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Difference between revisions of "User:Leowezy/Dictionary"

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==Time and Date==
 
==Time and Date==
===Months===
+
{|
 +
|'''Months'''
 
*Arhash (py)
 
*Arhash (py)
 
*Petesh (py)
 
*Petesh (py)
Line 1,654: Line 1,655:
 
py = pyilser, hp = hopponese, ax = ataraxian ethymology
 
py = pyilser, hp = hopponese, ax = ataraxian ethymology
  
===Days of the week===
+
||'''Days of the week'''
 
*Kantau
 
*Kantau
*
+
*x
*
+
*x
*
+
*x
 
*Urban / Ūban
 
*Urban / Ūban
*
+
*x
*
+
*x
 +
|}
  
 
==Pronouns and Determiners==
 
==Pronouns and Determiners==

Revision as of 14:42, 18 December 2021

Nouns

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
acchōfu government executive
aekko draft sketch
aenkaiwe stadium
aenlai aircraft K.I., R.I.
aentágyu forest (area)
aentē forest R.I.: forest biotope
a'éropō airport
ajji next station
alshokku breakfast K.I.
alshū morning
alshūs morning (archaic)
altífōwe archive
am rain
amha summer T.I., K.I.
amrong castle built on top of a ridge or hill
ánal analysis
arem sun
arhazi first station
arihang archery
ashkal world T.I., K.I.
ashkan work service
ashkínoe autumn T.I., K.I.
assol union (not labour unions)
ātsu coal
azaggu nation
B
baélzi last station direction of a train
balgafáchūm prosperity control
bálkon balcony
Bánakin army (military)
bappoeregwol proceeding process R.I.: provision (clause that offers exception to a law) K.I., R.I.
buéro city office/department
Būmal equiv. Of a Bachelor's degree
byoengwe hospital
C
chai page sheet
champyonsaē waterway
cheryu white
cho forest (place names)
chóntse opportunity option to do sth. R.I.
chúju fluency
D
Daebi brother T.I.
Dáhano Administration
darasushan age era
dattarān supreme court
denching telecommunication
denkan telephone box
densoi telephone
dígwansol diplomatic mission embassy staff
do point
dómaen discipline field of study/work
duére executive order directive
Dyandoesha Ingerland
E
efoengzon quarry pit opencast mine
ekkaem view point on a langluet/on a coast
éshkim fencing
esshae war battle T.I., K.I.
F
fan’goel place of work
fármasi pharmacy T.I., K.I.
fōbal (lui) (for) example
foeton freight
Forsamé armed forces
fóski gold
F
gafamdoen duty task function
gangmi ocean
gántsu treasure
gáronti guarantee responsibility for correctness R.I.
gekkwae theatre
Gimbye kōfogótsu Motorway (in Kojo)
gipun science (broad)
gisshae K.I.: night R.I.: time between sunset and sunrise K.I., R.I.
góbal allowance flat-rate
gōf golf
gōsaeidaran regional court
gukyaei property R.I.
H
hael’yéron qualification eligibilty competence meeting a required criterion
Hainye father K.I.
hakkāyue issue matter affair
hakke convention
halim leaf
hāmaeltai municipality
han'gara technology
hīmchi basis fundament
hipparā construction site T.I., K.I.
hōfi valley
hōkengdō career
hōsol job vacancy empty post
hún'gō shipfare shipping
hyeng rail platform
hyengmang railyard train parking space
hyengjo railyard railway maintenance facility
I
icchisho arrivals
icchoetsōno immigration
igaengchi relationship (between countries, companies…)
ilza book
imre salary pay (private sector) wage
indásu industry
Ingli sister T.I.
ingyoe content
ishkel control
J
jae evening
jaei land soil earth's surface
jaeikol runway (airfare)
jaeyosohyoel land reclamation
jer evening (archaic)
jessu spring K.I.
Jōbunhakke people's convention (Kojolese parliament)
ju (jur) water (T.I.) drinking water (K.I.) body of water (T.I.) sewage or clean pipe water (R.I.)
jugwo waterworks sewage treatment plant
K
kábunjowe stock exchange
kágaldosim inner city
karetaki stone age
katu terrace
kázen casern barracks
kikai opportunity chance K.I.
koémangchiwe market hall
kōfeibunwe city/town hall
kógalwe (tv) studio
kóha hut small house
kókke council
kokkyō border
kónfaero conference
kóntsuridíso construction site site R.I.
kōuetamolno deli R.I.
kowe grave (arch.) burial site (arch.)
kúriyé Postal service
kuttuem custom (cultural)
Kwachae woman K.I.
kyakkai cooperative cooperation
kyamulwe ferry house
kyanbun (private) agency
kyanfā (national government) agency
L
láfontāsh advantage
lánche insect R.I.
lettore letter
líchi lake
lishi history
logishtikku logistics
lózipō sport airfield leisure airport
luwa law
M
human
maeil E-Mail
maekkisho departure
maekkoetsōno emigration
Maekkyosil Prefect
Maekkyosilfā Office of the Prefect
maēro labyrinth hedge maze
Mama mother mum T.I.
man'gwo power plant
mankai competition
marīchon training
Máyol mother K.I.
méishī deli T.I., K.I.
mekí mosque
milītaeryu military
miren partner (so. who shares a common interest)
mítom part-time job
moeta horizon outlook T.I., K.I.
N
nafahang harbour T.I., K.I.
nagarasha (university) student
nain mountain
nakkōzi prior station
nálnūm last name (lit.: chosen name)
néruka present
netsū (river) shore (river) bank
nil well
noé node R.I.
nomi map
O
Ochae man K.I.
Óduekin air force (milit.)
oezónkai festival (usually religious) K.I.
Ōkarong equiv. Of a PhD/doctoral degree
okkong contract treaty R.I.
ómpessha disabled person
Ōnagara University
oshoeng public
osoingamsói responsibility
osofaé cruise
osofaélai cruise ship
osómaei renumeration pay-grade (state officials)
osozal copy duplication T.I., K.I.
otash display exhibit K.I., R.I.
P
pacchan rice (grown in flooded paddies)
pahanjī requirement
Papa father dad T.I.
párfo perfume fragrance
párlekai parliament (generic term)
pashkil foundation trust endowment
patsū proof
Paushil navy (milit.)
pautang harbour landing stage T.I.
payata shoe
pecchi pet T.I.
pelgwo resource
pitōn festival T.I.
R
raén Queen (historic title in western Kojo
raito web application online-plattform
rajaen’gyo strategy
rakuotashwe pharmacy R.I.
raribawe water park swimming pool for playing
refāgyu unit inside a ministry field of expertise inside an organisation
reggyadum management managing
rénle bird
ressoróng restaurant
rézo network
ríkin research
rízai mind brain (metaphorically) T.I., K.I.
rinin personell
roélijon religion
roen‘giésh expertise practically aquired knowledge
Rōka equiv. of a (non-consecutive) Master's degree
S
saeffusói continuation sequel
sāmahando constitution
senka subject (at uni)
senpā room chamber
sēzu politics policy (general strategy, not specific law)
shataei certificate
shil heart T.I., K.I.
shínchopō (Kojolese) constitution
shíyubi defense
shóukai (trade) fair
showaeng property R.I.
showugan museum
simitachi cemetery
sochizággai overseas foreign lands
soelsha sister K.I., R.I.
sogwosoi surrounding environment
solkai club chamber
sul'apétawe town/city hall
sulchae city town R.I.
T
tácham flood
taē (planet) earth R.I.
Taechi cross
taechikyō christianity christian church (denomination, community)
taechisūsha christians
taedo cross-section intersection
taéte treaty contract K.I.
taigi sport
táikomi hope good outlook
tákoechiwe wholesale central market
tanī family T.I., K.I.
tasha landscape
tau K.I., R.I.: daytime T.I.: day
tesan view(point) sight perspective (contentual) standpoint
tokkyaen town (place names)
tom (public transport) ticket
Tónsae brother K.I., R.I.
tsukikae replacement T.I., K.I.
tsumri winter K.I.
tsungbon culture
tsuri flower
U
uelchae village R.I.
uelfā service (municipal agency on the regional level)
uénki territory
ufobal timetable (transportation)
uimtan question inquiri K.I.
ugóbawe swimming pool for excercise/sport
uzam energy (power network)
W
wamzudamolno spatial planning
weiwe prison
woke arm limb
wokkwe elongated building
wúhakkai organisation association R.I.
Y
yaecchu spring T.I.
yaélai bicycle T.I., K.I.
yaesshang’gwol (job) benefit bonus additional perk
yētekel language
yilchúmi interest concern need
yinfa colour
yultai (natural) environment
Z
Zangákka equiv. of a (consecutive) Master's degree
zan’ne day (24 hours) K.I., R.I.
zaráng heritage
zenbawe spa onsen swimming pool for relaxation
zensho grammar
zēsayin (border) customs
zibbu department subsection of a company/public authority
zika horse
victim T.I., K.I.
zoggwaran synagogue
zueshóukai (trade) fair

Verbs

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
amshu to begin doing something to take office K.I., R.I.
amyu to rain rain
anályu to analyse
aru to be to exist somewhere K.I.
azelu to say to chat to talk T.I.
B
byoeltsu to kill T.I., K.I.
byumu to sleep K.I.
C
chelnu to offer to be available
chuemu to protext (from sth.)
D
dashu to plan
díraeu to think to believe to suppose to guess K.I.
E
elpyaenfu to lead to guide to exercise control over
enkēlu to fall/die in war
etadorau to be committed to sth. to put effort into sth.
F
fólkaishu to warmly receive, to welcome
fuézyadu to shoot (a gun)
fúshu to do to work on a job (old fashioned)
G
gafaemu to work on to treat K.I.
gyinelu to buy T.I.
gyunyu to move (permanent, like moving house, shift a chance, change school)
H
hayelu to fly
haznuelu to reach
I
icchalu to send (in)
igaengchishu to relate to sth to be connected to something to be relevant for sth.
imkaibu to coordinate sth. to collaborate with so. K.I.
ingamu to say to talk to speak K.I.
ishu to hear
J
jijiyaeng'u to trade
jottu to give T.I.
K
kokkyōshu to border sth.
kóntsuru to build to carry out construction work K.I.
ku to be (descriptive) T.I., K.I.
kyabau to coordinate with so.
L
laébumru to live
laébumwe residence residential building
lishi history
lusunu to take a picture
M
maekkafaemu to develop
maekkalu to send (out)
maekkigyunyu to move house (non-specific if move to or away from adressant) to relocate
marzu to train to practice in an organised manner
mijilinlu to be interested in sth.
mishu to buy K.I., R.I.
N
nalkyu to choose
nambu to be to exist somewhere R.I.
O
odamishu
odamishu to sell K.I.
oetsōmu to migrate
ontérinu to agree to sth. to accept sth. K.I., R.I.
osoaku to represent
osoingamu to be responsible
otasu to sell R.I.
otazelu to offer K.I.
P
pettelchu to rotate
pyáfu to rise to get up
pyegifu to disuse
R
raru to play to spend leisure time
roenglanzu to spread to be transmitted (germs etc.) R.I.
S
saeffushu to continue sth. to go on with sth.
settainōku to make available to provide
shárukanyaelu to protect to preserve
shōtalju to embrace to appreciate to encourage
sowenlu to teach
soworu to learn
T
tamtsu to think (both process and 'to think, that…') to believe to ponder T.I.
tamtsu’u to think (mind-process, not 'to believe sth.') to contemplate K.I.
tuekau to open sth. (T.I., K.I.) to open sth. to public use (R.I.)
toidaebu to blossom
U
uetau to eat
umsolgu to apply (for a job) K.I., R.I.
W
wálu to run
wámdau to plan K.I.
wesshu to contact K.I.
Y
yaeshitteru to advance sth. to spread sth. to promote sth.
yaeshkou to advance to rise into to be promoted to ascent
yuku to go to move by foot K.I.
Z
zoékau to maintain to upkeep

Adjectives

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
aku south
anályumfel analythical
B
bang low subordinate
bojōaeng proficient to be skilful at
C
chidoe physical material
choewal equestrian K.I., R.I.
D
dehal difficult
dōdaeki regional
dyong east
E
émino outstanding eminent R.I.
F
fīngal warm (physical and emotional)
G
gaggwoelbunreisūka equitable
genji local in a small area
H
haelgyazó normal common usual
haerū far distant
haingbue available at a low cost discounted K.I.
humenyamin amber K.I.
hóti close near
I
J
jarinum temporary K.I.
jeangba busy
K
kágal inner
kámpō voluntarily
kibō north
kifaimdōdaeki stretegic
komkosa thematically wide varied
kōng deep
kyanbue inhouse internal inside an agency/company
L
limbē west
lomsa more (countable) K.I., R.I.
M
maecchaē great large important K.I.
maéi beautiful visually pleasing K.I.
maelduoen call for tenderopen bidding advertisement
maggitā nacre-coloured
mashkal special out of the ordinary the way sth. Is (qualitative)
mijizággai international
miryoku attractive appealing K.I.
munchipal municipal
N
nyū dark
O
onlain online
osují favourite
P
pacchi wet (fields, land)
pai bright (light)
pal brown
R
ralnu to write K.I.
S
shim fast quick rapid (K.I.) T.I., K.I.
shotten hard
sochizággai foreign of/from a different country
sumaron underwater submarine R.I.
supaéfi special noteworthy outstanding in importance/size/amount… (quantitative)
T
taechikyomsol christian
toicho all (K.I.: very strong emphasis) T.I., K.I.
tossal clear distinct pronounced
U
uítai valid (K.I.) durable until (R.I.) K.I., R.I.
ungsō calm peaceful T.I., K.I.
W
weng wet
Y
yemen outer
Z
zággai national
zóngmo important to be considered to play an important role R.I.

Numerals

Numerals in Kojoshi retain a certain stem, and their ending changes depending on what grammatical purpose they serve. Often these endings look similar to the particle with a similar function, although there are many exceptions and irregularities.

When forming large compound numbers, all numerals stay in their standard form and only the last numeral indicates the grammatical function, with 11 and 12 forming exceptions. Particle clusters have to be avoided with numerals. If for example one wants to say "(the item) on the fifth (rank of the shelf)", the particle ending for ~th and "of" would not merge, but instead the lowest tier of information (here the ordinal ~th part) is conveyed in the ending of the numeral, and the other particles are attached after that in their standard form, forming "hile de". Note that these situations usually only occur when the sentences are extremely shortened and all already mentioned information is omitted, as the long form would be "SHELF so hile RANK de".

Numerals in Kojoshi with some declinations
Ingerish Standard
name of number itself, counting, money
Quantifier ("so")
5 dogs, 7 years, 10 degrees
Ordinal number
The 5th row
Year
Usually other time particles following
Day
Day of the month, sim. to ord. number
-ary
primary, secondary, tertiary...
1 ara aso ale atali purímaē
2 yaéra yaésso yaére yaettali sékondaē
3 yúra yússo yúre yuttali yússodo
4 chura chuso chule chutari kwátenaē
5 hira hizo hile hitari kínaē
6 wera weso wele wetari sénaē
7 yota yotso yose yōdari yotsodo
8 utta uttso usse uttari uttsodo
9 inya inso inle indari insodo
10 tén ténso ténle tettari ténsodo
11 tárea táreso tárele táratáli
12 tyáera tyáso tyáre tyaettari
13 chén-yúra chén-yússo chén-yúre
14 chén-chura chén-chuso chén-chule
20 yaé-cchén yaé-cchénso yaé-cchénle
21 yaé-cchén-ara yaé-cchén-aso yaé-cchén-ale
30 yúra-cchen yúra-cchenso yúra-cchénle
40 chura-cchen chura-cchenso chura-cchénle
100 tōku tōkuso tōkure
123 tōku-yaé-cchén-yúra tōku-yaé-cchén-yússo
1,000 kau kazo kalu
1,123 Kau-tōku-yaé-cchén-yúra Kau-tōku-yaé-cchén-yússo
10,000 tén-kau tén-kazo
126,000 tōku-yaé-cchén-wera-kau tōku-yaé-cchén-wera-kazo
1,000,000 rifilem rifilso rifile

Particles

Particles mark the role of a noun, verb or adjective that they follow in a sentence. Unlike affixes, they are used for a wide range of grammatical (as opposed to contentual) functions and are separated from the word they mark by a space.

-Table to be added-

Time and Date

Months
  • Arhash (py)
  • Petesh (py)
  • Márash (py)
  • Chigats (hp)
  • Maé (ax)
  • Rokkats (hp)
  • Hyuli (py)
  • Ógus (py)
  • Sekkembesh (py)
  • Jūgats (hp)
  • Nófom (ax)
  • Baél (py)

py = pyilser, hp = hopponese, ax = ataraxian ethymology

Days of the week
  • Kantau
  • x
  • x
  • x
  • Urban / Ūban
  • x
  • x

Pronouns and Determiners

Pronouns in Kojolese differ depending on the register used. The degree of nuancedness varies depending on the register, and some pronouns have different meanings in different registers despite being spelled and pronounced the same.

Tanōikishi, mostly from Pilser bases
I yaesh
You (sg.&pl.) do/dō1
He/She nya/nyā1
It ji/jī1
We (inlc.&exl.) mel
They naráng
  1. Depending on whether a vowel (long) or consonant (short) is following
Kēikishi, strong Hopponese influence
I wádash1
You (sg.&pl.) kigang
He alga/al
She naráng2
It chira/occhira
We (exlc.) mel
We (inlc.) kigákkodash
They kára
  1. Court members betitled Queen Nobunga with plural naráng instead of "she"; it stuck and became the standard polite "she".
Rikaikishi, partly influenced by Ataraxian
I je
You(Sg.) chú
He íl
She aél
It il
He/She (Gender neutral pers. sg.)
One (animate sg., "a person" or animal) hom
We (exclusive)
We (inclusive)
You (pl.)
They (personal) aelé
They (personal/animate)
They (unambiguous, usually inanimate)
You (sg. or pl.)
  • here: ai
  • this/these (one here) (pronoun; "I like this"): aile
  • this/these (one here) (determiner; "I like this book"): amren
  • there: kō
  • this/these (one there) (pronoun): kōle
  • this/these (one there) (determiner): kol

Affixes

Affixes are used to create compound words with a more nuanced meaning compared to the base word. They can be added after (suffix) or before (prefix) the base word.

Changing word class

To
From
Verb Noun Adjective
Verb - root (sometimes full verb)+-doen/-molno/-sói/-hīchon...: standard nominalisation
stem+sha/cha: "doer"
-u/e/i.mfel (not to be confused with Ingerish -ing or -ed form, usually carries different meaning than equivalent simple noun-modifying clause ("analytical" instead of "analysing")
Noun -yu/-shu turns noun into action most commonly associated; actor -> to act
To make something <noun>; large array of affixes and prefixes, see below the table
...
- -daeki creates common adjective
...
...
Adjective to make something <adjective>: -ku/-jaeyu/-yōnshu
to become <adjective>: PH.
-msol creates common noun: liberal<ism>
sha/cha a person that is...
-

verb root: drop the final syllable
verb stem: drop the final u when preceding consonant can be put at the end of a syllable, otherwise change u to i.

Place names

  • -sul common for towns and cities
  • -uel common for villages
  • -kwen bath, spa town
  • -tsūm like -dom in dukedom, kingdom etc
  • -chae added to aforementioned suffixes to create the general word for village, city etc.
  • -chi market
  • -nai rock, mountain
  • -gwo valley, side of a mountain slide
  • -rū valley, plain between to mountains

Streets

  • -daitō large representative boulevard
  • sal large representative ring road
  • -kesha major arterial road
  • -toku collector road
  • -tyambun planned street running orthogonal to purposeful axis
  • -tyam'mi planned scenic park-avenue, usually with trees and visual axis
  • -sol path, old trade route
  • -michi common residential street
  • -roekka bypass, through-pass
  • -tsu narrow alley
  • -kal (race) track
  • Gúwan square

Qualitative

  • zóng(shin)- central (main)
  • shi- central (region)
  • shad-(vowel) / shadd-(syllable with versatile cons./h, cons. replaced by dd) / sha-(syllables with fixed cons., fixed cons. doubled) far
  • dō- regional
  • ta- large, big, major, of a different scale
  • ko- small, minor
  • hakk-/hang/, (-vowel/w->y/y, -consonant) special, out of the ordinary, unusual
  • sō-/sōf (-cons., -vowel) ordinary, normal, usual, general
  • soém/soémi (-vowel.,-cons.) semi-, half, hybrid
  • bol- all, overview
  • miji- inter-
  • arha- first, starting point (arhazi, arhawe)
  • nakkō- prior (nakkōzi, nakkōwe)
  • a'-(cons.) / ā-(w, y) / apy-(vowel) next, subsequent(ajji, azi, āwe)
  • baélj-(vowel) / baél- last ending point(baélzi, baélwe)
  • icch- inwards, impact, to (be) hit, arrivals
  • hyoel- to buy, to win for one's side
  • ota-/oda- to let go/give away/to loosen
  • maekk- outward, to go away/to flee/to depart
  • oso- like Ingerish re-, "again" or "back"
  • saekk- / sae-(dbl. cons.) to go on, continue, to not end

Noun specifiers and generalizers

  • -we generic building, example: hyosilwe, office building; Gēshusamnengwe, Opera house; Yínyuē-Taitaiwe, theatre ...
  • -sha creates a profession etc. from a noun or sometimes from a verb: Demomínzu<sha> -> Democracy<crat>
  • -saē -fare, as in shipfare, airfare; -layer/-level, as in federal level, surface layer
  • -lai -craft as in aircraft, motorcraft
  • -ka palace, residency (archaic)
  • -kaso research institute
  • -zi some type of public transportation, usually rail: Chezi, Norikichezi, Dōzi, Dyanchezi
  • -kanú shop
  • -díso place, site (construction site etc.)
  • -gyu area, site (industrial/commercial area, landuse etc.)
  • -gwo plant, as in "power plant", or work, as in "waterworks"