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Have you been to Izaland before?</br>
Have you been to Izaland before?</br>
''Sai Izakis tanu i'''le'''ska?''
''Sai Izakis tanu i'''le'''ska?''
==== Simple Past ====
To form the simple past tense, the verb stem undergoes a change, replacing the last vowel before the simple present personal pronoun suffix with the thematic vowel 'i'. However, there are some subrules to consider depending on the verb type. The "purification" phenomenon (weak stem) persists also in the simple past form.
* Group 1 (verbs ending in C-asu, C-esu, C-osu, C-usu): "i" replaces the last vowel before the -su termination.
{| class="wikitable"
|+examples
!Meaning
!Verb
!Present (3rd p)
!Simple Past (3rd p.)
|-
|to ask
|kieresu
|kiere
|kieri
|-
|to fall
|tohpasu
|tohpa
|tohpi
|-
|to look
|ainosu
|aino
|aini
|-
|to make
|ukesu
|uke
|uki
|-
|to exit
|raisasu
|raisa
|raishi*
|-
|to cut
|dagasu
|daka
|daki
|}
note: raisasu's past theme is "raishi" since in Izaki the /si/ sound combination does not exist
* Group 1 (verbs ending in C-isu, C-yVsu): an "i" gets added to the previous vowel:
{| class="wikitable"
!Meaning
!Verb
!Present (3rd p)
!Simple Past (3rd p.)
|-
|to indicate
|hashisu
|hashi
|hashii
|-
|to open
|muiyasu
|muiya
|muiyai
|-
|to roll
|kurisu
|kuri
|kurii
|-
|to decrease
|menkisu
|menki
|menkii
|}
* Group 2 verbs, which end in C-VVsu, undergo a substitution of the last vowel of the stem with 'ki'.
{| class="wikitable"
!Meaning
!Verb
!Present (3rd p)
!Simple Past (3rd p.)
|-
|to buy
|moasu
|moa
|moki
|-
|to circondate
|rakaisu
|rakai
|rakaki
|-
|to fear
|ubeisu
|ubei
|ubeki
|-
|to protect
|tsuruasu
|tsurua
|tsuruki
|-
|to live
|paesu
|pae
|paki
|-
|to go
|isu
|ike
|iki
|-
|to hurt
|jingoasu
|jingoa
|jingoki
|}


== Conjunctions ==
== Conjunctions ==

Revision as of 13:32, 30 March 2024

Izaki
華邦語
izakigo
Official inIzaland
Also spoken inSouth-Eastern Uletha
Estimated number of speakers132 million
Regulating bodyIzaland National Academy for the Izaki Language
國立華邦語管理學會
Recognized dialectsWarohan, Juhuku`
Language familyisolate
Tonal languageNo
byakuji (百字) and askaoza (𖬮ᒢ𖬭'ᐤ𖬖𖬰)
byakuji (百字) and askaoza (𖬮ᒢ𖬭'ᐤ𖬖𖬰)
Norms of linguistic structure
Common constituent word orderSOV
Noun declensions
CaseGenderNumber
Verb conjugations
AspectMoodNumber
PersonTenseVoice
Adjective declensions
CaseGenderNumber

A brief manual of Izaki language, the conlang under development for Izaland.

Basically it is a language isolate, however many elements are inspired by Japanese, Korean and Finnish Languages.

Phonology - 音声学

Sounds

Izaki language has an average number of consonant sounds, and a limited number of vocalic sounds, making it a pretty easy to pronounce language.

Vowels

Izaki has 5 vowels and 2 semivowels. The 5 vowels can have a short or a long sound:

Back Front
Close /i/ /u/
Mid /e/ /o/
Open /a/

The semivowels are /w/ and /j/, and always occur before a vowel. The only exception is the /wjV/ composition, where V is a vowel (mostly /a/), like in the compound /wja/ (業).

Consonants

Izaki has 22 consonants, as per the following phonetic chart.

↓ Manner/Place → Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d c k ɡ
Affricate ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ
Fricative f ʋ s z ʃ ʒ h
Approximant j
Trill ɾ
Lateral approximant l

Syllabes

The Izaki phonology is strictly syllable based, and the structure we are going to explain followingly is so strict that also foreign loan words must be adapted to it.

To better explain the syllable composition, we will divide the different sounds into three categories:

V: the 5 vowels, short or long (a, e, i, o, u, ā, ē, ī, ō, ū)

C: the 22 consonants (p, b, k, g, t, d, ch, j, s, z, ts, ð, sh, zh, m, n, l, r, h, f, v)

F: the syllable-final consonants (n, l, s, r, h*, kk**) - only these consonants can appear after a vowel in a syllable, or at the end of a word. However, no words end by -h.


*h: it can be found in the final position of a syllable structure, and appears between a vowel and another consonant. The following consonant will be not voiced

Example words: dahkei (cliff), zhohtan (side), nihki (coast), rihmi (county), nehkeu (too much)

**kk: the geminated /k/ is a feature of the south-west dialect, and in current Izaki language only appears in the name of the city of Kikknās (Itakiri Prefecture).

A basic syllable can be one of the following kinds:

  • V any vowel, short or long
  • CV any consonant*, any vowel
  • CVF

Only non sonorant consonants (k, t, p, s, ts, sh, ch) and n, l, r can be strong (doubled).  

Example words: kaida (sword), miwa (water),  rekki (pen), noppo (spoon), keilo (route), shihkama (whale), kamitsas (everywhere), estinden (always), jīssu (to press), yokoku (notice), jāshiki (common sense), gūnyū (milk), hākei (total), keskwa (result), wingyōn (bank), inshēs (printing)...

Writing System

Izaki language writing system is one of the most articulated writing systems, making use of the Bai characters and an original composed alphabet called askaoza (邦記, or 𖬒ᒢ𖬭ᣟᐤ𖬖𖬰).

The Bai characters and the askaoza are not alternative writing systems, but each of them has a definite role. Basically, Bai characters are used to show the semantical meaning of nouns, verb roots, adjectives etc., while askaoza complements them, allowing variable parts of the speech to be declined or conjugated accordingly. This works basically as in Japanese with kanji and kana.

In the first section of our language manual we are going to learn the basics of the askaoza.

Main features of the askaoza writing system:

  1. One letter corresponds to one sound
  2. All the letter are by default adjoined with the sound “/a/”. No words in Izaki can start with a double consonant, while certain consonants can follow another one, but their representation is different (see later)
  3. The other vocalic sounds except for “a” are rendered with a diacritic symbol, on the left or on the right of the consonant.
  4. Single vowels are shown by a “placeholder” symbol, with the value of /a/ if no other vowel diacritic is present.
  5. The main letters are unvoiced sounds. The corresponding voiced sounds are marked by a dot on the top.
Roman alp. Character IPA Roman alp. Character IPA
清音 (seion) - unvoiced 濁音 (takuon) - voiced
K 𖬭 /k/ G 𖬭𖬰 /g/
P 𖬡 /p/ B 𖬡𖬰 /b/
S 𖬖 /s/ Z 𖬖𖬰 /z/
T 𖬮 /t/ D 𖬮𖬰 /d/
F 𖬌 /f/ V 𖬌𖬰 /v/
CH 𖬥 /ʧ/ J 𖬥𖬰 /ʤ/
SH 𖬔 /ʃ/ ZH 𖬔𖬰 /ʒ/
TS 𖬪 /ʦ/ Đ 𖬪𖬰 /ʣ/
H 𖬨 /h/
N 𖭑 /n/
M 𖬊 /m/
L 𖬠 /l/
R 𖬬 /r/

Vowels and consonant joints

Let’s take the first letter in Izaki alphabetical order, the “ka”: 𖬭 As it is now, we would read it /ka/, and not “k”, since in Izaki consonants are not stand-alone, and the default value is /ka/.

What if we want to give it the sound /ke/? In this case we need to add on the right (as this is the rule of the “E”) the necessary diacritic, called, in Izaki, tenkun: 𖬭ɭ

Thus we know that “𖬭ɭ” will be read as /ke/; “𖬭𖬭ɭ” will be /kake”/ and “𖬭ɭ𖬭” shall be /keka/

In the same way, we can write either ki, ko, and ku:

𖬭ᛁ   the “i” sound is made by adding a vertical bar

𖬭ᐤ  the “o” sound is made by adding a small circle on the top-right

𖬭𐐢  the “u” sound is rendered by an umbrella handle shaped element

Thus we can have these possible combinations:

𖬭𖬭ᛁ (kaki), 𖬭ᐤ𖬭𐐢 (koku), 𖬭ᛁ𖬭𐐢 (kiku) etc…


Let’s take a view to the main Izaki consonants with the 5 simple vowels:

Consonant A E I O U
- 𖬒 a 𖬒ɭ e 𖬒ᛁ i 𖬒ᐤ o 𖬒𐐢 u
K 𖬭 ka 𖬭ɭ ke 𖬭ᛁ ki 𖬭ᐤ ko 𖬭𐐢 ku
P 𖬡 pa 𖬡ɭ pe 𖬡ᛁ pi 𖬡ᐤ po 𖬡𐐢 pu
S 𖬖 sa 𖬖ɭ se 𖬖ᛁ shi 𖬖ᐤ so 𖬖𐐢 su
T 𖬮 ta 𖬮ɭ te 𖬮ᛁ ti 𖬮ᐤ to 𖬮𐐢 tu
F 𖬌 fa 𖬌ɭ fe 𖬌ᛁ fi 𖬌ᐤ fo 𖬌𐐢 fu
CH 𖬥 cha 𖬥ɭ che 𖬥ᛁ chi 𖬥ᐤ cho 𖬥𐐢 chu
SH 𖬔 sha 𖬔ɭ she 𖬔ᛁ shi 𖬔ᐤ sho 𖬔𐐢 shu
TS 𖬪 tsa 𖬪ɭ tse 𖬪ᛁ tsi 𖬪ᐤ tso 𖬪𐐢 tsu
H 𖬨 ha 𖬨ɭ he 𖬨ᛁ hi 𖬨ᐤ ho 𖬨𐐢 hu
N 𖭑 na 𖭑ɭ ne 𖭑ᛁ ni 𖭑ᐤ no 𖭑𐐢 nu
M 𖬊 ma 𖬊ɭ me 𖬊ᛁ mi 𖬊ᐤ mo 𖬊𐐢 mu
L 𖬠 la 𖬠ɭ le 𖬠ᛁ li 𖬠ᐤ lo 𖬠𐐢 lu
R 𖬬 ra 𖬬ɭ re 𖬬ᛁ ri 𖬬ᐤ ro 𖬬𐐢 ru

Here are the derived consonants with the different vowel combinations:

Consonant A E I O U
- 𖬒 a 𖬒ɭ e 𖬒ᛁ i 𖬒ᐤ o 𖬒𐐢 u
G 𖬭𖬰 ga 𖬭𖬰ɭ ge 𖬭𖬰ᛁ gi 𖬭𖬰ᐤ go 𖬭𖬰𐐢 gu
B 𖬡𖬰 ba 𖬡𖬰ɭ be 𖬡𖬰ᛁ bi 𖬡𖬰ᐤ bo 𖬡𖬰𐐢 bu
Z 𖬖𖬰 za 𖬖𖬰ɭ ze 𖬖𖬰ᛁ zi 𖬖𖬰ᐤ zo 𖬖𖬰𐐢 zu
D 𖬮𖬰 da 𖬮𖬰ɭ de 𖬮𖬰ᛁ di 𖬮𖬰ᐤ do 𖬮𖬰𐐢 du
V 𖬌𖬰 va 𖬌𖬰ɭ ve 𖬌𖬰ᛁ vi 𖬌𖬰ᐤ vo 𖬌𖬰𐐢 vu
J 𖬥𖬰 ja 𖬥𖬰ɭ je 𖬥𖬰ᛁ ji 𖬥𖬰ᐤ jo 𖬥𖬰𐐢 ju
ZH 𖬔𖬰 zha 𖬔𖬰ɭ zhe 𖬔𖬰ᛁ zhi 𖬔𖬰ᐤ zho 𖬔𖬰𐐢 zhu
Ð 𖬪𖬰 ða 𖬪𖬰ɭ ðe 𖬪𖬰ᛁ ði 𖬪𖬰ᐤ ðo 𖬪𖬰𐐢 ðu

Diphthongs

Besides the main 5 vowels, Izaki language also has s certain number of diphthongs, or gliding vowels, a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

Let’s take a look at some examples: 𐭘𖬭 kya, 𐩪𖬌 fwo, 𐩬𖬖 swa

There are 8 main diphthongs, rendered in roman alphabet with “y” (/j/) and “w” (/w/), and in askaoza these semivocalic sounds are shown by a diacritic on the left of the corresponding consonant.

Let’s see how it works with the consonant 𖭑 (n):

A E I O U
Y 𐭘𖭑 nya 𐐑𖭑 nye ᛚ𖭑 nyo 𐐓𖭑 nyu
W 𐩬𖭑 nwa 𐩧𖭑 nwe 𐐊𖭑 nwi 𐩪𖭑 nwo

Example words and sounds:

𖭑ᛁ𐩬𖭑ɭ niswae

𖬒ᐤ𐐓𖬬𖬒 oryua

𐩧𖬭𖬬ᛁ kweri

𐐓𖬒𖬪ᐤ yutso

𐭘𖬨Ꮀ𐐊𖬭 hyaakwi

𐐑𖬒ᛁ𖬖ᐤᐡ yeison

𖬌𐐢𐐑𖬬 furye

𖬪𐩬𖬒 tsawa

𖬖𐩪𖬒𖬨ᛁ sawohi

𐩪𖬭𖬨ɭ kwohe

𖬊ᛁ𐩧𖬖Ꮀ miwee

ᛚ𖬒𖬊 yoma

𐐓𖬊Ꮀ𖬨 myuuha

ᛚ𖬮𖬖𐐢 tyosu

Double Consonants

The double consonant is possible only with K, P, CH, S, T, N, L, SH, TS, and it is shown by a "^" diacritic symbol on the respective glyph.

  • KKA 𖬘𖬳
  • PPA 𖬇𖬳
  • TTA 𖬁𖬳𖬳
  • CCHA 𖬐𖬳
  • SSA 𖬖𖬳
  • SSHA 𖬔𖬳
  • TTSA 𖬑𖬳𖬳
  • LLA 𖬈𖬳

Only the "nn" rendering is different, as it is shown with a diacritic symbol before "NA":

  • NNA ⲅ𖭑
Examples
  • 𖬮𖬭 taka    vs  𖬮𖬘𖬳  takka
  • 𖬨ᛁ𖭑ᐡ hinan  vs  𖬨ᛁⲅ𖭑ᐡ  hinnan
  • 𖬥ᛁ𐩪𖬭 chikwo vs  𖬥ᛁ𐩪𖬘𖬳  chikkwo
  • 𖬮𐐢𖬖 usa vs 𖬮𐐢𖬖𖬳 ussa
  • 𖬮ᐤ𖬇𐐢ᐢ opun vs 𖬮ᐤ𖬇𖬳𐐢ᐢ oppun

Long vowels

In Izaki language, vowels can be short or long. This feature has a distinctive value, so it is important to notice when a vowel is short or long.

In the official Sanotari-Idanos romanization system, long vowels are written with a macron: ā ī ē ō ū, while in the less used Tagenas romanization system, they are just left as a couple of vowels: aa, ii, ee, oo, uu.

In the askaoza alphabet, to mark a long vowel, the diacritic “Ꮀ” is placed on the right of the long vowel syllable.

Let’s take a look at some examples: 𖬭Ꮀ kā, 𖬌ᛁᎰ fī, 𖬮ᐤᎰ tō

There are cases of long vowel in a CVC syllabe. In this case, the diacritic must be placed before the final consonant one: 𖬪ᐤᎰᐡ tsōn, 𖬬𐐢Ꮀᒢ rūs, 𖬨ɭᎰᣘ hēr

Greetings and useful expressions

In the table, some useful words in Izaki

Ingerish Izaki (romanised) Transcription (Izaki)
Ingerish Ingo 引語
Yes 𖬖⸠
No Na 𖭑
Hello! Ānjiwara! 𖬮⸠ᐢ𖬐𖬰ᛁ𐩬𖬮𖬬
How are you Soi yodeska? 𖬖ᐤᛁ ꓩ𖬮𖬒𖬰ɭᒢ𖬭?
Hello (formal) Āmajike 𖬮⸠𖬊𖬐𖬰ᛁ𖬭ɭ
Hi! (informal) Ānji! 𖬮⸠ᐢ𖬐𖬰ᛁ!
I'm fine, thank you. Nai tepan, dōmas. 𖭑꜉ 良ᐢ, 𖬒𖬰ᐤ⸠𖬊ᒢ.
So and so tepana, zushina / tenazuna 良𖭑, 悪𖭑 / 𖬁ɭ𖭑𖬖𖬰𐐢𖭑
Goodbye! Sokkiba! 𖬖ᐤⲅ𖬭ᛁ𖬇𖬰!
Welcome Witte edeseke 𐐊𖬮𖬁𖬳𖬳ɭ 𖬮ɭ𖬒𖬰ɭ𖬖ɭ𖬭ɭ
Please Inadeshiyan (indeshan) 𖬮ᛁ𖭑𖬒𖬰ɭ𖬔ᛁ𐭘𖬮ᐢ (𖬮ᛁᐢ𖬒𖬰ɭ𖬔ᐢ)
Thank you Dōmas

Dōmades

𖬒𖬰ᐤ⸠𖬊ᒢ.

𖬒𖬰ᐤ⸠𖬊𖬒𖬰ɭᒢ

You're welcome Dōmehisatta 𖬒𖬰ᐤ⸠𖬊ɭ𖬨ᛁ𖬖𖬁𖬳𖬳
Excuse me Karansekeni / Karanseken / Karansee 𖬭𖬬ᐢ𖬖ɭ𖬭ɭ𖭑ᛁ / 𖬭𖬬ᐢ𖬖ɭ𖬭ɭᐢ / 𖬭𖬬ᐢ𖬖ɭ⸠
Sorry Kuben 𖬭𐐢𖬇𖬰ɭᐢ
Good morning Tepan allaa 良ᐢ 朝⸠
Good afternoon Tepan katoo 良ᐢ 昼⸠
Good evening Tepan seikaa 良ᐢ 夕⸠
Goodnight Tepan nanshaa 良ᐢ 夜⸠

Nouns

Nouns in Izaki can be declined in singular and plural forms. There are no genders, as male, female or neuter. All the names are genderless.

Plural Formation

In order to make the plural form, you need to prolong the last vowel of the name and add “n”. If the name already ends by a long vowel, just a n is added. If a noun ends in a consonant, see the rules.

Nouns ending by vowel:

Meaning Singular (nominative) Plural (nominative)
water miwa (水) miwaan (水⸠ᐢ)
fire hunui(火) hunuiin(火⸠ᐢ)
man suto (男) sutoon (男⸠ᐢ)
woman natae (女) nataeen (女⸠ᐢ)
apple sugua (檎) suguaan (檎⸠ᐢ)
forest tsawa (森) tsawaan (森⸠ᐢ)
rice konu (米) konuun (米⸠ᐢ)
freedom jiyu (自由) jiyuun (自由⸠ᐢ)
nation kukka (國家) kukkaan (國家⸠ᐢ)
symptom byōshō (病症) byōshōhin (病症𖬨ᛁᐢ)1

1: nouns ending by a long vowel will add "hin" (𖬨ᛁᐢ)

Noun ending by consonants:

In Izaki, due to phonological rules, words can only end by: -n, -s, -l, -r. Basically to make the plural form, you need to prolong the ending consonant, and recall once again the previous vowel.

Meaning Singular (nominative) Plural (nominative) Remarks, exceptions
surface pyomyen(表面) pyomyenne(表面𖭑ɭ)
law pōrīs(法律) pōrīsshi(法律𖬔ᛁ) Izaki phonetics do not allow the /si/ syllable, which becomes /ʃi/ (shi).
technology gijus(技術) gijussu(技術𖬖𐐢)
wave moigon(波) moigonno(波𖭑ᐤ)
leg huinnon(脚) huinnonno(脚𖭑ᐤ)
fennel totsus(茴) totsussu(茴𖬖𐐢)
insect nās(虫) nāssa(虫𖬖) If the last vowel of the singular form is a long one (ā,ē,ī,ō,ū), in the plural form it will be a shortened vowel.
love saison(愛) saisonno(愛𖭑ᐤ)
docking rul(埠) rullu(埠𖬈𐐢)
God of the Sea kikk(𖬭ᛁ𖬘𖬳') kikki(𖬭ᛁ𖬘𖬳ᛁ) irregular word
moral tekeh(徳) tekehte(徳𖬁ɭ) irregular word

Cases

Izaki Language operates on 8 cases (格⸠ᐢ kakuun).

Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and verbs need to be declined in most of the situations.

  1. Nominative (主格, shukaku): the case used for the main subject, or the topic of the sentence. In the dictionary the nouns are in the nominative form.
  2. Genitive (属格, zukkaku): to express the possession
  3. Accusative (対格, taikaku): the case used for the direct object of a transitive verb
  4. Dative (与格, yokaku): the indirect case of a destination recipient (to whom)
  5. Essive (処格, shokaku): the case used to express the static position
  6. Allative (向格, hyānkaku): the case used to express the direction (to the outside, until)
  7. Ablative (奪格, daskaku): the case used to express the origin (from where, from when)
  8. Instrumental (具格, gukaku): the case used to express the way or the instrument of an action (with something, using something), and also used to create other expressions using added ending suffixes.

The following tables shows how some example words declinate in the different cases at their singular forms:

Case/meaning Addied stem (-V/-C) water tear gate wolf opinion day sugar
Nominative - miwa tsokke mua tsaikis wiken kato satā
Genitive add -n/-un miwan tsokken muan tsaikisun wikenun kadon sadān
Accusative prolong vowel1 miwā tsokkē muā tsaikisū wikenū katoo satā
Dative add -i miwai tsokkei muai tsaikishi wikenni katoi satāi
Essive add -s/-us miwan tsokkes muas tsaikisus wikenus kados sadās
Allative add -r/-ur miwar tsokker muar tsaikisur wikenur kador sadār
Ablative add -l/-ul miwal tsokkel mual tsaikisul wikenul kadol sadāl
Instrumental see below miwae tsokkei muae tsaikiso wikeni katou satāe

1: if the noun already ends by a long vowel, the accusative keeps the same as the nominative.

2: in the genitive, essive, allative and ablative cases (strong cases), nouns ending by vowel see a change in the last consonant, which becomes a sonorant if originally was k, p, ch, t, f, r, ts, sh, and preceded by a vowel. This phenomenon is called sonorisation of strong cases (強格濁音化);

Eg: lota (sheet) > lodas, taito (diary) > taidon, dasa (trunk) > dazas, niki (tower) > nigis

However, this doesn't happen with double consonants, and when the consonant is preceded by h or s:

E.g. dahkei (precipice) > dahkein, juska (son) > juskas

The instrumental

The instrumental case can be created using the “vowel progression system”, and the rule is easily observable by each vowel ending words:

  1. Words ending in a: add an -e
  2. Words ending in e: add an -i
  3. Words ending in i: add an -o (a diphthongization happens, so the word end changes to -yo)
  4. Words ending in o: add an -u
  5. Words ending in u: add an -a (a diphthongization happens, so the word end changes to -wa)
  6. Words ending in consonant follow the same vowel progression rule as above, but the ending consonant doubles
Meaning Nominative Instrumental Notes
water miwa miwae
hill oboe oboei
river sāri sāryo i+o contract in “yo”
color ahiro ahirou
bear usumu usumwa u+a contract in “wa”
employee shawin shawinno
beetle tendattan tendattanne
Sainðaul Sainðaul Sainðaulla
life seikwas seikwasse

Note: words already ending with a diphthong keeps behaving the same, except for V+”o” ending nouns:

Meaning Nominative Instrumental Remarks
lightning sasatsai sasatsayo
bell akau akawa
neck kea keae
tusk nekīkei nekīkeyo
mushroom hingao hingō* -ao ending names change the last “ao” to “ō”
port sāreo sāreu -eo ending names change the last “eo” to “eu”
glass tassuo tassū -uo ending names change the last “uo” to “ū”
actor haiyū haiyūa -long u ending names just see an added "a"

Derived cases

From the instrumental stem, by adding other particles, you can create some sub-cases.

  1. Comitative (with): -te (miwaete, with the water; tendattannete, with the beetle)
  2. Translative (to become): - nde (sāryonde, to become a river, jiyuande, to become free)
  3. Dedative (about): - nkai (ahirounkai, about the color; )
  4. Abessive (without) -ttan (saisonuttan, without love; gijussattan, without technology)

Another case, the istructive, is made by the dative bases:

  1. Istructive (with the mean of): - hte


Example sentences

I live in Sainðaul

Nai Sainðaulus paen. (我 作安崎𐐢ᒢ 住𖬮ɭᐢ)


The books of the student are in the classroom.

Hakusein kinoon kyoshisus yohan.(学生之 冊⸠ᐢ 教室𐐢ᒢ ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ)


Anna ordered two novels.

Anna shosessē kantsul chubun teki. (𖬮ⲅ𖭑 小説𖬖ɭ⸠ 二𖬑𐐢ᐡ 注文𖬁ɭ𖬭ᛁ.)

Plural cases

The formation of the plural cases sees the presence of a thematic "i" inserted between the root of the word and the case ending; the consonant sonorisation doesn't happen:

Case/meaning Addied stem (-V/-C) water tear gate wolf opinion day sugar
Nominative prolong last vowel and add -n/double the last consonant, and repeat the preceding vowel miwaan tsokkeen muaan tsaikisshi wikenne katoon satāhin
Genitive add -in/-en miwain tsokkein muain tsaikisen wikenen katoin satāhen
Accusative add -ita/-ta miwaita tsokkeita muaita tsaikista wikenta katoita satāheta
Dative add -hi miwahi tsokkehi muahi tsaikisshi wikenhi katohi satāhi
Essive add -is/-es miwais tsokkeis muais tsaikises wikenes katois satāhes
Allative add -ir/-er miwair tsokkeir muair tsaikiser wikener katoir satāher
Ablative add -il/-el miwail tsokkeil muail tsaikisel wikenel katoil satāhel
Instrumental add -i after the singular instrumental miwaei tsokkeii muaei tsaikisoi wikenii katoui satāei

Note:

  • When a noun ends by long vowel at its singular form, the plural nominative theme is "-hin", but changes in "-he-" for the strong cases (genitive, locative, allative, ablative) eg: fupō (illegality) becomes fupōhin (illegalities), fubōs (of the illegality), fupōhen (in the illegalities) ...

Personal Pronouns

The personal pronouns in Izaki language, are the following:

Sing. Plur.
1st Nai Naiin (exclusive), Nahu (incl.)
2nd Sai / Kisai Saiin / Kisaiin
3rd Han Hannu

The 2nd person gets an honorific form by adding “ki” (貴) as a prefix

Case conjugation:

Case I You He/She We (ex) We (inc) You (pl) They
Nominative nai sai han naiin nahu saiin hannu
Genitive naiyo saiyo haiyo nakiyo nahuyo sakiyo hanniyo
Accusative naka saka haka naika nahka saika hannika
Dative nakai sakai hakai naikai nahkai saikai hannikai
Essive nais sais hais nakis nahkis sakis hannus
Allative nair sair hair nakir nahkir sakir hannur
Ablative nail sail hail nakil nahkil sakil hannul
Instrumental nayo sayo hane nakyo nahkyo sakyo hannwa

The genitive, accusative and dative forms have also a suffix variation which can be put at the end of a noun or as a suffix of a verb:

Case
Genitive -ne -se -he -nehe -nuhe -sehe -hese
Accusative -ni -shi -hi -nki -nhi -ski -heshi
Dative -na -sa -ha -nka -nha -ska -hasa

Note: in spoken language hese and hasa often become hes, has.

Genitive suffix

My computer: Naiyo dyensanki - or - dyensankine

His wallet: Haiyo ðaifu - or - ðaifuhe

Their house: Hanniyo futaka - or - futakahese

Your smile: Saiyo hamiku - or - hamikuse

Accusative suffix

The accusative suffix is used after a verb when the direct object of it is a personal pronoun.

I call you tomorrow: Nai akae nakonshi (also Nai akae saka nakon)

She invited you (pl) to the party: Han uiraben chadoiski (also Han saika uiraben chadoi)

I love you: (Nai) saisonshi (also Nai saka saison)

Accusative suffix with reflexive verbs

Certain verbs are called reflexive, as the action gets back to the subject. In these cases, the accusative suffix has to be used.

I get up (I wake up myself): Nai tashitonni.

He washes himself: Han jipehi.

They wore up in a hurry: Hannu dunese tapukeeheshi. (eehe is often pronounced “ppe” in the spoken language > tapukeppeshi)

(due to the repetitive eehe in reflexive verbs in the 3rd plural conjugation, the ēheshi suffix often gets contracted to ppēs, especially in spoken Izaki: “(Hannu) Dunese tapukeppes.”)

Dative suffix

The dative suffixes can be attached at the end of the verb. Notice the changes when the verb conjugation ends by consonant.

He gives me some presents: Han kappareita tsotana.

Sanna sent you her ring: Sanna tamūhe ronusa.

They killed him: Hannu sazokeeha.

Possessing function

To express sentences such as “I have something”, the pronoun must be changed in the possessor tense, which is as follow:

Standard form Possessing form
Nai 𖭑꜉ Nara 𖭑𖬬
Sai 𖬖꜉ Sara 𖬖𖬬
Han 𖬨ᐢ Hara 𖬨𖬬
Naiin 𖭑꜉⸠ᐢ Naira 𖭑꜉𖬬
Saiin 𖬖꜉⸠ᐢ Saira 𖬖꜉𖬬
Hannu 𖬨ⲅ𖭑𐐢 Hanara 𖬨𖭑𖬬

Structure: Pronoun in possessor form, owned object (nominative), to be verb (conjugated according to the number of the owned thing(s)).

I have a bicycle: Nara jityensha yo. (𖭑𖬬 自轉車 ꓩ𖬮)

She has many clothes: Hara tasuin chuneen yohan. (𖬨𖬬 多𖬮ᛁᐢ 衣⸠ᐢ ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ.)

You don’t have any pride: Saira nashehen euna yona. (𖬖꜉𖬬 什⸠ᐢ 誇 ꓩ𖬮𖭑.)

For nouns different than the personal pronoun, dative case shall be used for the person/object who owns something:

Kaoto has two cars: Kaotoi takamaan kanki yohan. (敢斗𖬮ᛁ 車⸠ᐢ 2基 ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ.)

Has your teacher got a girlfriend? Hagiuppayaise nattaiko yoreka?

Prepositions of place

Rule: change the name in the genitive case, followed by the position particle in essive case

Main prepositions of place (位置後付詞)
Meaning Izaki Writing Example (with the words “table” (sawohi) and “” (house)
In front adae sawohin adaes
Behind odae sawohin odaes
On uino sawohin uinos
Over swori 𐩪𖬖𖬬ᛁ sawohin sworis
Under teano sawohin teanos
Below kauri 𖬭'𐐢𖬬ᛁ sawohin kauris
Next to muje sawohin mujes
Inside juitte futagan juittes
Outside toku futagan togus
Nearby haikan 近ᐢ futagan haikanus
Far from nantan 遠ᐢ futagan nantanus

Verbs

All izaki verbs, in the "dictionary form" end by -su (𖬖𐐢), and the part preceding it is the verb stem.

Verbs are conjugated according to the 6 pronouns and in 5 different basic tenses: present, simple past, perfect, future, and hypothetic.

Before other verb forms can be made one must first take off the infinitive ending from the stem, to which other endings are then added, cf. yuka/su ‘(to) think’ : yuka/ma/n ‘I will think’, yuka/ttu ‘thought’.

Some verbs have more than one stem, in which case one is formed from the other, e.g. i/su ‘(to) go’ : ike/n ‘I go’ and e/su ‘(to) come’ : ere/n ‘I come’.

Consonant weakening may affect secondary verbs stems, and we will see the rules in this chapter; e.g. nugi/su ‘(to) clean’ : nuki/n ’I clean‘ (consonant gradation)

Verb to be (yosu, ꓩ𖬮𖬖𐐢)

Yosu verb is the most important one in Izaki language, as it is needed to create sentences like “subject” is “copula”, or for existence sentences, such as “there is something”.

Personal Pr. Present Ing. equivalent Present neg. Simple past Ing. equivalent Simple past neg. Perfect Ing. equivalent Perfect neg. Future Ing. equivalent Future neg.
Nai yon (ꓩ𖬮ᐢ) I am yonan yoin I was yonain yolen I have been yonalen yoman I will be yonaman
Sai yos (ꓩ𖬮ᒢ) You are yonas yois You were yonais yoles You have been yonales yomas You will be yonamas
Han yo (ꓩ𖬮) He/She/it is yona yoi He/she/it was yonai yole He/she/it has been yonale yoma He/she/it will be yonama
Naiin yonne (ꓩ𖬮ⲅ𖭑ɭ) We are yonanne yoinne We were yonainne yolenne We have been yonalenne yomanne We will be yonamanne
Saiin yosse (ꓩ𖬮𖬖𖬳ɭ) You are yonasse yoisse You were yonaisse yolesse You have been yonalesse yomasse You will be yonamasse
Hannu yohan (ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ) They are yonahan yoihan They were yonaihan yolehan They have been yonalehan yomahan They will be yonamahan

As one can see, the conjugation rule is easy: -n for the first person, -s for the second, just the verb stem for the third.

For the plural pronouns, you add “-nne” for “we”, “-sse” for you (plural), and “-han” for they.

To create the negative form, just add “na” after the stem, and conjugate accordingly.

For the simple past, add the past theme “i” after the stem, for the simple past negative, add “nai”, for the perfect add "le", and for the future add "ma" (note that the negative stem "na" has the priority in closeness to the verb stem when other suffixes are added).


Example sentences

I am a man ( I - man - am): Nai suto yon (我ᛁ 男 ꓩ𖬮ᐢ)

They are doctors. (They - doctor - s - are) Hannu satsaan yohan. (他ⲅ𖭑𐐢 博⸠ᐢ ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ)

There was a bird in the house. (House - in - bird - was) Futagas fuwo yoi. (舎ᒢ 鳥 ꓩ𖬮ᛁ)


For the formal form of the verb, used when talking about yourself, or in general, to people who are not your acquaintances, or in situations requiring medium formality, the suffix “ra” (𖬬) has to be added before the person ending.

Personal Pr. Present Present negative Simple past Simple past negative
Nai yoran yonaran yoiran yonairan
Sai yoras yonaras yoiras yonairas
Han yora yonara yoira yonaira
Naiin yoranne yonaranne yoiranne yonairanne
Saiin yorasse yonarasse yoirasse yonairasse
Hannu yorahan yonarahan yoirahan yonairahan


Example sentences

I am a teacher (formal): Nai hagiuppaya yoran. (我ᛁ 教𖬮𐐢𖬇𖬳者 ꓩ𖬮𖬬ᐢ)

Are you a researcher?: Kisai kenkyunsha yoraska? (貴你ᛁ 研究者 ꓩ𖬮𖬬ᒢ𖬭?)


The aspect suffixes seen so far observe the following preferential order: (stem)-na-(aspect suffix)-ra-(personal ending)-ka

Other verbs

Izaki verbs can be divided in three groups, according to their ending:

  1. Ending by CV + su (Group 1) (as kadasu, nakosu, shirosu etc...)
  2. Ending by VV + su (Group 2) (as moasu, eisu, jingoasu etc...)
  3. Ending by consonant (n, s, l, r, k, h) + su (Group 3) (as odensu, kichoarsu, mahsu, etc...)

Present tense

Group 1

Verbs of this group always end with -asu, -esu, -isu, -osu, -usu. The vowel before “su” is always a short vowel.

Note that verbs show a phenomenon similar to that of the nouns' sonorization. In this case, the last consonant before the suffix -su, if a sonorant consonant (g, b, d, z, zh, dz, j), becomes voiceless (k, p, t, s, sh, ts, ch).

This phenomenon is called "purification" (清音化, seionkwa). See how the following verbs' stem changes accordingly (this is called "weak stem" 弱体 (zhakuche)):

  • kadasu (to arrive) kada → kata-
  • nugisu (to clean) nugi → nuki-
  • nebusu (to cook) nebu → nepu-
  • dagasu (to cut) daga → daka-
  • sebusu (to finish) sebu → sepu-
  • gindasu (to put) ginda → ginta-
  • rigusu (to run) rigu → riku-
  • wazasu (to divide) waza → wasa-

However, these kind of verbs have two kind of stem: a weak one (which sees this phenomenon) and a strong one (where the sonorant consonant does not change). In general, the weak stem is used to make the simple present, the simple past and the hypotetic tenses, while the strong stem is used to make perfect, future, situative, and participle.

To get up To fly To speak To run To ask
Personal Pr. Tashidosu Nulbisu Rihtasu Rigusu Kieresu
Nai tashiton nulbin rihtan rikun kieren
Sai tashitos nulbis rihtas rikus kieres
Han tashito nulbi rihta riku kiere
Naiin tashitonne nulbinne rihtanne rikunne kierenne
Saiin tashitosse nulbisse rihtasse rikusse kieresse
Hannu tashitohan nulbihan rihtahan rikuhan kierehan

You can notice the personal pronoun endings:

  1. -n
  2. -s
  3. verb stem (just drop “su”, and apply the weak stem, if applicable)
  4. -nne
  5. -sse
  6. -han


Example sentences

She speaks Izaki: Han izakii rihta. (彼 華邦語⸠ 話𖬁)

We run to our house. Naiin futakarnehe rigunne. (我ᛁ⸠ᐢ 舎ᣗ𖭑ɭ𖬨ɭ 走𖬭𖬰𐐢ⲅ𖭑ɭ)

Mr. Rihasamo asks (to her) her name. Rihasamo tana nakoriihe kierera, (高山 殿 名ᛁ⸠𖬨ɭ 尋𖬬ɭ𖬬)

Group 2

Verbs of this group always end by -asu, -esu, -isu, -osu, -usu. Before the suffix “su” there is a long vowel or two vowels. The present tense is basically the same as the group 1.

Note that these verbs only have strong stems (no consonant degradation happens)

To drink To hit To rotate To open To start
Personal Pr. Eisu Seosu Minbaesu Muiyasu Pwikausu
Nai Ein seon minbaen muiyan pwikaun
Sai Eis seos minbaes muiyas pwikaus
Han Ei seo minbae muiya pwikau
Naiin Einne seonne minbaenne muiyanne pwikaunne
Saiin Eisse seosse minbaesse muiyasse pwikausse
Hannu Eihan seohan minbaehan muiyahan pwikauhan

You can notice the personal pronoun endings:

  1. -n
  2. -s
  3. verb stem (no suffix)
  4. -nne
  5. -sse
  6. -han


Example sentences

Who opens the window? Naga tekaa muiyaraka? (誰 窓⸠ 開𐭘𖬮𖬬𖬭)

When do you start the game? Estin appii pwikauraska? (𖬮ɭᒢ𖬁ᛁᐢ 娯⸠ 始𖬮𐐢𖬬ᒢ𖬭)

They rotate the handle. Hannu rimeroo minbaerahan. (他ⲅ𖭑𐐢 舵⸠ 回𖬮ɭ𖬬𖬨ᐢ)

Group 3

The verbs in this group end by "-su", preceded by a consonant that usually is n, s, and sometimes h, k (rare), l, r. To conjugate this group verbs, it is necessary to check which vowel comes before the consonant, and apply the vowel transition pattern. See how the stems change in the examples

  1. Last vowel before Csu a: becomes ye (eg: kichoarsu → kichoarye-)
  2. Last vowel before Csu e: becomes i (remember that "si" sound becomes "shi") ()
  3. Last vowel before Csu i: becomes o (eh: jīssu → jīsso-)
  4. Last vowel before Csu o: becomes u (eg: lendonsu → lendonnu-)
  5. Last vowel before Csu u: becomes a (eg: sonomulsu → sonomulla-)

According to the ending of the verb, each sub-type has the following last stem consonant changes:

  1. -assu/essu/ossu/ussu verbs: asse/esshi/ossu/ussa + personal pronoun endings
  2. -issu verbs: isshi + personal pronoun endings 1
  3. -Vnsu verbs: VnnV  + personal pronoun endings
  4. -Vhsu verbs: VppV + personal pronoun endings
  5. -Vlsu verbs: VllV + personal pronoun endings
  6. -Vksu verbs: VkkV + personal pronoun endings 2
  7. -Vrsu verbs: VryV + personal pronoun endings

* V: vowel

1: -issu verbs, such as ogissu (to complain) change their stem into "ogissa-" (ogissan, ogissas, ogissa...)

2: -ersu verbs, such as numersu (to tow) change their stem into "numerī-" (numerīn, numerīs, numerī...)

The personal pronoun endings are the same as the other types

  1. -n
  2. -s
  3. only conjugation stem (the most intuitive way is to cut “-n” from the first person)
  4. h+verb stem last vowel+n
  5. h+verb stem last vowel+s
  6. h+verb stem last vowel
To push To try To twist To listen To scrub To convince To paint
Pers. Pr. Jissu Tsurahsu Yokansu Odensu Tederiksu Sonomulsu Kichoarsu
Nai jisshon tsurappen yokannen odennin tederikkon sonomullan kichoaryen
Sai jisshos tsurappes yokannes odennis tederikkos sonomullas kichoaryes
Han jissho tsurappe yokanne odenni tederikko sonomulla kichoarye
Naiin jisshonne tsurappenne yokannenne odenninne tederikkonne sonomullanne kichoaryenne
Saiin jisshosse tsurappesse yokannesse odennisse tederikkoisse sonomullasse kichoaryesse
Hannu Jisshohan tsurappehan yokannehan odennihan tederikkohan sonomullahan kichoaryehan

Example sentences

She listens to the new track. Han suyon kyukuu odenni. (她 新ᐢ 曲⸠ 聴ⲅ𖭑ᛁ.)

We paint the back of the house. Naiin futagan odae kichoaryenne. (我⸠ᐢ 家ᐢ 後 塗ꓶ𖬬ⲅ𖭑ɭ.)

I change my child's diaper. Nai mitogonne hucharii puhannen. (我 子ᐢ𖭑ɭ 𖬨𐐢𖬐𖬬ᛁ⸠ 変ⲅ𖭑ɭᐢ.)

Irregular verbs

The following verbs, as they have an alternate stem, have an apparently irregular conjugation pattern:

To go To come To do
Pers. Pr. Isu Esu Tesu
Nai iken eren teken
Sai ikes eres tekes
Han ike ere teke
Naiin ikenne erenne tekenne
Saiin ikesse eresse tekesse
Hannu ikehan erehan tekehan

Negative stem

By changing part of the verb suffix, you can create the negative form of the verb.

Yosu (to be) verb: yonasu (add “na” (無, but usually written as 𖭑) between the stem and the ending). This suffix tends to be in the closest position to the verb stem (weak stem if applicable), before other aspect suffixes. However in certain context, to emphatise a particular nuance in the speech, the order can be changed.

Examples:

I sleep: Nai luman; I don't sleep: Nai lumanan - I can sleep: Nai lumadan; I can't sleep: Nai lumanadan or Nai lumadanan (the previous form is preferred)

Group 1:

Tashidosu > tashitonasu (tashitonan, tashitonas, tashitona…)

Rihtasu > Rihtanasu (rihtanan, rihtanas, rihtana...)

Rigusu > Rikunasu (rikunan, rikunas, rikuna…)

Group 2

Eisu > Einasu (einan, einas, eina…)

Seosu > Seonasu (seonan, seonas, seona…)

Muiyasu > Muiyanasu (muiyanan, muiyanas, muiyana....)

Rule: for both groups 1 and 2 verbs, to create the negative stem, just add “na” before the -su ending, and conjugate the new verb as a group 1 verb.

Group 3

Jissu > Jisanasu (jisanan, jisanas, jisana…)

Tehossu > Tehosanasu (tehosanan, tehosanas, tehosana)

Tsurahsu> Tsurahnasu (tsurahnan, tsurahnas, tsurahna...)

Muppuhsu> Muppuhnasu (muppuhnan, muppuhnas, muppuhna…)

Yokansu > Yokannasu (yokannan, yokannas, yokanna...)

Chozinsu > Chozinnasu (choziwanan, choziwanas, choziwana…)

Tederiksu > Tederīnasu (tederīnan, tederīnas, tederīna…)

Bakkomaksu > Bakkomānasu (bakkomānan, bakkomānas, bakkomāna…)

Sonomulsu > Sonomūnasu (sonomūnan, sonomūnas, sonomūna…)

Nyukilsu > Nyukīnasu (nyukīnan, nyukīnas, nyukīna…)

Kichoarsu > Kichoānasu (kichoānan, kichoānas, kichoāna...)

Otarsu > Otānasu (otānan, otānas, otāna…)


See here the rule in detail:

- ssu verbs: insert “ana” between the -s ending stem and the -su suffix. In this case, the negative infix is always “ana”, regardless of the last stem vowel

- hsu verbs: just add “na” between h and -su suffix.

- nsu verbs: just add “na” between n and -su suffix

-ksu/lsu/rsu verbs: remove k/l/r, prolong the previous vowel and add “na” before the -su suffix

Verb group Negative particle
Group 1 na (𖭑)
Group 2 na (𖭑)
Group 3 -ssu verbs ana (𖬮𖭑)
- hsu verbs na (𖭑)
- nsu verbs na (𖭑)
- ksu/lsu/rsu verbs long vowel + na (⸠𖭑)

Past tenses

Izaki Language has two main past tenses: the simple past, which is used for a single event that occurred in the past, and the perfect, used to show an action that is complete, finished, or perfected, and may have consequences in the present.

Examples:
I met him last year in Sannupuri.
Nai indawose Sannupuris hakai sakin.

She found this hat under the bench!
Han ibematsuto hyondon teanos ononisen!

Our Mom has prepared dinner.
Īmanuhe seikamanā junbi tale.

Have you been to Izaland before?
Sai Izakis tanu ileska?

Simple Past

To form the simple past tense, the verb stem undergoes a change, replacing the last vowel before the simple present personal pronoun suffix with the thematic vowel 'i'. However, there are some subrules to consider depending on the verb type. The "purification" phenomenon (weak stem) persists also in the simple past form.

  • Group 1 (verbs ending in C-asu, C-esu, C-osu, C-usu): "i" replaces the last vowel before the -su termination.
examples
Meaning Verb Present (3rd p) Simple Past (3rd p.)
to ask kieresu kiere kieri
to fall tohpasu tohpa tohpi
to look ainosu aino aini
to make ukesu uke uki
to exit raisasu raisa raishi*
to cut dagasu daka daki

note: raisasu's past theme is "raishi" since in Izaki the /si/ sound combination does not exist

  • Group 1 (verbs ending in C-isu, C-yVsu): an "i" gets added to the previous vowel:
Meaning Verb Present (3rd p) Simple Past (3rd p.)
to indicate hashisu hashi hashii
to open muiyasu muiya muiyai
to roll kurisu kuri kurii
to decrease menkisu menki menkii
  • Group 2 verbs, which end in C-VVsu, undergo a substitution of the last vowel of the stem with 'ki'.
Meaning Verb Present (3rd p) Simple Past (3rd p.)
to buy moasu moa moki
to circondate rakaisu rakai rakaki
to fear ubeisu ubei ubeki
to protect tsuruasu tsurua tsuruki
to live paesu pae paki
to go isu ike iki
to hurt jingoasu jingoa jingoki

Conjunctions

Being Izaki an agglutinative language, most of the conjunctions tend to be enclitic particles or suffixes directly attached after nouns and verbs.

Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions connect words which are the same grammatical type, e.g. words, phrases, clauses. The most common ones are and, or, but.

  • Ta (𖬁) - and

I like rice and fish. Nakai konu ta miwee shintaha. (𖭑𖬭꜉ 米 𖬁 魚 好𖬨.)

  • Konae (或𖭑'ɭ) - or

Do you want tea or coffee? (tea or coffee, which one do you desire?) Cha konae kofi, sone pinnaraska? (茶 或𖭑'ɭ 珈琲, 𖬖ᐤ𖭑ɭ 望𖬬ᒢ𖬭?)

  • Estin (𖬮ɭᒢ𖬁ᛁᐢ) - when

When is your birthday? Oryukatose estin (yo)ka? ()

  • Baki (𖬇𖬰𖬭ᛁ) - but

I can speak Izaki but I can not speak Angerish. Izakigō rihtamin baki angerigō rihtaminan. (華那語𐐞 話可𐐊 但 𐐀𐐊ꓙ𐐠𐐁𐐂𐐓語𐐞 話可無𐐊.)

  • Tokkai (𖬁ᐤ𖬘𖬳'ᛁ) - although

Although she had arrived late, there was nobody. Han naronke kati tokkai, nagahen yonai. (𖬨ᐢ 晩ᐢ𖬭ɭ 着𖬁ᛁ 𖬁ᐤ𖬘𖬳'ᛁ, 誰𖬨ɭᐢ ꓩ𖬮𖭑꜉.)

Subordinating conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction is a word or phrase that links a dependent clause to an independent clause.

  • Waste (𐩬𖬮ᒢ𖬁ɭ) - because

Because there are too many people here, let's go to another place. Tochi tamatoha tasugureha waste, uren tolor iketān. (此𖬐ᛁ 人𖬨 多過𖬬ɭ𖬨 故ᒢ𖬁ɭ, 別ᐢ 所ᣗ 行𖬭ɭ𖬁⸠ᐢ.)

  • Nade (𖭑𖬒𖬰ɭ) - whenever

Whenever I am in Warohan I always get a fresh pineapple juice. Nai Warohannas yon nade, estinden karusugushirū moansen1. (𖭑꜉ 深灣𖭑 ꓩ𖬮ᐢ 𖭑𖬒𖬰ɭ, 𖬮ɭᒢ𖬁ᛁᐢ𖬒𖬰ɭᐢ 松檎汁⸠ 買ᐢ𖬖ɭᐢ.)

1 sen: emphatic particle added after verbs with nuance of exclamation

Demonstratives

In Izaki language there are three main relationships, marked by a theme (singular / plural):

  1. Close to the speaker: “to” (𖬁ᐤ) / “toi” (𖬁ᐤᛁ)
  2. Close to the listener: “so” (𖬖ᐤ) / “soi” (𖬖ᐤᛁ)
  3. Far from both the speaker and the listener: “cho” (𖬐ᐤ) / “choi” (𖬐ᐤᛁ)


The pronominal form (so, when a noun follows) , the demonstrative marker is followed by the suffix -na:

This is a cat.

Tona shinna yo.

𖬁ᐤ𖭑 猫 ꓩ𖬮.

Sona teshiki

That’s difficult.

𖬖ᐤ𖭑 難𖬭ᛁ.

That (one) is my friend.

Chona teikaoni yo.

𖬐ᐤ𖭑 友𖭑ᛁ ꓩ𖬮.

These are cats

Toina shinnān yohan.

𖬁ᐤᛁ𖭑 猫⸠ᐢ ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ.

Those are difficult

Soina teshikihan.

𖬖ᐤᛁ𖭑 難𖬭ᛁ𖬨ᐢ.

Those (ones) are my friends.

Choina teikaōnni yohan.

𖬐ᐤᛁ𖭑 友⸠ⲅ𖭑ᛁ ꓩ𖬮𖬨ᐢ.


The adjectival form instead is attached at the ending of the word:

This cat is white.

Shinnato chara.

猫𖬁ᐤ 白.

That pencil is mine.

Enpisso naiyo yora.

鉛筆𖬖ᐤ 𖭑꜉ꓩ𖬮 ꓩ𖬮𖬬.

That friend lives in Riyatoma.

Teikaocho Riyatomas paera.

友𖬐ᐤ 追庥ᒢ 住𖬬.

These cats are white.

Shinnaāntoi charahan.

猫⸠ᐢ𖬁ᐤᛁ 白𖬨ᐢ.

Those pencils are mine.

Enpisshisoi naiyo yorahan.

鉛筆𖬖ᐤᛁ 𖭑꜉ꓩ𖬮 ꓩ𖬮𖬬𖬨ᐢ.

Those friends live in Riyatoma.

Teikaōnchoi Riyatomas paerahan.

友⸠ᐢ𖬐ᐤᛁ 追庥ᒢ 住𖬬𖬨ᐢ.

Numerals

Cardinal numbers

Izaki language has two different numeral system: the native one, and the Bai-derived one.

Legend
  • Sūzhi (數字) - number
  • Kundoku (訓讀) - "kun" reading (indigenous reading prior to the Bai contamination, still used in many contexts)
  • Ēndoku (音讀) - "ēn" (Bai) reading (introduced in the 3rd century with the Bai characters, and main way of counting)
  • Daipo - shortened form (used when making compounds and with element counters that require the kun reading)
  • Byakuzhi (百字) - Ideogram (some numbers have more than one form)
Sūzhi Kundoku Ēndoku Daipo Byakuzhi
0 dzèro / janna ryen -
1 hatta is han- 壱/一
2 kana ni kan- 弐/二
3 shobe san sho- 参/三
4 tās tsi tās-
5 oriba yo ori-
6 tsonaha nuku tson-
7 doigi chis doi-
8 yeison pas yei-
9 taguken ku tak-/-taken
10 kiba shū kin- 拾/十
11 kinnan shūis
12 kinkan shūni
13 kinsho shūsan
14 kintās shūtsi
15 kinnori shūyo
16 kintson shūnuku
17 kindoi shūchis
18 kinnyei shūpas
19 kintaken shūku
20 kankiba nishū
30 shokiba sanshū
40 tāskiba tsishū
50 orikiba yoshū
60 tsonkiba nukushū
70 doikiba chisshū
80 yeikiba passhū
90 takkiba kushū
100 rae pyaku
532 ollaeshokibakan yopyakusanshūni
1000 kitua sen kitu
8726 yeikitudoiraekankibatson passenchispyaku-nishūnuku
10000 - man
524.998 - yoshūniman-passenkupyaku-kushūpas

Ordinal numbers

There are two ways of making ordinal numbers:

  1. Prefix 第~ (zhei)
  2. Suffix ~番 (ban, or pan if the previous number ends by consonant)

'Examples':

  • 第三回 Zheisanhwi (the third time)
  • 17番 Shūchispan (17th)

Object counters

To count specific object or people, special classificators have to be used together with a numbering system. Some of them prefer native Izaki numbers (shortened form) while some others prefer the Bai numerals. There is no rule, so it comes easier to rember each of them.

Main counters working with native numerals
  • Animals: nau 獣/𖭑'𐐢
  • Inanimate objects: gi 𖬭𖬰ᛁ
  • Plants: tare 植/𖬁𖬬ɭ
  • People: ri 人
  • Machines: ki 機
  • Books: tsul 冊/𖬑𐐢ᐡ
  • Drinks and cups: chae 杯
Number Animals In. Obj. People Machine Books Drinks
1 hannau hangi hanli hanki hantsul hanchae
2 kannau kangi kanli kanki kantsul kanchae
3 shonau shogi shori shoki shotsuk shochae
4 tāsnau tāski tāsli tāski tāhsul tāschae
5 orinau origi oriri oriki oritsul orichae
6 tsonnau tsonaki tsonari tsonaki tsonatsul tsonachae
7 doinau doiki doiri doiki doitsul doichae
8 yeinau yeiki yeiri yeiki yeitsul yeichae
9 tannau takki tanli takki tahtsul tacchae
10 kinnau kinki kinli kinki kintsul kinchae
11 shūinnau shūiski shūisli shūiski shūihsul shūischae
Main counters working with Bai numerals
  • Times: hwi 回
  • Floors (in a building): sūn 層
  • Degrees: do 度
  • Number of days: nis 日
  • Flat objects: chān 張
  • Cylindrical objects, trains, movies: pon 本
Number Times Floors Degrees Days Flat objects Cylindric objects
1 isshwi issūn isto isnis ischān ispon
2 nihwi nisūn nido ninis nichān nipon
3 sanhwi sansūn sando sannis sanchān sanbon
4 tsihwi tsisūn tsido tsinis tsichān tsipon
5 yohwi yosūn yodo yonis yochān yopon
6 nukkwi nukusūn nukudo nukunis nukuchān nukupon
7 chisshwi chissūn chisto chisnis chischān chispon
8 passhwi passūn pasto pasnis paschān paspon
9 kuhwi kusūn kudo kunis kuchān kupon
10 shūhwi shūsūn shūdo shūnis shūchān shūpon
11 shūisshwi shūissūn shūisto shūisnis shūischān shūispon

Dates

Typically the order for dates is YYYY-MM-DD. Dates are formulated with the number followed by 年(nyen), 月 (wes), 日 (nis). The numeral takes the Bai reading.

  • 1958年3月21日 : Senkupyakuyoshūpasnyen Sannwes Nishūisnis
  • 2023年6月10日: Nisennishūsannen Nukuwes Shūnis

Days of the month

Days of the month also have an Izaki native form with the pure numerals (with some irregularities) tsofollowed by (日 / ka) until day 10 (after which, the Bay version takes over. When dates are complete (YYYY-MM-DD) the Bai reading is used, while the Izaki reading prevails when we need to mention just the day of the month in the middle of a conversation.

  • 1日 hanaka
  • 2日 kanaka
  • 3日 shobeka
  • 4日 tāska
  • 5日 oryeka
  • 6日 tsonahka
  • 7日 doikka / doigika
  • 8日 yeisonka
  • 9日 takugenka / tōkenka
  • 10日 kibaka

Weekdays

  • Monday: 月曜日 wesshonis
  • Tuesday: 火曜日 hayonis
  • Wednesday: 週中日 chujunis
  • Thursday: 木曜日 mukuyonis
  • Friday: 金曜日 kinnyonis
  • Saturday: 土曜日 toyonis
  • Sunday: 日曜日 nisshonis

Months

In Izaki there are two versions to call the months: the Bai-imported one (the most used one), and the native Izaki one.

Bai Months
  • January: 一月 isswes
  • February: 二月 niwes
  • March: 三月 sannwes
  • April: 四月 tsiwes
  • May: 五月 yowes
  • June: 六月 nukuwes
  • July: 七月 chisswes
  • August: 八月 passwes
  • September: 九月 kuwes
  • October: 十月 shūwes
  • November: 十一月 shūisswes
  • December: 十二月 shūniwes

Adjectives

Adjectives in the Izaki language are essential for describing and modifying nouns. They can be categorized into two main groups: Verbal adjectives and substantive adjectives, each with its unique usage and conjugation rules.

Verbal Adjectives

Verbal adjectives in Izaki incorporate the copula within themselves, making them self-sufficient in sentences. These adjectives have their conjugation system and typically end with the suffix "na," which is always written in askaoza script. Here are some examples:

Some adjectives and their opposites
Izaki Ingerish Izaki Ingerish
tepana good zushina bad
rihana tall sosana short
nuskana wide hyakona narrow
kakuina small ōdana large
pakkuna red
satsona blue
asatsana difficult issana easy
nahana beautiful egutana ugly

When used in the predicative form, such as in sentences like "The house is big," these adjectives are placed at the end of the sentence, replacing the verb. The "na" suffix is removed, and additional suffixes, if required, can be added. For example:

  • The house is big (informal speech): Futaka ōda.
  • The house is big (formal speech): Futaka ōdara.

Here, it's essential to conjugate the adjective according to the number and relationship of the subject:

  • I am tall: Nai rihan. (𖭑ᐟ𖭐 高ᐢ)
  • You are fast: Sai jakus. (𖬖ᐟ𖭐 速ᒢ)
  • Are we good? Naiha tepanneka? (𖭑ᐟ𖭐 良フ𖭑ɭ𖬭)
  • Those are cheap: Hannu waruhan. (𖬨フ𖭑𐐢 廉𖬨ᐢ)
  • The houses are big: Futakān ōdarahan. (舎։ᐢ 大𖬬𖬨ᐢ)

However, ofter in informal spoken Izaki, it is possible to conjugate the adjective into the third singular person (which means, just dropping "na") even with plural nouns.

Eg: The mountains are beautiful: Samōn naha (山։ᐢ 美)

Substantival adjectives

Substantival adjectives, on the other hand, require a verb to follow them when used in sentences. They don't incorporate the copula within themselves like verbal adjectives do. Usually, these adjectives are based on Bai compound words (so, to be read with "on" reading). Here are some examples:

Izaki Reading English
簡単𖭑 kantanna easy
複雑𖭑 pukuzhasna complicated
便利𖭑 bīnlina convenient
不便𖭑 fubīnna inconvenient
有名𖭑 yumeina famous
親切𖭑 shinsesna kind
不親切𖭑 fushinsesna unkind
人気𖭑 zhinkina popular
可能𖭑 kanōnna possible
無理𖭑 murina impossible
大事𖭑 daishina important
些細𖭑 sasaena unimportant
十分𖭑 shūpunna sufficient
不足𖭑 fusokuna insufficient

When in predicative tense, these adjectives need the verb "yosu" (to be) at their end.

Eg. Your excuses are not sufficient. Ihisoīnse fusoku yorahan (事訳։ᐢ𖬖ɭ 不足 ꓩ𖬮𖬬𖬨ᐢ)

Attributive Form

When an adjective functions as a specifier for a noun, rather than as the predicate, it takes on an attributive form. In the present tense, this is done by adding a "-n" after the adjective stem.

In the case of a plural noun, the suffix will be "-han." For example:

  • A fast train: Jakun dyensha.
  • A tall person: Rihan tamato.
  • A beautiful scenery: Nahan pūnkei.
  • A pretty expensive car: Sorei shumun zhidōnsha.
  • Good boys: Tepahan sertōn.

Mastering adjectives in Izaki is crucial for effective communication and expression in this unique and beautiful language.

Understanding the differences between verbal and substantival adjectives, as well as how adverbs can modify their meanings, is essential for fluency.

Additionally, the attributive form allows for rich and descriptive expressions when specifying nouns.

Comparative and Superlative forms

Adjectives in comparative and superlative forms are used to compare and contrast the qualities or characteristics of nouns.

The comparative form of an adjective is used to compare two or more nouns, indicating which one has a higher or lower degree of the quality described by the adjective.

Examples:

  • She is taller than him. Hanno hanenti rihaebe (𖬨ᐢ女 𖬨𖭑ɭᐢ𖬣𖭐 高𖬒ɭ𖬡𖬰ɭ)
  • This book is more interesting than that one. Kinotso tsultsounti huunminakoube (冊𖬑ᐤ 冊𖬑ᐤ𖬒𐐢ᐢ𖬣𖭐 興味喚𐐢𖬡𖬰ɭ)

The superlative form of an adjective is used to indicate the highest or lowest degree of the quality described by the adjective within a group or among all possibilities.

Examples:

  • Mount Torahashi is the tallest mountain in Izaland. Torahashisan Izakin rihajin samo yora. (斗砢跖山 華邦ᐢ 高𖬥𖬰𖭐ᐢ 山 ꓩ𖬮𖬬.)
  • She is the most talented musician in the group. Hanno runomen yusainoonnajin onlakka yora (𖬨ᐢ女 団ᐢ 有才能𖭑𖬥𖬰𖭐ᐢ 音楽家 ꓩ𖬮𖬬)

Adverbs

In Izaki, adverbs play a significant role in modifying the meaning of adjectives and verbs. Here are some common adverbs in Izaki:

Adverbial Modifiers in Izaki Language
Adverbial Modifier Izaki Term Example Sentences
Not particularly, not too much nehkeu (𖭑ɭᐪ𖬭ɭ𐐢)1 This camera is not so good: Kamerata nehkeu tepana.
His dog is not too heavy: Tentohe nehkeu dayana.
Quite, pretty much sorei (𖬖ᐤ𖬬ᥫ) Sainđaul is quite expensive: Sainđaul sorei shumu.
She is pretty tall: Hara shinchān sorei riha.
A little, slightly yaki (𝖩𖬮𖬭𖭐) This PC is a bit slow: Dyennautso yaki naro.
Really, absolutely kelleri (𖬭ɭフ𖬈ɭ𖬬𖭐) You are really beautiful: Sai kelleri nahas.
We are really sorry: Nahu kelleri achaikanne.
Extremely, notably pisānnan (非常𖭑ᐢ) This is an extremely difficult problem: Tsona pisānnan teshikin munðai yora.
  • 1: often used with negative form