Kojo is located on the Axian peninsular in south-eastern Uletha. It observes WUT +7 hours and no summertime.
Kojo has 40,000,000 inhabitants on a land area of 267,630 km², resulting in a population density of 150 inhabitants/km². The population is highly concentrated in the country's urban areas, with almost half of its inhabitants living in cities proper of 100 000 or larger and nearly a quarter in the capital alone. The eastern half of the country, where rivers running from the mountains to the sea provide water for year-round agriculture and easy transportation of goods, is much more densely populated than the western half. The river Kime and the coast are the two most important axes of population centers.
|City name||Inhabitants||Comment||Region||Cosmo City Ranking|
|Pyingshum||8,600,000||capital and primate city||Pyingshum-iki||B||A||B||F|
|Finkyáse||2,435,600||second largest urban area||Fóskiman-iki||A||A||B||D|
|Wenzū||650,000||Spa city. Unique administrative union of nine towns that retain some autonomy.||Wāfyeíkko-iki||B||C||C||D|
|Ántibes||400,000||high-class holiday destination||Fóskiman-iki||C||B||C||D|
|Góhomi||340,000||many sanatoriums and health resorts||Kyoélnain-iki||B||B||C||D|
|Rō||255,000||historic town on hillside, holy city of the faith Gitaenhōlyuē||Rō-iki||B||A||D||D|
|Zúkshi (Fóskiman h.)||235,000||Fóskiman-iki||C||B||C||D|
|Toefyei||225,000||receiver of the title "Kojo's most boring city" for eight years in a row||Wāfyeíkko-iki||D||F||C||C|
|Toribiri||220,000||winter sports destination||Nainchok-iki||C||B||D||D|
|Igilaē||195,000||seat of the Constitutional Court||Gyoéng'guffe-iki||B||B||A||D|
|Zúkshi (Cheryuman h.)||115,000||Cheryuman-iki||C||B||C||C|
Tribal structures without verifiable connections lived throughout the territory of modern Kojo since the stone age. There have been various findings of ancient tools, cave drawings and primitive clothing from that era, but no form of recorded writing. Earliest housing and farming facilities date back to around 7,000 b.c., indicating that sedentarism had spread from central Uletha to the Axian peninsular around that time.
First, second or third century until 614: Kon'yo Darasushan ("1st Rō-age")
Most historians agree that the unified Symvanist faith (Gitaenhōlyuē) must have emerged over time from a large number of only loosely connected tribal rites and believe systems. The oldest written documents ever found in Kojo describe a sacrificial ritual. At the time of discovery in 1796 they were dated back to the year 313. The fact that the ritual was described in a normative way and with emphasis on what types of fees worshippers had to hand over is proof of the emergence of complex societal structures. The creation of these documents is an important cornerstone in Kojolese historic science and is used to mark the beginning of the Kon'yo Age, also called first Rō-age (Kon'yo being the name of the village close to Rō were the documents were found). Rō would remain the most productive center in the region for the coming centuries, forming the first larger urban settlement in the region and excerting cultural influence over most of the eastern half of modern Kojo. New radiologic assessments suggest that the artifacts might actually be up to 200 years older than previously thought.
614 until 876: Kyómre Darasushan ("PH age")
876 until 1200: Gnō Darasushan ("2nd Rō-age")
Despite Rō still being of high religious significance for worshippers across the region, there had not been any type of significant, central authority claiming theological primacy. The religion was perpetrated by independent local high priests, chiefs etc., of which the ones teaching in Rō were simply a little more influential due to the significance of the city in religious teachings. However, in 876 (other sources claim 873), local representatives congregated in Rō (back then called Gnō) and decided on a precisely defined set of core teachings and rituals, thereby starting the process of formation of a unified Symvanist Church. They did this in reaction to military pressure from neighbouring regions. This common enemy posed a power-political incentive for the local tribes to unite, and under the spiritual leadership of a common religious centre they sought to strengthen their defensive abilities. However, modern historians agree that at the time, the tribes that congregated only accounted for a small minority of the total populace, and that the agreement did not have wide-felt impacts on the religious practices and daily lifes. Instead, it was most likely just a festive side-event to the more politically motivated alliance-building, with its role for Kojolese history being exaggered in the centuries later on. Nevertheless, the following over 300 years were marked by further spiritual and organisational consolidation of Symvanism, its spread across the country, and the (re-)emergence of Rō as the major religious, cultural, economic and political centre.
1200 until 1620: Yochomryi Darasushan ("Yoyomi-age)
The Kojolese middle ages are referred to as Yoyomi-age, because the city (called Yochomryi before a Hopponification of the name in the 17th century) eclipsed the importance of close by Rō. Yochomryi started as a military bastion and quickly turned into the capital of the Zerka Kingom, which back then formed the eastern edge of the Pyilser-speaking cultural sphere and was in a strategical defense location against powers from the east. Despite the undoubtful strong military, economic and cultural dominance of the Zerka kingdom and its capital during this age, this time was also marked by a more polycentric and variable balance of importance among the many kingdoms and principalities that made up the territory of modern Kojo.
1620 until 1668: The Thousand Kingdoms' War and Kojolese Unification
Up to around 1620, the area of modern Kojo was a rag rug of small kingdoms and principalities. The countless small conflicts eventually escalated, and in 1620 the whole region descended into a state of war. Additionally, partly caused by the conflict and partly by unfavorable climate conditions, a great famine forced large parts of the population to flee from starvation, mingling languages and culture. As a result, most political structures were disrupted and only few rulers were able to stay in charge of their territories at all. Things slowly settled down, while the survivors of the big migration started to build their new lives and new political structures arouse where the former sovereigns lost control.
During that time, the King in charge of today's Pyingshum and the area around it, King Surb Rēkku from the Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty, whose dominion did well economically and militarily after the big migration, intensified his aspiration to gain more control over the other kingdoms in the area, and his family's kingdom quickly rose in power. In 1622, four years into his reign and at the age of 20, he married 18 years old Chihaya Nabunga, daughter of the Hopponese leader Ato Nabunga and his concubine, or rather co-empress, Queen Riya. Riya was the Hopponese king's favourite and therefore most wealthy concubine, which lead to her daughter being known as "the vein princess". The Hopponese leader hoped that the marriage would increase his general political influence in the north; marrying his daughter to the Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty, he gambled that Surb Rēkku would be able to unify the area of today's Kojo. Eventually, in 1668, four years before Surb Rēkku's death at the age of 70, an area quite similar to today's Kojo was unified by the King and his Hopponese wife. Although the Pyilser-krun'a dynasty ensured their control over the newly acquired territories by instituting feudal lords and controlling instead of replacing local power structures, their capital Pyingshum became the cultural and economic center of the new kingdom. The eras since then are therefore sometimes collectively referred to as the "Pyinshum-age" in Kojolese history.
1668 until 1828: High Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty
The country entered a phase called "High Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty" (in contrast to the early Pyilser-krun'a dynasty where the house's rule was limited to the area around Pyingshum). The era was marked by a slow but steady draw of administration, science and trade to the new kingdom's capital, where it flourished. Also, the marriage to Hopponese royalty not only had a vast influence on rules and rites in the royal court itself, but also drew, in addition to the already quite extensive court society, a considerable number of Hopponese migrants. That had a significant impact on the the Kojolese language and culture. Also during this age, the different local cultures and Pyilser-languages that had been mixed by the war, famine and big migration slowly consolidated, resulting in modern Kojo's more uniform culture and language.
1828 until 1834: Revolution and downfall of the monarchy
As the first vibe of industrialization swept through the country, social problems became apparent. The emerging urban working class was suffering under their bad living and working conditions. Their ruler's way of spending enormous amounts of money on splendour and luxury was perceived as a sign of incompetence and extravagant at best, and malice at worst. After rising tensions, spread of antimonarchist material such as leaflets and eventually civil-war-like states in some industrial neighbourhoods throughout the country, the worker's uprising eventually overthrew the ruling King Surb-Racchi and his local aristocratic administrations in 1828. It was decisive to the success of their undertaking that the military collaborated with them during the last days of the revolution and especially during the raid on the palace. Surb-Racchi was executed, and the following years were marked by a power-struggle between the democratic and partially socialistic movements on one side and the military forces on the other, at times again under civil-war like conditions. After six years of fighting, partial military dictatorship and social unrest, a semi-democratic constitution was written and proclaimed in 1834.
1834 until 1939: First Constitution
It took several years for the effects of the democratic revolution in Pyingshum to spread through the country and reach the more distant regions. One reason was that the new democratic order reinstated some of the local aristocrats previously appointed by the King as governors as a way to calm and control the military throughout the nation. However the new centralistic state did not intend to prolong the tradition of granting the local posts of power to the previous office holder's descendant, but instead aimed for local administrations more closely aligned with the national government. Throughout the first decades of the new rule, many reinstated local chiefs tried to resist this slow transfer of power away from hereditary rule and abolition of nobleness, which caused a number of state crisis's and even small armed conflicts. In general, the early phase of the Kojolese Republic was marked by a cultural tension between the democratic capital Pyingshum and the territories further out, where local rulers tried to uphold their influence by waging their subjects against the influence of the central government. However, by the late 19th century, the last hereditary local ruler was replaced by a bureaucratic chief administer appointed by the central government. This achievement was aided by the rapid growth of railways, which, besides now being the driving force behind industrialisation, enabled the government to more effectively control the regional administrations.
The second half of the 19th century was, politically, marked by further consolidation of power in the capital Pyingshum. Industrialisation now was transforming the economy at a rapid pace and drew the masses towards the country's growing urban areas. Social norms and ideals were shifting. Religious adherence plummeted, and by the turn of the century less than half of the population was describing themselves as active performers of Symvanism.
Since 1939: Second Constitution
The political system of Kojo was marked by a strong rivalry between the office of president and his Chancellor in the early 20th century, as the office of Chancellor was continuously expanding its power and influence, while still being formally subordinated to the president. As the chancellor had to be approved by parliament, president and chancellor sometimes were from different ends of the political spectrum, and the only thing the president could do was to dissolve parliament and schedule reelections. When between 1928 and 1939 there were a total of 9 reelections, it was decided that to guarantee a functioning government, there would have to be a major redraft of the political structure. Under the new system, the chancellor was now a post more independent from the president, and the president was reduced to a merely representative figure. In the same instance, the redraft of the constitution was used to get rid of parts that still alluded to the classist elements relevant during the transition phase of the young democracy and replaced by norms more fitting for the mature republic.
The 20th century was marked by a rapid increase in living standard for the average person. The economy slowly transformed from being centered on agricultural and industrial production to the service industry. With the spread of the automobile, different urban forms and a higher degree of separation between work and home became common.
The flooding of Kalaē in 2008 was the nation's deathliest natural disaster of the 21st century, with an official death toll of 2,268.
Kojo is a parliamentary and constitutional republic. Its a centralist state in the sense that there are no constituent states or provinces with any noteworthy degree of autonomy. The municipal level however has a comparatively high degree of independence from the national government compared to other democratic countries. The Constitution of the Republic of Kojo divides the government into three branches: the legislative (parliament), the executive (president, chancellor and administration) and the judiciary (courts). The "Administration" is often cited as a separate, fourth pillar of the republic, because it often exhibits a life on its own and largely constitutes a constant factor, even when elected governments change.
For a detailed description and list of the spatial administrative division of the country, please refer to the main article: Administrative divisions of Kojo.
The President (Gozóngchō ) is the head of state, elected by the presidential convention. His or her work composes of mostly representative tasks. For example, the President is the highest representative of the state, appoints Ambassadors, has to sign laws to formally enact them, and is a last instance of check for constitutionality in general. He or she serves for 7 years and can only be re-elected once. He resides in the Presidential Mansion (Gozóngchō so Jaesan).
The nation's unicameral parliament, the Jōbunhakke, forms the legislative. It's elected by the people every 4 years via proportional representation (mixed-member). Besides passing laws, its members most importantly elect the Chancellor (Gankakuchō) at the beginning of every new term, and constitute one half of the presidential convention that elects the President.
Besides the Jōbunhakke, there is the National Municipalities' Council (Zággai Hāmaeltai Kókke, ZHK). It has a unique make up, as it is made up of representatives from the municipal level. Because it only has very limited functions it usually is not counted as a second chamber of parliament. The ZHK needs to approve laws that change the financial or power relationship between local and the national government, as well as changes to the constitution. In all cases when the ZHK does not approve a law or change to the constitution proposed by the Jōbunhakke, the Jōbunhakke can schedule a popular vote which in turn can overwrite the ZHK's decision. Since the constitution doesn't provide for any other mean of changing the constitution by popular vote, there have been cases in the past where the ZHK purposefully denied approval to such a law in order to enable a popular vote, even though its members themselves were generally in favour of the change, because the matter was deemed so important that the public should vote on it. The ZHK does not consist of elected officials; instead, every city (sur) and every rural district (hibu) has one vote. The votes can either be valued the same or carry voting power according to the population represented in the respective cities or rural districts, depending on the type of vote. The members of the ZHK also elect the second half of the presidential convention, which in turn elects the president. Representatives in the ZHK are usually non-political officials of the municipality they represent and are only reimbursed for their travel and other expenses. They are bound to vote as instructed by their municipality's government. For important votes it is common that mayors or other high-ranking local politicians come to Pyingshum to cast their municipality's vote. Historically, the ZHK was never intended by the fathers of the constitution when it was written in 1834. It formed as a sort of common lobbying institution for the municipalities, to represent their interests in national politics. When the constitution was thoroughly reformed in 1939 provisions about the ZHK and the types of laws that needed its consent were codified, but to this day it is not recognised as a second chamber of parliament.
The Chancellor (Gankakuchō) is the head of government. He or she works in the Chancellery (Gankakuchō so Hyosilwe). The Chancellor appoints the rest of the government, namely the ministers, by formally suggesting them to the President, who then has to appoint them. The Chancellor is traditionally the single most influential person in politics, since he or she defines the guidelines of inner and foreign policy, despite being only 3rd after the president and the president of the parliament in official state protocol.
A rather unique feature of the Kojolese political system is the emphasis on a strict border between the government and "The Administration" (Dáhano). The administration is often cited as the 4th division of power. While the executive branch such as the Chancellor and the Ministers are mostly focused on drafting laws and enacting policy in their respective fields, these policies are then executed by the various national, regional and municipal agencies. Although the various agencies are under the direct control of either the national or respective municipal government(s), they are said to exhibit a life on their own. The way policies are enacted in practicality is strongly shaped by the administration's own way of doing things.
Career paths in the administration usually start in municipal or regional agencies, with aspirants working their way up through the regional or national agencies. Very successful high school or university graduates are also sometimes recruited directly into higher ranks, especially after graduating from the prestigious and hard to get into School of Higher Administration (Kōkumin Ekól). It is estimated that among leadership positions in the regional and national administration (excluding the ministries themselves), ca. 70 % have worked up their way from entry-level positions, 25 % are Kōkumin Ekól graduates and only another 5 % are career changers who have worked outside of the administration for some time. Unlike in a lot of other democracies, the Kojolese constitution knows a number of cases where the passive suffrage is restricted: anyone employed in the national or regional administration cannot run for office in national elections for 5 years after their last day of employment, extending to 10 years for positions of leadership. Similarly, many municipalities also use their constitutional right to institute such regulations on a municipal level.
The following list only includes civil services provided by the national government and its regional embodiments. The municipal administration and their bottom-up counter parts on the regional levels (such as garbage, public order offices, schooling infrastructure, public transportation etc.) as well as agencies not classified as part of the executive (such as the parliament administration or institutions relating to the courts' self-management) are not included. The ministries oversee a lot of different agencies and services, to which they delegate most of the technical work and interaction with the public. Besides drafting laws, the ministries most importantly set policy guidelines for their subordinate agencies. On a regional level, all agencies and services by the national government are also coordinated by the respective region's Prefect, who is appointed by the Chancellor. They are mostly responsible for managing everyday operations, advising the central government on regional matters, coordinating the agencies among each other and with the municipalities administration, appointing important leadership roles, as well as disaster relief and representing the central government in their region.
The most common name for institutions with nation-wide scope of action is Kyanfā ("Agency"). Regional institutions under national directive are called Sháchu ("Service"). Agencies which oversee regional services are amended with the prefix "Central" (Zóngshinkyanfā), while Agencies with no oversight over the corresponding regional Services (because they are directly controlled by the ministry as well) usually bear the title "National" (Zággaikyanfā). The aforementioned naming scheme only applies to the administration under the directive of the national government. City departments or offices are usually called buéro, while agencies instituted on the regional level but operating under the directive of the respective region's municipalities are called uelfā. While most agencies and services are referred to using an abbreviation of their full name in everyday use, there are inconsistencies regarding their long-name variants. While some names include grammatical particles to emphasizes their respective grammatical function (Shínchopō sum shárukanyaesói so Kyanfā, lit. "Agency for Protecting the Constitution"), other names do not (Oetsōno Kyanfā, lit. "Migration Agency").
- Office of the Presidential bureau (Gozóngchō so Hyokyanfā, Pyingshum)
- National Auditing Authority (Zággai Búkinshutugēl Sanzyofā, Pyingshum)
- Constitution Protection-Agency (Shínchopō sum shárukanyaesói so Kyanfā (SHSHK), Pyingshum)
- Kojolese Central Bank (Kojo Zóngshin-weibyaeng, Pyingshum)
- National Archive (Zággai Altífōwe, Pyingshum)
- Chancellor (Gankakuchō, Pyingshum)
- The Chancellery (Gankakuchō so Hyosilwe, Pyingshum)
- Office of the Press Secretary
- Officer of State for Digital Affairs
- Officer of State for Relations with the Arkatsum Kingdom
- 13 Prefects (Maekkyosil)
- Ministry of the Interior (Būla so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Administrative Issues
- Central Police Agency
- 13 regional Police Departments
- Central Criminal Prosecution Agency
- 22 Police Academies
- Customs Office
- Agency for Digital Security
- Agency for Meteorology
- National Agency for Monument and Landscape Conservation
- 13 regional Monument and Landscape Conservation Services
- 15 regional Archives
- Agency for Migration (Oetsōno Kyanfā, Kwaengdō)
- National Agency for Civil Protection and Disaster Prevention
- Agency for Technical Assistance
- 11 regional Technical Relief Services
- Central Agency for Spatial Planning, Mapping and Interregional Cooperation (Wamzudamolno, Nomshusói ko Mijidōdaeki Kyakkai Zóngshinkyanfā, Jaka)
- 13 regional Spatial Planning Services
- Agency for Volunteer Service (Kámpō Ashkan Kyanfā, Pyingshum)
- Agency for National Elections (Zággaitsūn Kyanfā, Unzai)
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Sotta so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Foreign Intelligence Agency (Dózai-Tokapparyuē so Kyanfā (DTK), Pyingshum)
- Agency for the Promotion of Kojolese Culture and Language Abroad
- Embassies of Kojo abroad
- Ministry of Finance (Búkinmolno so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Financial Services Certification
- National Agency for Taxation
- 13 regional Taxation Services
- xxx local collection offices (Búkinfā)
- National Agency for Remuneration
- 13 regional Remuneration Services
- National Agency for National Asset Management
- 13 regional Asset Management Services
- Ministry of Defence (Fángri so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Military Counter-Intelligence Agency (Fanglyué-Jōto so Kyanfā (FJK), Pyingshum)
- 2 Universities of the Armed Forces (Forsamé so Ōnagara, Pyingshum and Jaka)
- Agency for Acqusition
- Ministry of Justice (Héngyi so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency of Justice (Héngyi so Kyanfā, Pyingshum)
- Central Agency for Consumers' Rights
- 13 regional Consumers' Rights Services
- Public Prosecutor's Agency
- 13 regional Public Prosecution Services
- 12 regional Penitentiary and Resocialisation Services
- Ministry of Labour, Social Issues and Sports (Gōzo, Myingsamolno ko Taigi so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Work
- Ribal Kecskés Institute for Transmissible Diseases (Ribal Kecskéskaso roenglanzáu Yokkae nijúinde, Pyingshum)
- Central Agency for Public Health
- 12 regional Public Health Services
- Agency for Drug and Medical Services Certification
- Agency for the Advancement of Competitive Sport (Mankaidaeki Taigi so Yaeshittehīchon lui Kyanfā, Jaka)
- 7 regional athletes' contact bureaus
- Agency for Workers' Protection
- Oversight-Agency for the five non-facultative insurance services
- Care Agency
- Agency for Family
- Anti-discrimination Agency
- Central Agency for Youth
- 13 regional Youth Services
- Media Inspection Agency
- Ministry of Economic Affairs and Trade (Kishamolno ko Jijiyaengmolno so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Patents and Trademarks
- Agency for Statistics
- Agency for Import and Export Monitoring (Jaka)
- Cartell Agency
- Agency for Food Safety
- Agency for Caration and Standardisation
- Agency for Mining and Pitmen
- Agency for Professional Training
- Agency for Funds Distribution and General Affairs
- Ministry of Education, Innovation and Culture (Goakyan, Líno ko Tsungbon so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Public Health Education
- Agency for Political Education
- National Library (Zággai Besoegawan, Pyingshum)
- 21 Central Libraries
- 5 National Museums (Jōbun-Showugan, "People's Museum": two in Pyingshum (History, Art), one in XX (Science and Technology), XX (Sport) and XX (Geology))
- National Agency for the Coordination of Vocational Training
- 13 regional bureaus for the Coordination of Vocational Training
- Agency for Pre-natal care, Daycare and Preschool
- Agency for Primary and Secondary Schooling
- Oversight-Agency for Higher Education
- Central Agency for Archaeology
- 13 regional Archaeology Services
- National Agency for Conservation of the Intangible
- 13 regional Services for Conservation of the Intangible
- Agency for Material Acquisition and Distribution
- Kojolese Research Funding Society
- Ministry of the Environment (Yultai so Naelnimyue, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Nuclear Safety and Disposal
- National Agency for Environmental Research
- 13 regional Environment and Sustainability Services
- Central Agency for Woodlands, Ranching, Hunting and Firearms
- 12 regional Forestry and Ranching Services
- 12 regional Hunting Services
- 59 regional Firearm Services
- Central Veterinary and Animal Welfare Examination Agency
- 38 regional Veterinary and Animal Welfare Examination Services
- Ministry of Infrastructure, Communication and Energy (Hīshíbyaeng, Denching ko Uzam so Naelnimyue)
- Aviation Agency (A'érosaē so Kyanfā, Pyingshum)
- Lower Agency for Air Traffic Control "Kojocontrol" (Aensaē Ishkel Bangfā, Pyingshum)
- Lower Agency for Aircraft, Aerodrome and Personnel Certification (Aenlai, A'éropō ko Rinin so Shataeiyusói Bangfā, Pyingshum)
- Agency for Waterways and Shipfare (Hún'gō ko Champyonsaē Kyanfā, Kippa)
- Agency for Roads (Michi Kyanfā, Kippa; research institution)
- National Agency for Planning, Construction and Upkeep of Motorways
- 12 Regional Road Planning, Construction and Upkeep Services
- XX motorway maintenance facilities (Kōfogótsu Zoékasóijo)
- Road Approving Agency (licensed, private company owned by the government)
- Motor Vehicles Admission Board (licensed, private company owned by the government)
- Agency for Railway Infrastructure and Operation (research institution)
- Agency for Railway Certification (licensed, private company owned by the government)
- Kojo Railway Company (Kojo Hyengshō Sanan, non-licensed, private company owned by the government)
- Agency for Signal Communication
- Agency for Post Affairs
- Agency for Energy Production, Subsidies and Emission Certificate Trade
- Agency for dams and Hydroelectricity
- Agency for the Power, Gas and Water Networks
- Central Agency for Communication and Data Networks
- 10 regional Data Networks Services
- Agency for Passenger and Freight Transport (regulatory authority)
- Aviation Agency (A'érosaē so Kyanfā, Pyingshum)
The Kojolese constitution clearly defines the scope of responsibility for the national government on one hand (handled by the agencies listed above), and the municipalities (surs and in the case of rural areas hibus and Pangs, each with their own respective administration) on the other. In general, laws and regulations are always enforced by the same level that also sets the relevant rules, with some exceptions (most notably devolved duties). The following list give an in-comprehensive overview over all kinds of public rights and duties, and on what level they are dealt with in the Kojolese political system:
- libraries, parks, sporting facilities, museums, swimming pools, cemeteries and other local amenities
- day-care, kindergarten, vocational schooling and training
- only buildings: schools, municipal courts
- local roads and public transport
- ordinances of public order (street music, gambling, drug use [not trade], outdoor advertising, cityscape)
- office of public order (speeding/parking tickets, noise complaints, littering)
- local spatial and urban planning
- building permits
- social housing
- social non-monetary services (youth and family welfare, care for sick and elderly)
- rental law
- local business, tourism etc. promotion
- fire fighting and local disaster relief
- record keeping (domicile, marriages, property ownership, ID issuing [devolved], vehicle registration [devolved])
- local power, water and gas provisions and telecommunication networks
- waste collection, cleaning
- local preservation
- culture and art
- volunteer services
- forestry, hunting, farming and environmental protection and services
- procedures for local elections
- execution of all elections
- matters of local administration (municipal personnel, administrative buildings and infrastructure)
- distribution of monetary social and employment services (devolved)
Municipalities can levy:
- fees (parking, transportation, waste collection, entrance fees, building permits...)
- taxes (immobile property, resource extraction, agriculture, additional sales taxes (only goods sold locally))
- get allocated: 15 % of income tax of local residents, 10 % of national av. of income tax; 50 % of corporate tax of local businesses, 50 % of national av.
everything not dealt with one the municipal level, most notably
- foreign relations, trade and customs, defence
- law enforcement (police, corrective facilities)
- secret services
- judiciary (the courts)
- civil, criminal, financial, administrative, labour and constitutional laws except exemptions below
- social security and services (most of the execution devolved to municipalities)
- education (school syllabus and teaching personnel, all higher education)
- all infrastructure of regional or higher importance (regional roads, railways without trams or metros, all ports and airports, power transmission lines, pipelines etc.)
- national and regional spatial planning
- all taxation but municipal taxes
A municipal right or duty can be classified into one of three "classes of sovereignty". For example, a city's right to set the rules regarding its own elections (within the democratic principles of the constitution) or veto a change to its boundaries are core principals of municipal sovereignty. No law, even if accepted by all other municipalities in the lawmaking process, can strip a city of such rights. The only, though quite hypothetical way to amend this would be a change to the constitution passed by a two-thirds-majority in the Jōbunhakke, by a supermajority in the National Municipalities' Council ZHK (meaning that both more than half of all surs and hibus have to approve with them simultaneously representing at least half of the Kojolese population) and then approved by a popular vote.
One step further down the line there are the other constitutionally granted sovereignties. They include for example the types of taxes municipalities can levy, or what areas of law and public order they can regulate. To make changes related to such issues, a law must pass the Jōbunhakke with a simple majority, and the ZHK with a supermajority.
Lastly, there are laws that indirectly affect the municipal level (both regulatory and/or financially), but do not infringe on their sovereignties. Those include laws that change devolve administrative functions from the national government to the local governments, such as changes to the social welfare system which is in part carried out on the local level by the municipalities. Also, environmental laws that are enforced by municipalities or changes to education standards like installing electronic whiteboards (which would be paid for by the national government since it is part of schooling material, but the Wifi-infrastructure would need to be provided by the municipalities since they are responsible for the built infrastructure of the schooling system) would fall in this category. To pass, besides a simple majority in the Jōbunhakke, such laws need a so called common majority in the ZHK (meaning that surs and hibus representing at least half of the Kojolese population agree).
Due to the fact that municipalities are autonomous in regard to their internal affairs, there is wide variety in the way they structure their administration and politics. For example, there is an unmanageable diversity of local electoral law, especially among smaller towns and villages. While every municipality is bound by the democratic principles laid out in the constitution, they are free as to how to embellish them. Among exceptionally small villages it is common to elect a mayor by a majority vote, sometimes with and sometimes without run-offs, and to not have a local council elected alongside. Places that do elect local councils do so using many different kinds of voting procedures, from systems using electoral districts and a first-pass-the-post-approach to mixed-member proportionate party lists systems with multiple transferable candidate and list votes per voter.
Kojo is a centralist state, with elections only taking place at the national and the municipal level. The intermediate regions ("Iki") form a stage for balance of interest and cooperation. The national government's (top-down) Iki-administration is headed by a prefect, who is sent by and represents the central government. The prefects execute the central government's policies in their respective regions, and controls the regional services (Sháchu). In the numerous areas overlapping with the municipalities' jurisdiction, the prefect frequently serves as a local negotiator. They are also responsible for imminent relief in the case of catastrophes and are only allowed to leave their Iki when instructed to do so by the central government. On the local side, municipalities coordinate their efforts on the Iki-level bottom-up to voice their interests to the national government and seize synergies. The degree to which this happens varies from region to region: in some, a large regional bureaucracy controlled by the region's municipalities does a lot of everyday administrative tasks, such as transit planning, preservation or healthcare. In others, those matters are dealt with by each individual municipality and their common regional administration only facilitates voluntary coordination and lobbying. For an in-depth explanation, please refer to the main article: Administrative divisions of Kojo.
The following list contains all 13 regions in Kojo with their name, population, size, population density and cities above 100,000 inhabitants (Prefects' seats in bold).
|Name of Iki||Population||Area km² (land)||Pop. Density in./km²||Largest cities||OGF relation|
|Pyingshum-iki||12,169,000||11,954||1,018||Pyingshum, Kahyuemgúchi, Formajiá, Laófil||border|
|Kyoélnain-iki||1,815,000||41,170||44||Busakyueng, Góhomi, Unzai, Makalasueng||border|
|Cheryuman-iki||xxx,xxx||5,884||xx||Kwaengdō, Tsuyenji, Zúkshi (Cheryuman h.)||border|
|Degyáhin-Kibaku Yuwantsūm-Shikime-iki||xxx,xxx||10,025||xx||Nároggul, Leshfyomi-sul||border|
|Nainchok-iki||1,055,000||36,288||29||Toribiri, Chin-Jōrin, Shangmē||border|
|Fóskiman-iki||5,215,000||7,920||658||Finkyáse, Womenlū, Ántibes, Zúkshi (Fóskiman h.)||border|
|Lainyerō-iki||3,105,000||104,755||30||Manlung, Oreppyo, Palda, Jippun, Kōnil||border|
|Pacchipyan-iki||3,249,000||3,101||1,048||Jaka, Hetta, Ojufyeng||border|
|Wāfyeíkko-iki||x,xxx,xxx||17,075||xx||Yoyomi, Wenzū, Arákkanai, Toefyei||border|
|Chin'yaku-iki||1,680,000||5,655||297||Tinglyū, Īme, Línai||border|
|Gyoéng'guffe-iki||3,420,000||19,876||172||Kippa, Kimelíngsan-shu, Tamrong, Igilaē, Rajjihaim, Láoféi||border|
The courts form the judiciary and are independent. The supreme court and two of five courts of last appeal are situated in the city of Igilaē, with the other three National courts also situated in cities other than the capital Pyingshum, in order to physically represent their independance from the other branches of government.
The constitutional court (Shínchopō nijúinde Dattarān, lit. "Jurisdiction about to the constitution", situated in Igilaē) has the last say in all controversies over the constitution. The other courts of last appeal are all responsible for a distinct area of law and can be appealed to by anyone on any legal dispute after going through the lower stages in the court hierarchy. These so called national courts are:
- Tsōbolakān nijúinde Dattarān; supreme court of ordinary jurisdiction; usually concerned with issues of civil or criminal law; Finkyáse
- Búkinmolno nijúinde Dattarān; supreme court of financial jurisdiction; concerned with taxation, customs and public finances; Igilaē; not to be confused with the central auditing authority (Búkinshutugēl Sanzyofā) in Pyingshum
- Gōzomolno nijúinde Dattarān; supreme court of labour jurisdiction; Igilaē
- Myingsamolno nijúinde Dattarān; supreme court of social jurisdiction; Tinglyū
- Tōyo nijúinde Dattarān; supreme court of administrative jurisdiction; concerned with legal disputes about administrative acts, usually between citizens and the state or between different agencies; Láoféi
The lower courts are organised on a regional (Gōsaeidaran) and municipal (Munchipaldaran) level. In the two biggest cities, Pyingshum and Finkyáse, cases of civil law or other (minor) cases can be dealt with at even more local district courts (Shottarān) instead of at the municipal court. However when after the court's decision the ruling is appealed, the case then advances to the regional court and is not again heard at the municipal court.
At 3.5 trips per day and person, Kojo has a comparatively high average mobility rate. Reasons include high female employment, age distribution and high division of labour. The average length of a commute from home to work is 11.7 km. At 410 passenger cars per 1,000 inhabitants, car ownership in Kojo is lower than in other similarly developed countries. Mode share, that is the share of trips (not traffic volume) undertaken via a specific mode, varies strongly depending on urbanisation and other local factors. The diagrams to the right display mode shares for the whole country as well as the 44 Surs, i.e. cities larger than 100,000 inhabitants.
Spatial planning encompasses two related tasks: to ensure a spatially comprehensive yet economical supply with public and private goods (from grocery stores over courts to department stores and major hospitals), and to plan the transportation network accordingly. In Kojo, spatial planning is carried out on the national level by the central government, and by the hibus and surs in cooperation with central government on the regional level.
It is based on the Central Place Theory which categorises settlements into four categories. This categorisation does not say anything about the political status of a settlement, but defines spatial planning goals about what kinds of goods and services should be available in that place. In a second step, there are nationally and regionally defined minimum accessibility thresholds, stating that from any inhabited place, one should be able to reach the nearest place of a given category in a set amount of time. Infrastructure is then planned accordingly. This process is under regular revision, with either transportation links being improved or, if deemed more feasible, placed being recategorised into higher categories to serve an underserved area. The four categories are:
- International Node (Mijizággai Noé): Metropolises that connect the region or nation to the international economy. In Kojo, only Pyingshum, Finkyáse, Kippa, Jaka, and Yoyomi fall into this category. Airfare infrastructure is concentrated on these cities, as well as international organisations or highly specialised service industries such as consulting.
- Higher Center (Hangshin): Cities that cover periodic needs, which includes amenities such as: cinema, large department store, hospital, a representation of the regional authority, theatre, higher education.
- Basic Center (Sōshin): Covers all necessities of everyday life. This includes for example: comprehensive options for grocery and some retail shopping, post office, bank, representation of the local authority (registering a car, collecting social benefits etc.), police station, local court, library, primary and middle schools, basic medical care.
- Phone Box (Denkan): Covers the basic necessities of everyday life. The name dates back to the early days of the telephone, when the government aimed to ensure that everyone should be able to reach a public telephone in the next village by bicycle. While those are now rendered obsolete by new technologies, Phone Box-Places still need to provide residents with a post box, a small shop to purchase the most basic food items and a bus stop served at least once daily.
The road network is hierarchical, with the different types of roads indicating different design standards as well as which layer of government is responsible.
||Link function||Design standard and access||Mapping|
Gimbye Kōfogótsu (lit. Gimbye Highclass road)
|G ##||National Agency for Planning, Construction and Upkeep of Motorways (national funding)||Long-distance||At least two lanes per direction with structural center-barrier. Grade-separate. Tolled with some exceptions in very rural areas. 120 km/h, local and temporal restrictions might apply.||Dark orange for two lanes per direction (trunk),
Red for three or more lanes per direction (motorway)
|Other National Roads
Dōdaeki Zóngtsūfogótsu (lit. Regional main through road)
|D ###||12 Regional Road Planning, Construction and Upkeep Services (national funding)||Interregional||At least one wide lane per direction. 50/70/100 km/h. Can exhibit motorway-like design features on heavily used sections.||Orange (primary)|
Dōdaeki Tsūfogótsu (lit. Regional through road)
|I ###, numbers unique only in each region||Road Agency of the respective Iki (aggregate municipal funding)||Regional||At least one wide lane per direction. 50/70/100 km/h. In rare cases exhibits motorway-like design features on heavily used sections.||Yellow (secondary)|
Hibu so Tsūfogótsu (lit. District through road)
|H ###, S ###, numbers unique only in each Hibu/Sur||Road Agency of the respective Hibu/Sur (municipal funding)||Link between or through settlements||At least one lane per direction. 30/50/70/100 km/h.||White, bold (tertiary)|
|Municipal Streets||Differs by municipality||Road Agency of the respective Pang (in Hibus, unless dependent Pang), Sur (in Surs) or Dengshō (in Pyingshum and Finkyáse) (municipal funding)||Access to adjunctive lots, no strong link function||Must be passable. 30/50/70 km/h.||White (unclassified)|
This section deals with regional and long-distance rail. For local mass transit refer to the respective articles.
Kojo has a dense and highly utilised railway network with a wide range of passenger rail services and freight operations. They are for the most part operated by Kojo Hyengshō Sanan ("Kojo Railway Company"), a state-owned company. Around 80 % of track-kilometres are electrified. With few exceptions such as mountain railways, railways operate on standard gauge.
|Name||Fare||Stopping Pattern||Maximum Speed|
|Demand-responsive||Only calls at major cities (at least 100.000). Some IC Sprinter-services offer non-stop connections between major metropolises, skipping all intermediate stops.||280/300/320 km/h on dedicated tracks, depending on rolling stock|
|Calls at major cities and regional centers.||200/250 km/h on dedicated tracks, depending on rolling stock, lower on shared tracks|
(Regional Rail Express, KCP)
|Integrated into local transit pricing scheme||Only calls at large towns and the most important stations in major cities.||160 km/h, 200 km/h in some exceptions|
(Regional Rail Semi-Express, KCS)
|Exhibits a KC-like stopping pattern on one and a KCP-like stopping pattern on the other part of its route. Usually used in the outer commuter belt of large cities.||160 km/h|
(Regional Rail, KC)
|Calls at every stop.||120 km/h|
Domestic air traffic plays only a minor role in Kojo's transportation system due to the country's size and an attractive road and rail infrastructure. The majority of domestic flights serve as feeder flights for onward international travel. The majority of international air traffic goes through one of the four national airports in Pyingshum, Finkyáse, Jaka and Yoyomi. These airports receive funding from the national government for capital investments, expressing their strategic importance to the nation's international connectivity. Kippa is the only city designated as an "international node" in spatial planning whose airport is not classified as a national airport. Its airport, like the other regional airports, are usually financed by the ikis and municipalities to boost local competitiveness. In total, Kojolese national and regional airports served 104 million passengers (departing and landing, domestic passengers counted twice) and handled 869,000 aircraft movements in 2019. Besides the four national and eight regional airports there are a large number of small airfields used for leisure (lózipō) or sporadic business flights.
|City||Code||PAX (million)||Flight mov.||Runways||Gates||Location||Notes|
|Pyingshum||PSM||67.3||489,000||4||110 (60 bridge, 50 bus, without arm C)||Map||Largest passenger and freight volume|
|Finkyáse||FIN||10.8||116,000||2||48 (37 bridge, 11 bus)||Map|
|Jaka||JAK||7.1||87,000||2||32 (TBM)||Map||2nd largest freight airport|
|Yoyomi||YYM||6.7||71,000||3||33 (23 bridge, 10 bus)||Map|
|Kippa||KIP||3.3||48,000||1||18 (8 bridge, 10 bus)||Map||Largest LCC airport|
|Pyingshum (Longte Puechaésa)||0.1||23,000||1||-||Map||Not used for scheduled flights|
KojAir is the largest airline operating in Kojo, and the only native airline of the country. As of 2021, it is the only operator of scheduled domestic flights in Kojo. Pyingshum International Airport is the airline's hub, most long-haul flights depart here. KojAir is a founding member of the OneSky airline alliance.
With an extensive coastline of almost 1,000 km and numerous natural and artificial inland waterways, shipping is an integral part of Kojo's transportation network. The nation's largest port in Jaka connects the country's manufacturing industry to the global economy. The largest river, Kime, allows for easy distribution of heavy goods to, from and among the industrial regions. Since the late 19th century, a number of artificial canals connects the Kime river system to Kojo's second largest river system in the east, allowing for continous inland shipping without transfer to seagoing vessels.
Passenger ferries most significantly serve as an inexpensive mean to cross the Sound of Pa to neighbouring countries Ataraxia, Wiwaxia and Izaland, especially for travellers with cars. Besides that, there are a number of both leisure and conventional ferry services on large rivers and lakes. For cruise ships, refer to Kojo#Tourism.
Kojo has a diversified market economy. The nation's GDP amounts to a total of 2,314,375,000,000 Int$, 57,850 Int$ per capita (PPP, 2021). Its main exports are services, manufactured goods, especially a comparatively small array of highly specialised high-tech niche products, as well as a subset of high-value agricultural products. The primary, secondary and tertiary sector each contribute 1.1 %, 26.6 % and 72.3 % to the economy.
The median income across Kojo is relatively even. Outliers to the top are the capital Pyingshum, Fóskiman-iki around Finkyáse with a very developed service industry and Pacchipyan-iki around the harbour city of Jaka. On the other end, the former industrial heart of the nation, Kippa, is still recovering from far-reaching structural change, and rural areas such as Lainyerō-iki and Degyáhin-iki can be found at the bottom of the table as well because these regions lack large urban centres of over-regional significance. Differences in cost of living readjust these differences to a small degree.
While income is spread relatively even compared to other developed countries (Gini-coefficient: 0.26), wealth is more concentrated (Gini-coefficient: 0.88). There are several reasons for this: the pension entitlements of the pay-as-you-go public pension systems is not accounted for as an individual's asset, a compartively low home-ownership rate (44 %), and a number of long-established wealthy industrialist families who were able to grow their fortunes in part over several centuries. The country's wealthiest family by far is the Dencho family, who all together hold 67 % of shares of Dento, the nation's most highly valued company. Seven members of the family occupy position 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 9 of the list of the richest people in Kojo.
The national currency is called "Zubi". There is no further subdivision of the Zubi into a smaller unit. The following tables show all denominations, whether it is a coin or a paper bill, what it portrays on the back and front and what these images are supposed to represent:
|1||Coin||Only number for the value||Small tree|
|2||Coin||Only number for the value||Small tree|
|5||Coin||Only number for the value||Small tree|
|10||Coin||Number with Globe in the background, cosmopolitanism||National coat of arms, patriotism|
|20||Coin||Number with Globe in the background, cosmopolitanism||National coat of arms, patriotism|
|50||Coin||Number with Globe in the background, cosmopolitanism||National coat of arms, patriotism|
|100||Bill||Arc of Unity (Dyenféi Kō) in Pyingshum, unity||Scene of Mountains in the background with a river meandering to the foreground, resembling the diversity in Kojo's landscapes (mountains, rivers, semi-desert, forest, farmland, coast)|
|200||Bill||Kids in a Kindergarten, pupils in a classroom, students in a lecture, education||Elderly resting in a garden, helping some adults with planting, being cared for, respect for the elderly|
|500||Bill||Soldiers in a battlefield, war||Wide landscape with villages scattered across; people come together to celebrate, peace|
|1,000||Bill||Ancient cave drawings showing stone tools from the stone age, history||Stylised scientific instruments, progress|
|5,000||Bill||King Surb Rēkku, unifier of the country, with his wife "the vein princess" Chihaya Nabun'ga from Hoppon, international influence||Map of Kojo, unity and sovereignty|
|10,000||Bill||Symbolic group of people, standing for the people's uprising in 1834 and the democratic revolution, democracy||The original copy of the constitution, with key words in large print, core values and constitutionality|
The current exchange rate is 1 Zubi = 0.0435 Int$, 1 Int$ = 23 Z.
The flat, irrigated croplands in the east of the country allow for intense and almost year-round agriculture. The western part in turn is mostly used for extensive pasture farming. The mountains in the north and east are used for forestry.
While fishery takes place along the whole coastline, the eastern region of Cheryuman-iki accounts for about 40 % of catch volume and 60 % of catch value due to the nutrition-rich waters and some high-value seafoods found in the area such as lobsters and oysters.
The mining industry consists of two major branches: in central Kojo, coalfields have played an important role in the country's industrialisation. Despite growing environmental concerns, competition from oversea markets and reserves running out over the last decades,a handful of coal mines is still active, mostly open pits providing coal for power plants and industrial applications. In the mountainous areas, especially between Busakyueng and Línai, several metal ores and other minerals have been mined since centuries and continue to be so.
The Pyingshum Stock Exchange is the country's main stock exchange.
Final Energy Consumption - Overview
|FEC by medium per year|
|Medium||Total [PJ]||Rel. [%]||Per capita|
|Electricity (all sources)||1144.22||34.7|
|FEC by source per year|
|Category||Subcategory||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
|FEC by sector per year|
|Sector||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
Final Energy Consumption - Medium per Sector
|FEC of Industry by medium per year|
|Sector||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
|Electricity (all sources)||438.08||37.5|
|FEC of Households by medium per year|
|Sector||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
|Electricity (all sources)||205.13||29.6|
|FEC of Commerce&Services by medium per year|
|Sector||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
|Electricity (all sources)||304.16||39.9|
|FEC of Transportation by medium per year|
|Sector||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
|Electricity (all sources)||196.86||29.1|
|Electricity Production by source per year|
|Category||Subcategory||Abs. [PJ]||Rel. [%]|
Power Plants (Electricity)
List of all offshore wind parks and all onshore wind parks over 50 MW installed power:
|Name||Installed Power (MW)||N. of Turbines||Off/Onshore|
|various <50 MW||19746||-||Onshore|
List of all coal power plants:
|Name||Installed Power (MW)|
List of all nuclear power plants:
|Name||Installed Power (MW)|
List of all gas power plants over 100 MW installed Power:
|Name||Installed Power (MW)|
|various <100 MW||1700|
List of all oil power plants over 100 MW installed Power:
|Name||Installed Power (MW)|
|various <100 MW||230|
Due to a wide variety of landscapes and cities, Kojo attracts numerous tourists from abroad and the country itself. In 2019, a total of 24 million travellers from abroad visited Kojo. They spent an average of 3.4 nights per visit, amounting to 81.6 million overnight stays. International travellers spent a total of 125.66 billion Int$, or 1,540 Int$ on average per night and guest (the average is inflated by a small number of affluent visitors who purchase expensive luxury and consumer products). An international traveller is defined as someone coming from abroad who stays for at least one night. Kojolese nationals undertook 189 million travels in total, 85 % of which (161 million) where inside the nation. On each inland trip they spent on average 4.4 nights away from home, or 707 million overnight stays in total. The difference to international visitors is largely due to the fact that a large portion of the national travel is leisure holiday; most national business travellers return home on the same day. On the other hand, international guests have a high share of business travellers staying only one or two nights, or city tourists that also stay only a handful of nights.
The most popular destination for leisure holidays - especially in the summer months - are the beaches in the south. Every stretch of coast is part of an officially named coastal region. They are used for marketing purposes, local identification or similar purposes, but do not indicate administrative boundaries. [MAP BEACHES] There is substantiate nature tourism in the mountainous north, with some areas like Toribiri and Góhomi even offering opportunities for winter sports during the winter months.
Education and Research
Kojo offers free education to all of its citizens. Visiting a school is mandatory up to the age of 16. Most parents (~85 %) send their 3-6 year-olds to public kindergarten. From the age of 5 1/2 to 6 1/2, children enter Káurēbi (primary school), which lasts 5 years. From grade 6 to 9 (4 more years) the pupils then visit Midirēbi (middle school). After middle school, the around 15 year old students decide whether they want to enter Zukkyamlu (vocational school) or continue to Shōminagara (similar to high school with a more academic focus), if they have an adequate grade average in year 8 and 9 and the final exams.
At a vocational school, students are introduced to job life by doing an apprenticeship and visiting school on a 30 % to 80 %-basis at the same time. Depending on the chosen training, they leave the Zukkyamlu after 2 to 4 years and enter the work force. Students who went to Zukkyamlu are not banned from university however. Especially in recent years it became more and more common to visit evening schools which allow Zukkyamlu graduates to enrol in university programmes fitting their practical training and job life.
Students who choose to attend Shōminagara pass through another 3 years of education, before they choose whether they now want to leave school and enter the work force with the option of visiting a limited number of subjects at university later on after a few years of job experience, or remain in school for 1 last years (grade 13). After finishing that last years and passing the end of the year exam in year 13, students are allowed to every subject universities offer, sometimes though limited by a certain average-grade threshold for very popular or demanding subjects. This score is calculated by weighting the results of year 12 at 1/4, the results of year 13 at 1/3 and the results of the final exam at 5/12.
Students are playfully introduced to a first foreign language from 3rd to 5th grade in Káurēbi (Primary school), usually Ingerish and sometimes Ataraxian. From grade 6 to 9 the pupils then visit Midirēbi (Middle School) where they continue their foreign language from primary school and also choose a second foreign language; either Ingerish or Ataraxian (mandatory to be offered at every middle school) or one of the other 11 official languages offered at middle school, of which every school must offer at least 2. Students going to a Zukkyamlu for vocational training can take language courses depending on their field of training, usually with a stronger focus on in-job application. At Shōminagara the amount of language classes a student takes varies between 1 and 3 depending on the course of study. Some private and especially international schools form exceptions.
Public universities (Ōnagara) are generally tuition free. About 10 % of students study at private universities which charge tuitions, however their degrees are usually slightly less sought-after than degrees from public universities. Besides normal public and private universities, there are also a handful of special institutions under direct control of the government with special tasks, such as the Kōkumin Ekól (School of Higher Administration) or the Ginken Sobul (Institute for Free Research).
Most subjects are either offered on a Būmal (Bachelor, usually 3 years) and Zangákka (Masters, an additional 2 years) basis, or in some cases are only offered as a straight 5 years programme resulting in the title Rōka (Diploma). Students studying towards their first Būmal are classified as Undergraduates, students studying towards their first Zangákka are referred to as Graduates, and researchers with a Zangákka or Rōka degree working towards an Ōkarong (PhD) or similar are identified as Doctorals.
The following list contains all institutions of tertiary education in Kojo:
|Finkyáse||Finkyáse Ōnagara||Various campi||1584||82,000|
|Jaka||Chuso Azugáki-Folajji||North of New Town||1786||27,050||Very autochthonous uni with 4 competing houses, focused on sport|
|Jaka||Forsamé so Ōnagara - Jaka||PH||1942||1,300||One of two universities of the armed forces.|
|Jaka||Tampo-Joelgue Ōnagara||New town north of main station||1806||15,650|
|Kippa||Kime Gigyōnagara||(Node TBA) Revitalised harbour area in the Old Northern Harbour||1976||38,600|
|Kippa||Kippa Ōnagara||(Node TBA) Former Musical College||1959||39,900|
|Pyingshum||Doldae Ōnagara||-Pang, Kibō-Dengshō||2,200||The only other (public) sport university in Kojo besides the well renown Chuso Azugáki-Folajji.|
|Pyingshum||Forsamé so Ōnagara - Pyingshum||PH||1971||2,100||One of two universities of the armed forces. Spread over two campi, Gaerié and Kanfel.|
|Pyingshum||Ginken Sobul||Building in the heart of Daiamondoshi-Pang||1710/1877||N.A.||Special elite institution for post-doctoral research with no teaching responsibilities.|
|Pyingshum||Ginjin Ōnagara||Various campi||1677/1837/1894||256,900||Largest Kojolese university|
|Pyingshum||Kōkumin Ekól||Building in the heart of Daiamondoshi-Pang||1850||150||Elite school for the administration|
|Pyingshum||Maeltsu Ōnagara||Raketéchonshae-Pang, Mezoérushi-Dengshō||1962||9,800||Private. Medical care, therapy and similar|
|Pyingshum||Maffyu-Taeldong Ōnagara||Dosō-Pang, Sasu-so-kyaeng-Dengshō||4,000||Private art and design school|
|Pyingshum||School of International Business Studies Pyingshum||Gankakuchō-Pang, Dosyaeng-Dengshō||4,600||Private, IBS and related subjects|
|Pyingshum||Yoelwe Aensaē Ōnagara||Lyaesh'uel Zyendō hakki-Pang, Porāgu-Dengshō||1982||3,200||Private, aviation related courses|
|Rō||Rō Tōchuekyana Ōnagara||xx,xxx|
|Field||Number of students||% of students|
|social/business sc., law, economics||30.1|
|health & soc. services||18.8|
|engineering, manufacturing & construction||18.2|
|arts and humanities||12.0|
|nat. sciences, math &IT||11.5|
BMS University Ranking
BMS University Ranking is an annual publication of university rankings and related publications by Bāraen ko Myanlyi so Sáratta (BMS, "Bāraen and Myanlyi's Rankings"). It is very influential and by far the most quoted source for higher education and research ranking in Kojo.
The Ōnagara so Sōbolsáratta ("General Overview Ranking of Universities", OS) ranks the top-20 universities in Kojo on a yearly basis. Its publication is of general interest in Kojo and often commented on even in national news. The ranking is calculated in a similar fashion to the field and subject rankings, however overall campus facilities, extracurricular activities, international reputation and more are also taken into consideration with a weight of 25 %. For 2020 the ranking went as follows:
|University Ranking (overall)|
|1||Ginjin Ōnagara (Pyingshum)|
|2||Chuso Azugáki-Folajji (Jaka)|
|3||Rō Tōchuekyana Ōnagara|
|5||Kime Gigyōnagara (Kippa)|
|9||Igilaē Uni PH|
A small number of special institutions with limited public access are not included, for example the National Administration School or military academies. Because sport and P.E. is not assessed as a subject or represented in a field, the Chuso Azugáki-Folajji in Jaka does not show up in the field or subject ranking, despite being the centre of an Elite Research Cluster and the second best university overall.
BMS also publishes a more nuanced Field and Subject Ranking (Dómaen so Sáratta & Senka so Sáratta). The universities are assessed on 6 points for each field and subject:
- number/quality of published scientific papers (20 %)
- employer/recruiter reputation (20 %)
- campus and research facilities (20 %)
- local connectivity to private businesses and research facilities, e.g. third-party funds (20 %)
- student-teacher ratio (10 %)
- share of international lectures and students in that field (10 %)
Because often there are several degree programs at a university falling under one subject, the winner of a field overall is not always the university with the best-placed subjects individually. For example, although Ginjin Ōnagara VI doesn't rank as the very best in any Natural Science, because it has a very solid standing across all engineering and natural sciences it still ranks as the third best overall. In 2017 the ranking went as follows:
|Field Ranking + Subject Ranking|
|Natural Science||Kime Gigyōnagara (Kippa)||Unzai PH||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Mathematics, Science and Engineering)|
|Mathematics||Unzai PH||Finkyáse Ōnagara|
|Chemistry||Kime Gigyōnagara (Kippa)|
|Engineering||Kime Gigyōnagara (Kippa)|
|IT/Computer Science||Unzai PH||Finkyáse Ōnagara|
|Human Sciences||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Education, Pedagogy and Human Sciences)||Finkyáse Ōnagara||Rō Tōchuekyana Ōnagara|
|Anthropology||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Education, Pedagogy and Human Sciences)|
|Linguistics||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Languages, International Affairs and Culture Studies)|
|Culture Sciences||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Languages, International Affairs and Culture Studies)|
|History||Rō Tōchuekyana Ōnagara|
|Literature&Philosophy||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Literature, History and Philosophy)|
|Social Sciences||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Politics and Social Sciences)|
|Politics||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Politics and Social Sciences)|
|Social Work||Geryong PH|
|Medicine&Psychology||Góhomi PH||Yoyomi Ōnagara||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Medicine)|
|Medicine||Góhomi PH||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Medicine)|
|Psychology||Yoyomi Ōnagara||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Medicine)|
|Organisational Studies||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Law and Business)||Igilaē PH|
|Law||Igilaē PH||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Law and Business)||Kwaengdō Ōnagara|
|Business Studies||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Law and Business)||Busakyueng PH||Tampo-Joelgue Ōnagara (Jaka)|
|Economics||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Law and Business)|
|Arts||Finkyáse Ōnagara||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Art, Music and Design)|
|Performing Arts||Finkyáse Ōnagara||Yoyomi Ōnagara|
|Design||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Art, Music and Design)|
To recognise highly competitive and specialised study, research and business clusters, BMS has classified nine outstanding Elite Clusters in Kojo, each associated with a university, that are at the spearhead of international research and education in their field. Characteristics are, amongst others, a large amount of private capital, local business networks, international student and lecturer body, and in general an outstanding reputation on the national and international level. These clusters are, in alphabetical order of their city:
|City||Cluster name (Ingerish)||Associated Research Facili(es)||Notes|
|Góhomi||Cancer and Hereditary Disease Research and Treatment Centre||Góhomi Uni PH|
|Finkyáse||International Fine and Performing Arts Collaborative||Finkyáse Uni PH|
|Hetta||Hetta Research Cluster for Bioengineering||Hetta Uni PH|
|Igilaē||Igilaē Committee for Kojolese and International Constitutional Law and Jurisdiction||Igilaē Uni PH||Igilaē is also seat of Kojo's highest courts.|
|Jaka||Competitive Sport, Education and Research Region Kime Delta||Chuso Azugáki-Folajji||Very autochthonous|
|Kippa||Mechanical Engineering Education and Research Cluster Kippa||Kime Gigyōnagara||Kippa is one of Kojo's traditional manufacturing centres; also leads BMS field ranking for "Science and Engineering"|
|Wenzū||Dento high-precision engineering research and development cluster||Wenzū Uni PH||Dento is Kojo's most valued single company, and high-precision engineering is arguably the most important export commodity|
|Pyingshum||Combined Intercultural Communication and Research Institutions||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Languages, International Affairs and Culture Studies)||Focused on the study of foreign cultures, languages, and cross-cultural understanding|
|Pyingshum||Ginjin Centre for Domestic and International Business and Economics||Ginjin Ōnagara (F. of Law and Business)|
|Rō||Kojolese Classical and Theological Studies Research Assoziation||Rō Tōchuekyana Ōnagara||In Rō the ancient Kojolese belief system is still worshipped|
|Unzai||Unzai Advanced Theoretical Mathematics Research Cluster||Unzai Uni PH|
Research and Development
There are three main pillars for research and development conducted in Kojo: universities, the private sector and research institutions that are funded by public and private money to varying degrees.
At universities, research is being conducted in the form of theses writing and research projects funded either by public research grants or private enterprises etc. The BMS University Ranking endorses outstanding research clusters associated with specific universities.
Many large technology companies also operate private research and development subdivisions, aiming more at applied science than basic research, to improve their products and efficiency. Especially when dealing with highly sensitive matters that are at high risk of being divulged to competitors, the research of often exclusively conducted in-house and kept secret until patents are secured.
Lastly, there are a number of private research institutions, which are usually specialised on certain fields of expertise. They usually cooperate with companies, universities or apply for research grants or private projects. Besides a small number of unaffiliated or loosely cooperating research institutions, many belong to one of Kojo's three big science associations:
- Gaminchāsal-Ríkinassol, xx institutes mostly focused on applied science, such as manufacturing, pharmaceutical, computer science and more. 30 % publicly funded
- Arákkanai: Sumaron Han'gara nijúinde Gaminchāsalkaso (Gaminchasal Institute for underwater technology)
- Todei-Fússan-Ríkinwúhakkai, xx institutes mostly focused on basic science such as particle physics, space travel, mathematics and more. Emerged out of the consolidation of the PH and PH. 70 % publicly funded
- Gaeryong-Wúhakkai, xx institutes mostly focused on topics regarding the humanities. Named after an Historian. 78 % publicly funded
The birth rate is 1.56 children per women, less than the 2.1 needed for a maintaining the current population. However, since decades the total population has remained mostly constant due to immigration outnumbering emigration.
The incarceration rate is 72 people / 100,000 inhabitants.
The native Kojolese religion is called Gitaenhōlyuē (from ancient Rōlese "gitenaly", "knowledge"), or Symvanism in Ingerish (from ancient Greek [ogf-vers?] "συμβάν" "symván", "event, happening"). Since the 18th century, the Kojolese faith had been in decline. Only about 0.6 % of the population (~1/4 of a million people) still pray to traditional Kojolese Gods and Goddesses. A notable exception is the city of Rō, where 37 % (~70,000) of the city's population still claim to adhere to this faith. Out of the 6.8 % of the total population who claim to "attend to a religion", the other 6.2 % are people with migration background that still hold the believe of their home country or parents. Christic denominations make up the largest collective, with 3,6 % of the population adhering to a Christic faith. Around 2 % of the population adhere to an Irfan faith.
The origins of the Symvanist faith are difficult to pin down. Its roots can be traced back as early as some tribal rites and traditions in the 2nd and 3rd century A.D. The oldest written records are from the 9th century, and the centralist organised religious community can be traced back to about the same time. There are three basic theological principles (called Shukkyubu) of the faith:
- the idea that the universe spontaneously came into existence (with the creation of earth by Gods and Goddesses following later on)
- that Gods and Goddesses are representations of fundamental principles of nature
- the concept of veneration of events and places (and saints associated with them), especially in regards to noble human values.
Gitaenhōlyuē knows seven ministries (Hartolifūgen, also known as sacraments). The sacraments in their current form have been established mostly unchanged since about 400 years. Strictly speaking they do not need to be carried out by church officials but usually are. It's considered especially desireable to carry out each ministry at a temple dedicated to that ceremony. They are seen as important rituals to mark major transformations in life. Traces can be found in contemporary non-religious Kojolese culture as well, most notably at birth, marriage and death.
- Baptism (Yeritatyaitchi): a ceremony where the newborn is ritually washed. It is similar to a christening, however in the Symvanist rite name giving plays no role. Many temples that fall into this 1st ministry are located at special water sources or wells.
- Confirmation (Jínchō): carried out on youths around the age of 14. It forms the completion of a two-months-period of teaching about the Symvanist faith carried out by a layperson. The young believer is then, after their conscious decision, ritually welcomed to the Symvanist church. Shrines of the 2nd Ministry are often associated with deeds of loyalty, fidelity and faithfulness.
- Remission (Kōkai): begins with a meditation of the sinner, who then writes their deeds out on paper and what they did to reimburse the aggrieved. They then proceed to burn these notes, usually in special fire places in the appropriate temple, and hope that the Gods grant forgiveness. It is one of two Sacraments that are not dedicated to a specific and single point in life.
- Marriage (Harsanīgi): Symvanism places high value on the ritualised bonding between a man and a woman. However, quite opposite to other customs, marriages need to occur after a child is born. The father and the mother then, together with their first child (later children are automatically included, although sometimes separate rituals are held for them as well), create a "family". It is important to note that every individual is only allowed to be in one of these "families" at any given time, meaning children leave their parents Harsanīgi when and only when they themselves marry. When a spouse dies, the other partner then may marry another partner, who then becomes the parent of the other's children. Similarly, when an orphan lost both parents, a couple may adopt it by including it in their (or founding a new) family. These differences to other Ulethan cultures still reflect in modern Kojolese family law, although the necessity to bear kids to form a civil union no longer exists. Temples where Symvanist weddings are held are usually unsurprisingly dedicated to events relating to close family bounds, loyalty, love, fertility or good fortune.
- Wake (Arkanāl): describes a period of 2 days and two nights (with exceptions made for victims of epidemics to reduce the risk of spreading the disease further or in situations of war), during which the deceased is kept on display in a shrine. This time is meant to give family and friends, but also neighbours and other acquaintances the chance to bid farewell to the defunct, who is often laid into an open casket. Temples of the 6th Ministry are often, but not always, close to cemeteries and relate to various events connected to death, grief, ascension or communication with ancestors.
- Intercession (Chūsai, archaic Barélhosutān): the second of the two Sacraments not carried out at a specific point in life. Describes the formal act of sending wishes to spirits, comparable to praying. This is done in a ritual similar to remissions, but instead of burning, believers soak their pieces of paper with their wishes on them in water so that they dissolve. The resulting mud is then spread on beds on the temple ground, and flowers or trees are planted in them. The petitioner may come back and water the soil to boost their request. Though there are specific shrines dedicated to this practice, the ritual is also commonly performed at all other types of shrines (with some exceptions where there simply is no space). Many shrines of the 7th Ministry are located next to other important shrines, where the Intercession of believers to the spirit of the original shrine has been "proven" over time to be fulfilled with a high likelihood.
Television is widely spread in Kojo as a medium of entertainment and information. There is a public and a large number of private broadcasters, many of whom broadcast on more than one channel:
- KT1 (Kojo so Telébizyon ara, "Kojolese Television One"), the country's biggest broadcaster, is a private media conglomerate that dates back to 1942, making its main channel the second oldest TV channel in the country and the oldest still in operation. The company's various channels generate a combined 26 % of all viewership in Kojolese TV. Its headquarters are situated in Gaerié so-Pang, Pyingshum. Its channels cover a broad range of topics, from light entertainment to high culture and political news.
- YKT (Yaére Kojo so Telébizyon, "Second Kojolese Television") is a public broadcaster and the second largest by viewership. It was instituted in 1961 as a separate entity from already existing public radio, as it was believed that two independently organized public broadcasting companies were needed to ensure unbiased news overage and reciprocal control. The viewership share is estimated to be 23 %. The broadcaster's headquarter is situated in Ojufyeng, with a large studio for coverage from the capital in Gankakuchō-Pang, Pyingshum.
- BKCH (Byoenbi Kojo so Chúngko, "General Kojo radio communication") provides public radio stations, both national and local, as well as Kojo's international radio station KR1. BKCH's radio channels account for around two thirds of national radio listenership. BKCH was founded by the government in 1947. The broadcasting agency keeps a studio inside the Humenyamin Chezi complex in Daiamondoshi-Pang, Pyingshum, next to the ministry of interior and with the main studio looking out onto the Jōbunhakke. The agency's main administration however is seated in Yoyomi. BKCH offers a limited number of online live video broadcasts, which have been rising in popularity and are a matter of ongoing legal dispute with the other public broadcasting company YKT.
- Nowadays, Kojo uses the internationally known 24-hour-system to divide the day into hours, minutes and seconds. It became widespread with the expansion of the railway network, which from the beginning operated on this more "modern" known from abroad system. Up to the late 19th century however, a traditional Kojolese system was used. In that system, not midnight, but sunrise was used as the reference point. From the moment of sunrise, "shilpa"s (the equivalent of hours) were counted. One shilpa is equal to one 12th of the duration from sunrise to sunset on the summer solstice. After sunset, the shilpa-count starts at zero again, counting the "dark" shilpas. As a result, the amount of day- and night-shilpas in a day changes throughout the year. Also, a shilpa would be longer in northern regions than in the south, as summer days are longer the higher the latitude. The counting system is therefore not used for exact time measuring in the modern world, however traces survived in the form of proverbs or set expressions.
- Because of the different wedding-culture describes in Kojo#Religion, last names in Kojo are not inherited. Once a new Harsanīgi is formed, the couple decides on a new last name for them and their children called nálnūm (literally "chosen name"). As a result, Kojo today has one of the most diverse ranges of last names, as couples can choose traditional or religiously meaningful names as well as neologisms. The choice of the "chosen name" is regarded as one of the most important step stones in live and is often seen as very telling in regards to the choosing couple's character. Despite the overall non-religiousness of the Kojolese people, the ceremonial foundation of a Harsanīgi and the proclamation of a new last name is one of the traditional rites that has retained a high degree of practice and prestige. Since 1989 there are legal provisions that allow couples who marry to choose one of the partners' as their new common last name instead of choosing a nálnūm. This option was introduced to accomodate foreign residents and immigrants, but is also used by around 5 % of the native population.
Kojolese, or Kojoshi, is the national language of Kojo. It developed from the Pyilser dialect spoken around the center-north of the country and is the only living language of the Kimo-Axian language family. Since 1701, the Romantian script is used in writing instead of the previously used Pyilser alphabet and Meilanese characters imported via Hoppon.
Standard Kojolese has eight vowels and 22 consonants.
Syllables adhere to one of the following patterns (V = vowel, K = non-final consonant, M = versatile consonant):
- V ("o")
- KV ("po")
- MV ("na")
- VM ("on")
- KVM ("pon")
- MVM ("non")
The glottal /ʔ/ usually precedes every syllable-initiating vowel, but is not regarded as a separate consonant in this syllable scheme; for example, in the place name "Kim'eru", /kim.ʔe̞.ɾɯ/ would count as KV.V.KV. When a syllable ending with a vowel is followed by a syllable starting with a vowel, under specific circumstances the glottal is not realised and the syllables merge in spoken language, namely when the sylabbles are part of what is consideres to be a single, meaning-carrying word part, like "kai" in "kaijōmengwe" (for "come together" in " event hall"). In this case, the word is pronounced /käi.dʒo̞:.me̞ŋ.we̞/ instead of /kä.ʔi.dʒo̞:.me̞ŋ.we̞/. This does not affect the formal sylabble pattern however which remains KV.V.KV.MVK.KV. The same goes for loan words such as "maeil" ("E-Mail", /mɛjl/ instead of /mɛ.ʔil/). Exceptions to this rule exist however, such as "a'éropō" ("airport", loand word from Franquese, /ʔä.ʔe̞.ɾɯ.po̞:/). The glottal always precedes a syllable initiating vowel when the previous syllable is part of a different word or word component such as in "osoingamsói" ("responsibility", /ʔo̞.so̞.ʔin.gäm.so̞i/). The glottal marks the separation between the oso-prefix and the rest of the word, while the final /i/ has no trouble merging with the /so̞/ since it is part of the same word part.
The letter Y (/j/) plays a dual role. It can act as a normal non-final consonant, like in "Yoyomi" (/jo̞.jo̞.mi/). When following a syllable-initial consonant however, it palatalises the consonant and is not counted as a separate consonant in the syllable-scheme, like in "Pyingshum" (/pjiŋ.ɕɯm/, KVM.MVM). Similarly, the consonant clusters "kw-" and "gw-" are interpreted as a single (non-final) consonant (/kʷ/ and /gʷ/).
Apostrophies (') are used to to mark syllables boundaries when the pronounciation would otherwise be inconclusive. This can be the case when it would be otherwise unclear if "ue", "ae" or "oe" are supposed to be pronounced as mutated or separate vowels ("a'éropō"), if "ng" is pronounced as /ŋ/ or a syllable ending with n and the next starting with g ("fan’goel", /fän.gøl/ instead of /fäŋ.ʔøl/), or if a "y" palatises or is a consonant in its own right ("Taman'yumi", /tä.män.jɯ.mi/ instead of /tä.mä.njɯ.mi/).
Distribution and Dialects
Spoken and written Kojolese knows three distinct registries, that is styles of speech depending on the communicative situation. They vary in the type of vocabular and grammatical features used and convey different tones of ambiguity and formality.
Tanōikishi ("acquainted registry") is the least formal style of speech and used among friends and family members. It is characterised by a high degree of ambiguity by omitting parts of speech conveyed by context and using words with a broad range of meaning (for example, Tanōikishi only uses six pronouns while Rikaiikishi uses 14). It features the least amount of loanwords from Ataraxian and Hopponese, however since the middle of the 20th century an increasing influence of Ingerish can be observed.
Kēikishi ("formal registry") is the polite form used with strangers or known people in formal settings (such as teachers). In tone with its formal nature, usually no parts of speech are omitted and there are several grammatical and lexical features for expressing various degrees of gratitude or social hierarchy. It features comparatively many Hopponese loan words, dating back to the early High Pyilser-Krun'a Dynasty when the Hopponese court of Chihaya Nabunga excerted strong influence on Kojolese aristocratic culture.
Rikaikishi ("scientific registry") is used in legal and scientific writing and speech. Its grammatical features do not allow for ambiguity unless explicitly marked as such. As a result, it employs a wider range of grammatical features and a more nuanced vocabulary than the other two registries. Due to the strong influence of Ataraxian Franquesse on the Kojolese legal system there are a lot of Ataraxian loanwords. Even most native speakers first get in contact with Rikaikishi during Middle School and have to actively study it in order to take full command of the language. While it allows for a very clear and information-rich style of communication, such as in scientific studies, laws or contracts, it is also criticised for creating a barrier for the less educated. This is particularly challenging when for example legal statements have a different or sometimes even opposite meaning to what a similar expression would mean in one of the other registries.
Vocabulary and Grammar
For a dictionary and an in-depth explanation of grammatical features, please refer to the main article.
Military expenditure accounts for 1.6 % of the country's GDP. It includes the army (Bánakin), the air force (Óduekin) and the navy (Paushil). Other subdivisions and associated agencies include the medical service, the military counter-intelligence service (Fanglyué-Jōto so Kyanfā, "FJK"), a cyber unit, strategical planning offices and more. The entirety of the armed forces are called "Kojo so Forsamé".
In Kojolese, Bánakin means both army and barracks. About 35,000 soldiers serve in the army, which are stationed at one of 30 bases (called Kázen), not including small non-military offices for administrative purposes. The soldiers are organised in 52 squadrons called Zóngkai, and only few bases house more than one of them.
The Óduekin (air force) employs around 15,000 soldiers, organized in four tactical units, two transport units (with the one stationed in Pyingshum also having a sub-unit dedicated to government flights), two helicopter units, two ground-based air defence units and two training units. Those squadrons are called pyoéton. They are usually stationed on bases adjacent to otherwise civilian airports.
The 8,000 soldiers serving in the Paushil (marine) secure Kojolese territorial waters and borders against military attacks (the custom office has a naval base in Jaka, and the sea-adjacent Ikis are responsible for sea rescue operations on their shores; the marine only intervenes in those duties when on sight). Like the army and air force it take part in missions abroad, both tactically and as transport units. Marine bases are called Pautang (an otherwise archaic word for harbour), and there are four of them in Kojo: Zúkshi (Cheryuman h.), Jaka, Arákkanai and PH near Zúkshi (Fóskiman h.).