the government.

In practice, the system resembles a semi-constitutional system with a uniquely strong monarchy. The monarch retains significant executive and legislative powers, including powers to dismiss the Chancellor and appoint another without the consent of the legislature. The monarch, however, shares limitations found in other constitutional systems, including the lack of a strong veto and no direct control of most administrative policy.

History

Ambox glass.svg  Snapshot: Chenghong Emperor 成洪帝 
Birth: 1752, Bai EmpireDeath: 1819
Other names: Hu Fengyao 胡风耀
Huangdi 皇帝
2ndPrinceChun1.jpg
Emperor Chenghong, personal name Hu Fengyao and also known colloquially as Prince Hu, was a Bai monarch who founded the Middle Bai Dynasty. Reigning as the first Emperor of Middle Bai from 1798 to 1819, he was the first Bai Emperor to institute and implement a democratic constitutional government. Due to his legacy in restoring Bai's status as a regional power and establishing a democratic system, he remained one of the most widely-revered figures in Bai history.
Born in 1752, he was the nephew of the last reigning Lin Emperor Rentong. His exile overseas, particularly in Mauretia and the Federal States, led to him embracing democratic ideals and establishing his political philosophy of Bai Democracy (Bairen Minzhu). In the 1770s, rallying with overseas Bai intellectuals, he emerged as the leading figure calling for the overthrowing of the Lin Dynasty and the establishment of a democratic constitutional monarchy.
Returning to Bai in 1780, he was immediately placed under house arrest by his cousin, who saw him as a contender to the throne. Prince Hu ascended the throne as the Chenghong Emperor following the Huifu Restoration in 1798. As Emperor, he enacted the Chenghong Constitution which established the constitutional government still existing today. Under him, Bai grew more independent of its Ulethan overlords, transforming into a regional power and managing to renegotiate trade treaties with Ulethan powers. The Empire underwent rapid modernisation and reformation as Prince Hu championed respect for civil rights and vibrant economic growth. Hu eventually died of gallbladder cancer in 1819.

Prior to the Middle Bai Dynasty, Bai was ruled under an absolute monarchy through various successive dynasties in Bai history. The Emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocrat of all under Heaven, and generally exercised absolute authority over the Bai Empire. Nevertheless, failure to uphold its governing duties and moral obligations was thought to remove the dynasty's Mandate of Heaven and to justify its overthrow. Hence, the position has always been contested at various times throughout Bai history, leading to rebellions, coups and civil wars.

Nevertheless, the powers of the monarch still varied depending on the political structure. Due to the vastness of the Empire, certain authority was dissolved to the bureaucrats, viceroys and ministers to manage day-to-day provincial and regional affairs. Many of these officials were selected via civil service examinations, reflecting the Empire's emphasis on meritocracy. This practice continues today through the Imperial Civil Service Commission.


Ambox glass.svg  Snapshot: Yu Zeming 于泽冥 
Birth: 31 October 1901, Huoyuan, Bai EmpireDeath: 4 June 1989
Regent Yu in 1980.jpg
Yu Zeming (Baiyu: 于泽冥; 31 October 1901 – 4 June 1989) was a Bai prince, revolutionary and military leader who ruled Bai as its Crown Regent from 1962 to 1989. Having reunified Bai through the Eastern Expedition and restored the monarchy, he continued to preside over Bai's redevelopment and oversaw its transformation into a developed country and regional power in Northern Archanta. His rule was commonly known as the Regency Era, which has been criticised as authoritarian, with mass persecution of political critics, purging of other warlords and imposition of martial law over certain areas of the country.
Born in Huoyuan, Neilu Province, Yu was initially a member of his father's Bai Fascist Solidatory Party (BFSP). Following political differences with his father, he and his wife Chang Meisheng defected from the regime and remained in Izaland for the remainder of the fascist era. Returning to Bai in the 1950s, he established a new government and organised a coalition of forces (including warlords of Fascist remnants) known as the New Alliance for the Reunification of the Bai People. As commander-in-chief, he led the Eastern Expedition, defeated the various factions and reunified Bai in 1962. Through a referendum, he restored the Bai monarchy but installed his son as the de jure head of state while he continued to rule as the country's de facto leader.
Under his tenure as Crown Regent, he began his Weixin Programme to reconstruct and re-develop Bai through restoring and modernising the national road and rail systems and establishing new economic zones for trade with the outside world. The re-establishment of ties with foreign powers and foreign-direct investments of the 60s and 70s led to the recovery of the Empire's economy, which became industrialized and technology-oriented. In the 80s, he began to delegate more authority to his son, and successfully bided and hosted the Xiongjing Pax Nova Games in 1988. Shortly after, on 4 June 1989, he died of a fatal stroke and was given a royal funeral. He was buried in a masoleum on the hill along with the other former Middle Bai Emperors.

The Lin Dynasty was the last absolute imperial dynasty in Bai. However, the Lin Emperor had limited powers, with a "Special Council" comprising Ulethan dignitaries influencing the country's policies as per various trade treaties signed. This ended with the Bai Strengthening Movement, which overthrew the Lin Dynasty and led to the Middle Bai Dynasty. The Chenghong Constitution in 1798 established the country's first constitutional monarchy, creating the bicameral legislature and the judiciary. The new democratic system was inspired by various democratic institutions at the time, particularly the Federal States and Mauretia. The Empire saw its first democratic legislative elections in 1805, although the controversial Peace Preservation Law allowed Prince Hu's allies to contest. Ying Ma Sun, a fellow ally of the Prince, became the first elected Imperial Chancellor, with the Bai Renmin Minzhudang dominating the Imperial Yihuiting. Even under the constitutional monarchy, the Emperor retains significant influence over political affairs.

Nevertheless, repeated interferences by the monarch on legislative affairs, while at times advantageous (such as women suffrage or land reforms), had led to several political crises that plagued the waning years of the Middle Bai Dynasty. These crises culminated in the 1922 Fascist Coup that briefly ended the monarchy and established the one-party Bai Democratic Republic under Yu Shanliu. This Republic was only democratic in name, with its President still exercising absolute control. After its collapse in 1942, Bai descended into warlordism as various governments competed for legitimacy. The current monarchy was restored by Yu Zeming in 1962 through the Eastern Expedition that reunited the country.

Organisational structure

The Empress

Ambox glass.svg  Snapshot: Hexi Empress 和禧女皇 
Birth: 10 December 1970, Xiongjing, Bai Empire
Other names: Yu Shenghui 于牲慧
Empress 女皇
Princess Takamado and Lieutenant Governor Elizabeth Dowdeswell (cropped).jpeg
The Hexi Empress (Baiyu: 和禧女皇), personal name Yu Shenghui (Baiyu: 于牲慧), is the current monarch of the Bai Empire. She acceded to the throne following her father's death on 10 October 2022. The grandson of Yu Zeming, who ruled as the country's Crown Regent from 1962 to 1989, she is the first monarch to be born in Bai after the Imperial restoration.
Born in Xiongjing, the Empress is the third child and only daughter of the Fengyang Emperor. As such, she was not expected to inherit the throne, and spent much of her early life in the shadow of her eldest brothers. She was part of a mass display for the 1988 Pax Nova Games opening ceremony. After which, she served as a diplomat, becoming ambassador to Castellan from 1991 to 1994, to the Demirhan Empire from 1994 to 1999, and to Mauretia from 1999 to 2004. In 2001, she married a fellow diplomat Wang Wenyi and has two children.
Returning to Bai, she worked in the Ministry of Defence, but took on more official duties following the death of her eldest brother in 2007. Due to her increasing involvement in royal affairs, commentators speculated she could be next in line. In 2021, she was formally designated as heiress apparent, and officiated the Yihuiting parliamentary session opening in June 2022.

The head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is the Empress, who wields significant executive and legislative power. Currently, the Hexi Empress is the monarch of the country. The Empress has the power to appoint the Chancellor (Zongli Dachen), members of the Censure Yuan, members of the Gaojiyuan, provincial governors and Dao viceroys. She also has the power to nominate judges for the Supreme Court, which requires the approval of the Censure Yuan. The Empress is able to veto laws, issue edicts and royal pardons, dissolve the Yihuiting, change certain aspects of the constitution, declare war or impose martial law. However, edicts issued, amendments to the constitution or the implementation martial law are only effective for up to three months, and generally require the approval of the Yihuiting or the Gaojiyuan to be extended or made permanent. The Empress cannot amend the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law.

The Chancellor


Ambox glass.svg  Snapshot: Huang Cailin 黄财林 
Birth: 18 December 1971, Tangxun, Bai Empire
Huang Cailin.jpg
Huang Cailin (Baiyu: 黄财林), is a Bai politician serving as the incumbent Chancellor of the Bai Empire and the secretary-general of the governing Xingongrenhui. Previously, he had served as Deputy Prime Minister from 2017 to 2022. As a Member of the Yihuiting since 2005, he represented the Tangxun electoral constituency. Prior to entering politics, Huang was a civil servant working in the ministries of trade and industry, finance and health, and was the personal secretary for various Chancellors from 2014 onwards.

The Chancellor of the Bai Empire, also known as the Zongli Dachen (Baiyu: 总理大臣), is the head of government in the Bai Empire and the leader of the Bai Cabinet. Under the semi-constitutional monarchy system of the Empire, many considered the position to be the second-highest office after the monarch. Working directly with the monarch, the Chancellor commands the legislative process and has powers that include dictating the agenda of the Gaoyuanhui and selecting a cabinet. The Chancellor is appointed by the monarch and must enjoy the confidence of the Yihuiting (lower house) to remain in office. As such, the Chancellor is typically the leading figure of the majority party in the Yihuiting.

The Chancellor serves for up to two six-year terms. The powers of the Chancellor are limited, and the Chancellor can be removed via impeachment of the Censure Yuan, a loss in confidence by the Yihuiting, or dismissal by the monarch. The incumbent Chancellor is Huang Cailin, who took office on 7 July 2022.

Legislature

The interior of the Renmin Yihuiting

The Empire's legislative organ is the Imperial Congress. It is a bicaramel parliament consisting of the Renmin Yihuiting (People's Senate) and the Gaojiyuan (High Council). Members of the Yihuiting are elected by popular vote through elections, usually held every five years. Yihuiting members could also be recalled and a by-election would be held to replace the removed member. Members of the Gaoyuanhui are elected by the provincial legislatures and/or appointed by the monarch, with the recommendation of the Chancellor. Voting is mandatory for eligible adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices.

The head of government is the Chancellor, who is also the leader of the Yihuiting. Appointed by the monarch, he must have the support of a majority of the Yihuiting. Working directly with the monarch, he commands the legislative process and has powers that include dictating the agenda of the Gaojiyuan and selecting a cabinet. The cabinet members convene with the Chancellor to discuss policy, craft agenda and set a course for the government. Like other members of the Yihuiting, he could be dismissed by the monarch or impeached by the Censure Yuan.

Judiciary

The Supreme Court

The Judicial Yuan is the highest judicial organ. It interprets the constitution and other laws and decrees, judges administrative suits, and disciplines public functionaries. The president and vice-president of the Judicial Yuan and additional thirteen justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated by the monarch, with the consent of the Censure Yuan. The judges can be removed by the Censure Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of several civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding judge and four associate judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Censorate

The Censure Yuan is the auditing agency (censorate) for the Bai Empire that monitors, regulates and disciplines government officials and their activities. The current Censure Yuan is based on the censorate, a separate supervisory branch in previous dynasties. Like the previous censorates, it has the powers to impeach government officials, including the Chancellor, following which the cases would be forwarded to the Judicial Yuan for adjudication. Members of the Censure Yuan are nominated by the Gaojiyuan and appointed by the monarch. In addition, the Censure also audits the national budget.

Civil service commission

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants. A revised model of the old imperial examination system used in previous dynasties, its activities have recently been expanded to cover the national education system. The members of the Examination are nominated by the Censure Yuan and appointed by the monarch.

Government institutions

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International affairs