|8, 11.6092, 61.6965|
|Republic of Gardensa|
Repubblica di Gardensa
and largest city
|Official languages||Darcodian, Gardensan|
|• President||Rodrigo Adeneli|
|• Prime Minister||Giandomenico Gurimona|
|• Estimate (2017)||6,197,231|
|Drives on the||right|
Gardensa, officially the Republic of Gardensa, is a country in west Uletha, in the east side of the Liberan Peninsula, member of the Assembly of Nations. It's wet by the Asperic Ocean to the northwest, north and west, and it is bordered by the territory of Balam-Utz to the southwest and by the Republica Justina to the south.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 References
The name "Gardensa" has uncertain origins and on its etymology there are several theories.
A first theory associates the name with the ingerish word "Gardens", indicating the great expanse of trees, but that would not coincide with the fact that the ingerish tongue is not spoken in Gardensa and this would imply ancient contacts and trades not known to historians.
A second theory would recall the name of the flower "Gardenia", (so called in both ingerish and Darcodian languages), but this theory is rejected by the academics of the faculty of biology at the University of Giliarca, who argue that the plant was not present in the territory in ancient times.
A third theory would find the origins of the name in the ancient idioms spoken by the indigenous peoples, where the sound "gaar-denn-shah" could be translated with "the land of the perennial sun", indicating the subtropical climate of the area. This would coincide with the fact that the solar circle is one of the most ancient symbols of Gardensa's land (it still appears stylized in the modern flag of the State).
The archaeological evidences in the territory of Gardensa leads the earliest human settlements around 3800 years ago, likely coming from the west through the Asperic Ocean, as it can be derived from somatic and ethnic clues. At that time, the northern peninsular area was inhabited, while the area of the center-south of the region was largely unexplored: perhaps there were tribes scattered and not communicating with other territories, of which there are very few evidences, among which a votive column inside the Great Southern Rainforest, near the course of the Cobalto River.
A little more recent is the most important archaeological site in Gardensa: the settlement of Sarthor. It's located in the north, in the metropolitan territory of the actual city of Giliarca, where the presence of some wooden artifacts allowed a dating, through carbon 14, which makes it back to about 3100 years ago. This settlement consists of several basaltic stone buildings: two stone temples, one bigger with circular plan and another one minor with rectangular plan, connected by a corridor delimited by colonnades on two sides, and other 11 buildings of different dimensions used, according to more accredited theories, as houses of tribal leaders and votive functions.
According to the reconstructions of the faculty of History of the University of Giliarca, the buildings (of which now remain only parts of the supporting walls and columns), had a cover made by wooden and palm leaves. Such civilization did not know the use of writing, and was probably active until 1900 years ago.
The current historical age of Gardensa began in early XI century, when a fleet of navigators landed in its coast coming from the territory of Darcodia. The legend, which has been handed down orally, narrates that a fleet of four hundred ships from Darcodia was overwhelmed by a terrible storm near the shores of Gardensa, and only twenty ships were able to land, whose sailors would have founded the city of Giliarca, so their descendants would be the current inhabitants of Gardensa. Indeed, this legend is considered to be partly false and mythical, as four hundred ships are considered by historians too many for the fleets of that time.
Certainly it is true that the present population of Gardensa has Darcodian origins, in fact the Gardensan language certainly appears as a derivative of Darcodian language. However, most likely, there was no shipwreck. Historians argue that a group of about ten Darcodian ships may have come to the shores of Gardensa in search of wealth, probably around the year 1080, and finding immense forests, inhabited at that time only by indigenous tribes who still lived in a primitive state; so, they have decided to settle there to enrich themselves with the business of timber. Then they founded the first nucleus of the present city of Giliarca. The distance from the original land prevented this community from maintaining relations with the original land, and thus developed its society in complete independence in the new territory, in conflict with the indigenous people, but in friendship with the close countries, in consequence of the commercial relations based on the exchange of timber with other raw materials. The commercial and political exchanges between Gardensan and other peoples went increasing in the XII and XIII centuries, so the wealth and the population increased significantly, especially in the city of Giliarca. In particular, we have extensive documentation of the commercial and political relations established between the nations of Gardensa and Patermas since the year 1206, when a Patermitan expedition landed for the first time in the seaport of Giliarca. We also have linguistic traces of the commonality between the two peoples , since the Gardensian language, even though still today is predominantly similar to the Darcodian, contains expressions and words of clear Patermitan derivation.
The relations with the kingdom of Darcodia were instead totally absent in the first centuries of expansion of Gardensa, even if the myth of the origin from that far country, from which the founding fathers came, had always remained in memory and legend. Only in the fourteenth century, the inhabitants of Gardensa, who had been settled for about 300 years and had founded several new cities (in particular, Roghela and Storonia, the oldest cities after Giliarca), decided to undertake of the journeys in search of their original land, based on routes handed down orally by the founders. At that time in Gardensa there was still no form of unified government, but several autonomous cities ruled by the descendants of the first sailors.
The oldest sources allow to date in 1327 the departure of the shipment to Darcodia, and the documents refer to a fleet of ten ships, governed by Admiral Gilberto Gamunori. During the trip, three ships wrecked, but the other seven were able to arrive at their destination. That was how the contacts between Gardensa and Darcodia were resumed. The landing would take place on February 2, 1328. This event has gone down to history by the name of "Reconnection", and still today, February 2 is considered a festive day in Gardensa with the name of "Reconnection Day".
Following this event, Gardensa has manteined its independence, and for this reason we can't speak of a colonial history. However, Darcodia's kingdom has produced many cultural and linguistic influences in Gardensa (Even today, the Gardensan language is a variant of Darcodian language, and both are accepted in Gardensa as official languages). Since the Reconnection, there was, above all up to the sixteenth century, a migratory flow from Darcodia to Gardensa, aimed at working in the timber industries, after which, still today 79 per cent of the Gardensan population derives from Darcodia, as confirmed in a study of DNA conducted in 2013 by the Institute of Genetic Research of Giliarca.
The phase of the city-states, the relations with neighboring populations and the isolation of the natives
The first phase following the coming of the Darcodians in Gardensa, was politically characterized by a non-centralized government in the form of city-states governed by local lords. After the foundation of the cities of Giliarca, Roghela and Storonia, already extensively flourishing in the 13th century, followed the foundation of Bornalia, Sirassa, Nelsonoria and Memorca in the 14th century, while there were villages that only in the following centuries took the form of small cities, in particular Bolai and Zalghira. Among these cities there was not a formal hierarchy, but only a relationship with mutual alliances, for which they were, politically, independent entities. However, there was a strong conditioning by the Lords of Giliarca (whose strength is still witnessed by the Castle of the City), so we can say that Giliarca has immediately become "de facto" (even if not by right) the capital of all the territory. These cities were inhabited mainly by the descendents of the first navigators and by the inhabitants of the neighboring countries that emigrated to the territory of Gardensa for commercial reasons. In those centuries, in fact, the same economic-commercial reasons that had led to the find for the territory of Gardensa, led to a policy of openness and welcome to the inhabitants of neighboring countries, and this ensured a significant increase in population.
On the other hand, the indigenous inhabitants of the territory were excluded from that system, and they never merged with the majority population of Darcodian origin. In fact, the indigenous people have always constituted a completely isolated minority, residing in three cities (made up of descendants of primitive tribes): Esthead, on the border with Balaam-Utz, Croydon and Eras, on the west coast. Today, the city of Esthead is totally abandoned, as its inhabitants have progressively emigrated to Giliarca in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, reintegrating with difficulty in society; instead, the cities of Croydon and Eras were totally destroyed by the eruption of the volcano Tucurena in 1955, and, for their inhabitants, a new city was rebuilt from scratch between 1955 and 1960, with the name of "Nuova Eras", and is still inhabited today by the descendants of the native peoples. It is also the only city where the pre-Darcodian proto-gardens language is spoken.
The "Cities War" and the First Republic
At the beginning of the 16th century, in fact, there was a situation in which the Giliarcan supremacy over the other cities had become a veritable dominance; in fact some historians describe the system as a real monarchy with the Lord of Giliarca king of all the territory of Gardensa. The increasing intolerance of other cities towards this situation led to an alliance of the most cities (in particular Sirassa, Roghela, Storonia, Nelsonoria, Bornalia and Memorca), called "The axis of independent cities", which created an army to rebel against the Dominion of Giliarca. Between 1512 and 1521 there was a war of the Axis against the army of Giliarca, passed to history as "The cities war", which ended with the defeat of the lord of Giliarca, who signed with the other cities the "Pact of Gardensa" which is effectively the founding act of the Republic.
Following this agreement, the Territory of Gardensa was governed by a leader called "Chief Regent of the People of the Cities of Gardensa" (or simply "Chief of Gardensa"). He was elected for life with a double level of vote: the heads of families in each city elected their representative, and the representatives of the Cities would meet in an assembly (called "Assembly of the cities") to elect the Head of Gardensa and then assist him and control it in its government. Only the city of Giliarca - due to its larger size - elected three representatives in the assembly instead of one. On the other side, the "indigenous" cities of Esthead, Croydon and Eras did not participate in the assembly of cities. They mantained a self-government and in the pact they were defined as "autonomous controlled territories".
In truth there was a system of census for which only the richest heads of families participated in the vote of the representative of their city, so this fact, together with the election to life of the head, meant that it was a republic that often today historians reclassify as an "elective monarchy". However it is commonly known as the "Republic of the Cities of Gardensa" or simply "First Republic". The first head of the republic was Leandro Gemuniai, elected by the assembly in 1524. He was in charge until his death in 1562.
The age of splendor
In this period the city of Giliarca represented an intense place of trade and exchange: the sale of wood was compensated by the purchase of spices and precious metals from neighboring countries and from more distant nations.
The military force of the army of Gardensa was equally undisputed: the episode in which it was most acutely manifested was the Battle of Roghela in 1654. I that year there were a sudden attack by the despotic king Alfredo Guordo II of Justina, who came towards in the land of Gardensa with its fleets, but near Roghela it was violently opposed by the army of Giiarca, that heavily defeated it.
This fact led to the overturning of the tyrannical kingdom of Justina and to the establishment in this land of a new republica under the control of the Government of Gardensa. That control ceased after 1674, when by now the Justina Republic had found his stability. After this episode, a friendship between the Justina Republic and the Republic of Gardensa has remained in the centuries.
The new republic
The theocratic decade and the reinstatement of democracy
Since then, the only period of suspension of democracy has been what historians have called the "theocratic decade", from 1911 to 1922.
In 1911, in the general elections, didn't emerged a majority that could govern. The inability of the parties to agree among themselves produced a stalemate, which in fact created a vacuum of power. In this situation inserted himself the ortholic bishop of Giiarca, Oberto IV, who produced an episcopal letter with which he assumed the "moral duty" to take the government of the city. The parliament, caught in its utmost weakness, approved in turn a motion that recognized this "moral role" of the bishop and assigned him a "subsidiary power", which in fact consisted in the assumption of powers of government in Gardensa. The same document asked the police to make themselves available to the bishop, officially "for a transitional period of 6 months", (but this situation then became, in reality, definitive). Today all constitutionalists agree on the illegitimacy of this act, and historians have documented that it was conditioned by promises made by the bishop to parliamentarians in terms of land donations.
In those years, the power moved from the palace of the government to the bishop's palace in S.ta Selenia Square, where Oberto IV governed with a council of auxiliary bishops and other prelates. In that years Parliament although formally in charge, was never convened and the office of President was only nominally attributed to the elderly senator (based on a constitutional provision that provided it in case of the vacancy of the office), which, however, never produced acts of government.
Already in the documents of 1913 the bishop qualified his action as "theocratic government", alleging that the lack of popular legitimacy could be morally replaced by a theocratic legitimacy. The elections were suspended, and the supreme court was never summoned, although the judges had probably held clandestine meetings several times. The superiors of the bishop in the Ortholic Church had an ambiguous position on the situation: on one hand they condemned Bishop Oberto IV in words, but did not take any measures, leaving him essentially free to act.
In 1922 Bishop Oberto IV died in circumstances not fully clarified. Officially it was a heart attack, but many historians believe that it was a poisoning. At his death, the Ortholic Church appointed his successor, Adelmiro III, who, already opposed to Oberto IV, decided to end this situation and asked the Supreme Court to hold parliamentary elections for the purpose of restore constitutional order. In the elections of November 1922 there was therefore a clear majority and the parliament could re-enter its full powers, restoring the existing constitution, and electing the new president, Anselmo Nobilara. At the same time an amendment of the Constitution was approved, according to which, in the event of a lack of political majority, Parliament can not assign powers to bodies other than those that are constitutionally established.
After this facts, Gardensa and its capital Giliarca have known in the 20th century a phase of great commercial and industrial development that keeps today.
General morphology of the territory
The territory of Gardensa consists of a continental part, in the south, and a peninsula in the north, which is the most urbanized, while in the central-southern continental area the population density is much lower, and nature appears more pristine.
The reasons for this are basically two:
First, the founders coming from Darcodia, had the need to settle in areas that favored the maritime trade, so in a position easily accessible by sea, considering that when they settled , there was a substantial asymmetry of forces with the ocean peoples, still very primitive, and therefore the risk of attacks from the sea appeared low.
Secondly, the only population with which the founders were in conflict, the native proto-gardeners, at the time organized in tribes, occupied the central-southern area. These tribes, although very primitive, posed actions of retaliation towards the populations coming from Darcodia, for example by focusing their cities at night. For this reason, the founders, interested in picking the timber of the forests, but careful to reduce the risk of retaliations, put their cities in the areas less inhabited by the natives, that is in the north.
Rivers and lakes
The longest rivers are in the central-south area, while the rivers in the north are shorter. The longest watercourse is the Cobalto River, 94.15km, which rises in Mount Rurfe, crosses the Great Southern Rainforest and flows into the Baia Tempestuosa, opposite the coasts of the Justina Territory. Instead, the river with greater water flow is the Indaco, which has the springs in the Monte Pransibungo, and flows into the Megattere's Bay after having crossed the Capital Giliarca.
In order of length, the rivers are:
- Cobalto River (94.15 km)
- Zaffiro River (91.61)
- Meto River (91.33, it forms the Cobalto Lake)
- Rio Lime: (84.24 km)
- Turchese River (68.20 km, it forms the Ivory Lake)
- Rio Chiaro (60.63 km)
- Indaco River (42.13 km,it forms the Naghisco artificial lake, with the Naghisco Dam, built in 1952)
- Rio Cristallo (41.93 km, tributary of the Rio Chiaro)
- Violet River (12.32 km, tributary of the Meto River)
- Gainsboro River (5,20 km, tributary of the Indaco River)
In Gardensa there are two natural lakes: the Cobalto Lake, 167.10 sq km wide, and the Avorio Lake, 58.66 sq km wide. Through a system of natural and artificial canals, the two lakes feed the water networks of all the main cities.
Since 1952 there is an artificial lake, the Naghisco Lake, between Mount Gadilo and Mount Snurco, along the course of the Indaco River. It has an average extension of 2.23 square kilometers, variable depending on the amount of rains. It is formed by the Naghisco dam, under which the main hydroelectric plant of Gardensa.
The mountains in Gardensa are formed by large granite masses surmounted by basalt. The highest reliefs are to the south in the Adaneli range, where there is the highest peak, Mount Cira, 3921 m asl, next to which there are the Rurfe (3115 m asl) and the Saruco, (2943 m asl .)
The other high peaks are located around Lake Carminio, in the Murogani's chain, whose main peaks are Mount Salin (2601 m asl.), Mount Sarrico (2128 m asl.), Mount Rabadrudeba (1811 m. above sea level), and Monte Loba (1433 meters above sea level). Not far away, but geologically isolated, is Mount Migherna, which stands on the surrounding plain at the height of 2736 m.
In the North, on the peninsula, the mountains are lower, but play an important role in protecting the territory from winds and hurricanes. Firstly, in this area there are the Median Mountains, whose three main peaks are Mount Pranisbunco (1273 m asl.), Where there are the sources of the Indaco River, Mount Gadilo (937 m asl.) And , among them, the Monte Snurco (891 m. above sea level) under which today is present one of the main railway tunnels of the Gardensa, the Traforo dei Mediani, excavated between 1968 and 1975, 3.79 km long.
Finally, in the extreme north of the peninsula, there is the chain of the Arcati, which in truth are more easily classified as pointed rocky hills. The highest peak is Mount Marpa (713 m asl.). These mountains, however, have a historical and anthropic importance: their position is in fact a natural barrier of protection to the west of the city of Giliarca, and has thus allowed the birth and development in that particular position: exposed to the sea for commercial purposes, but protected from the main heat and from possible enemies coming from the Ocean.
The Volcano Tucurena
It's a volcano classified as "explosive", under which it is estimated there is a magma chamber of 21 cubic km. The Tucurena has been active in various historical periods. Surely it was very active in the most ancient geological eras (testifies the great amount of obsidian, still today skillfully worked by the natives). Most recently, oral stories speak of a large eruptions around the year 340, and around the year 610, while the first major eruption documented has been in 1263, when the founders from Darcodia were already present. Since then, there was a period of almost 700 years of quiescence, during which it was thought that the volcano was permanently extinguished, and for this the natives populations built in that area their cities, Eras and Croydon, in constant conflict with the majority of the population of Darcodian origin.
On June 12, 1955, after about a month of seismic warnings, there was a new, incredibly explosive eruption that totally destroyed the two cities of the natives. Most of the population had already been evacuated during the previous weeks, when the seismic signals were becoming more and more worrying, however, at least 750 people chose to stay in the cities, and of these, 320 perished in the explosion. The displaced were hosted in the cities Nelsonoria, Memorca, Storonia, Roghela, Sirassa, and especially in Giliarca. This episode was fundamental because it marked the end of a centuries-old period of coldness and conflict among the natives and descendants of the founding sailors, and for the first time a true solidarity was established.
Today the cities of Eras and Croydon are still destroyed and abandoned, and their inhabitants live mainly in Giliarca, in the "Quarter of the natives" between Elenburg square and the Botanical Garden. However, a part of the natives wanted to stay and live near the Tucurena, considering it, despite the eruption, a sacred mountain. The Gardensan Government then financed for them the construction of Nuova Eras, a small modern city near the remains of Eras and Croydon, which was built in just 5 years between 1955 and 1960. This city has an evacuation plan that is considered very efficient, in case of new eruptions. The Volcano Tucurena, after the last eruption, is 1815 meters high and in its crater stands the Lake of the Boulders ("Lago dei Massi" in gardensan language), a rainwater basin, extended in periods of maximum rain about 8.50 sq. km.
According to the most modern theories of the geologists of the University of Giliarca , this system of islands has a common meteoric origin: their arrangement, their shape and their composition suggest that they were formed by a meteor shower that may have taken place about 450,000 years ago. The swarm consisted mainly of five meteorites, varying in diameter between 25 meters and 65 meters. Geologists agree that, before the impact, the northern coast of the peninsula was extended to the current islands.
Dominant part of the territory of Gardensa, are certainly its very extensive rain forests, still largely untouched and today protected by strict laws. Up until XVI century the entire territory of Gardensa was covered by a single big forest. Today, following the extensive exploitation for the production and export of timber, in Gardensa there are four different rainforests.
The Northern Rainforest is the closest to the urbanized area of the territory. It is also the most polluted, even if for about 40 years an imposing recovery operation is under way. It is crossed by the River Meto.
The Western Rainforest, the one that reaches the highest altitude, of 864 meters near Lake Carminio. The main stream of water that runs through it is the Zaffiro River.
The Eastern Rainforest is the smallest in size. In it pass the Rio Cristallo and the Rio Chiaro, which delta is the biggest in Gardensa, famous for its fishiness, today strongly regulated.
The Southern Great Rainforest is by far the most extensive and uncontaminated. It is actually part of a much larger forest that continues in the territories of Balam-Utz and Justina. It represents a "natural lung", and, being its inside an area that has been preserved virgin, its borders are controlled by the army to face the clandestine traffic of precious woods. It is crossed by two rivers: the Rio Lime and the Cobalto river, the longest in the Gardensa.
- M. Rosetti, Studies on the Language of the Indigenous Peoples of Gardensa, Giliarca University Press, 2007, p. 42
- C. Mariani, Myths and Legends on the foundations of Giliarca, Roghela and Storonia, Ed. Nuova Gardensana, 2011, p. 54 ss.
- G. Marsetti, F. Gowling, R. Antinori, Linguistic loans between Gardensa and Patermas, Annals of The Faculty of History, Giliarca, 1956 .
- Aa. Vv., Study on the genetic composition of the population of the territory of Gardensa for the purpose of reconstructing its historical origins, in Review of The Institute of Genetic Studies of Giliarca, no. 523, April 2013, p. 512 ss.
- M. Marotti, The miracle of Eras, a city rebuilt in five years, in Corriere di Gardensa, april 16, 1960, p. 2.
- R. Santanastasi, The republic that was not a republic. The true history of Gardensa, Ed. Historica, Giliarca, 1992.
- F. Laurentini, The Roghela Battle: the war that brought peace, ed. Martinelli, Giliarca, 1972.
- S. Tarantelli, The long shadows of the theocratic decade in Gardensa, ed. Nuova Gardensana, Giliarca, 2003,p. 238 ss..
- R. Cardellini, The death of the theocrat, inquiry into a mystery never solved, ed. Martinelli, Giliarca, 2011, p. 132 ss.
- R. Cardelli, Geological conformation underlying the Volcano Tucurena, in Proceedings of the XXVII Congress of the National Association of Gardensan Geologist, University of Giliarca, faculty of Geology and Vulcanology, 2003, p. 71 ss.
- R. Mass, G. Gordon, S. Charleston, Morphological evidences of the meteoric rain in Gardensa, in Gardensan periodical of Geology, 2011, p. 164