Indigen Latina

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The indigene languages of Latina are first noted from Ewaldo Bergez, one of the discoverers of Latina in the years around 1500. In wihich relations the indigen languages of southwestern Tarephia to other languages in the tarephian center are, is a question of meaning and speculation. All languages are written with the latin alphabeth. Before colonisation this languages are spoken only.

General Charactere

This languages have only few flective elements. The words are normally used isolated and unchanged, relations are expressed with short "grammatical" words or suffixes. With some variants the languages of southwestern Tarephia have the same structur and they are similar to another. Center of the "lingua franca", the intermediate language of "Gaquil", is the great plain between the Mesa Tinto and the Llanura los Gauados. This gaquilian variante came in common use after the colonisation, as the indigene people used horses and moved over longer distances. The examples in this article are all in common gaqilian language.

Phonetics

Gaquil has five clear vocals, spoken most short. Longer spoken vowels have no different sense in a word, but are only a question of temperament of the speaker. Vowels are: a, e, i, o and u. As diphtonge is used "ua" and "oi"

The consonant system is easy to speak for "european" languages. There is b - p, d - t, f - v, g - k, s - z, h - ch, l - m - n - r and only a few specials as "tschj" (written as X) and "qq" (written as Q), a konsonant deep in the throat by taking in the air. Kombinations of consonantes as bl-, br-, bv -, sp-, st- or others are only few.

Numerals

They are unflexed and unchanged. The sequence is at first a system of five to the word "kwa" ("hand"): ta (0) - te (1) - tu (2) - gra (3) - fo (4) - kwa (5) - kwate (6) - kwatu (7) - kwagra (8) - kwafo (9) - tukwa or lon (10). After this step we have a sequence in the system of ten, as tulon (20) - gralon (30) - folon (40) - kwalon (50) - kwatelon (60) and so on. The combination is p.e. 46 as "folonkwate" (4 times two hands, hand and 1). The word for 0, 1 and 2 is stricktly seen the same word in three genus: abstract, real and dualic (see below at Substantive).

Beginning with hundred there is a clear structure too. The word for hundred, "kwawom", means 5 men (with 100 fingers and toes). And so the indigene counts the hundreds (kwawom or tekwawom, tukwawom, grakwawom, fokwawom, kwakwawom, kwatekwawom and so on.) and thereafter are set the numerals under hundred. Next step - after "kfafolonkwafokwawom" for 9,900 - is golo for 10,000. A word for higher numerals is not known, but theoretical with this system are numerals possible til 100,000,000.

Beside this there are many other words for nothing, few, some, many, all and so on.

Verbs

To make a word to a verb, is to set before the word "eh" (I), "ko", "ki", "ku", "ka" or "ke" (you, sing. - fixed after the genus, see under Substantive), "woi" (other) or "bo" (we), "mio", "mii", "miu", "mia", "mie" (you, plur.), "woi" (other). The verb itself is unchanged, but as next special "grammatic" words are set as signals for the modi of use (reatlity, wish, command, now in action, now ready, now and further in action, in the past, in the future and so on). This words have no redundanced elements, therefore it is necessary to hear carefully.

Action far past past now in short time later Notes
always doing 'n' 'n' nan nun nun
just now finished lal tal pol bal nal most "pol" used
now doing lahal tahal pohol bahal nahal
long ago finished lawal tawal powal bawal nawal
to wish, to plan lakan takan pokon bakan nakan
to command lar tar por bar nar

Substantives

Most of indegene languages know five genus: living masculin (man, animal or plant) (most with "o"), living feminin (most with "i"), living both, child or unclear (most with "u"), abstract (most with "a") and real dead things, what you can see and touch (most with "e"). This pointer to the genus is always the last vocal of a word.

The most languages have many homonymes - only the genus makes the difference. In other words: the meaning of a word can differ, if the genus is changed. So "wako" means the real living masculin bear, but in names for man is often used "waka" for the abstract power of a bear. If a word of a man, an animal or a plant ended of -e, then the former living creature is dead.

The numerus is set with the numeral before the substantive with a binding "ua" between (kwate ua waku = six bears of unknown sexe or tulon ua digi = twenty hens or kwawom ua pistole = hundred piostols. If one says kwawom ua pistola he will not speak over the real pistols, but over the power with them).

Grammatical cases did not change the substantives itself. They are defined with a word after the substantive (be = "with" as instrumental, gla = "of" as genetive, fli = as inside-locative and so on). The structure is = Numeral - Substantiv with genus - pointer-word for the casus.

Adverbs

In theyr genus they always go with the substantive and so they ended with a vocal. The crossing between verb and adverb is floating.

Places with indigene Names in Latina

Wordlist

In this little list are in first line given words of names from persons or places, which are mentioned in other articles over Latina

Work in progress This list is incomplete. It will be expanded in the future.

men

  • we-o (man), we-i (woman), we-u (all men), we-a (ghost of men, most for woman names), we-e (dead men)
  • ti-o, ti-i, ti-u, ti-a, to-e = child in the same sense
  • que-o, que-i, que-u, que-a, que-e = older people in the same sense
  • lin-o, lin-i, lin-u, lin-a, lin-e = stranger in the same sense - most uses for indigen strangers
  • reij-o, reij-i, reij-u, reij-a, reij-e = for "white" people - from "the people of the rey (the king)

animals

  • cabo / cabi / cabu / caba / cabe = horse (as overtaken and shortened latinian word from "caballo")
  • cauco / cauci / caucu / cauca / cauce = beaver masc., fem., unknown or pair, abstract, dead
  • digo / digi/ digu / diga / dige = fowl in the same sense
  • gaho / gahi / gahu / gaha / gahe = cow in the same sense
  • gato/ gati/ gatu/ gata / gate = cat (as overtaken latinian word) in the same sense
  • heto/ heti / hetu / heta / hete = wolf in the same sense
  • kino / kini / kinu / kina / kine = dear in the same sense
  • pugo / pugi / pugu / puga / puga = elephant in the same sense
  • saco / saci / sacu / saca / sacu = bird (smaller as falcon or eagle) in the same sence
  • taco/ taci/ tacu/ taca / tace = falcon in the same sense
  • taho/ tahi/ tahu/ taha / tahe = eagle in the same sense
  • wako / waki / waku / waka / wake = bear in the same sense

Relations

  • garitlu = femal members of a clan, garitlo = brother, garitli = sister, garitla = clan, garitle = alone
  • hamo = father, hami = mother, hamu = parents, hama = shelter, hame = orphan
  • keto = uncle, keti = aunt, ketu = uncles and aunts, keta = older menbers of the clan, kete = alone (no older there)
  • tijo = cousin, tiji = cousine, tiju = cousins and cousines, tija = younger members of the clan, tije = alone (no younger there)
  • brego = nephew, bregi = niece, bregu = nephews and nieces, brega = youngers to give shelter, brege = without nephews and nieces

parts of body

  • kwa = hand abstract - for numerals; real hands are kwo, kwi or kwu (will not hope "kwe")
  • lono / loni / lonu = both hands; lon (theoretical lona) abstract for numerals as ten.

more or less abstracts

  • copa = river; the real water of a river = copu
  • cafka = to be lost, cafko, cafki = go wrong, cafcu = error, cafke = deadly mistake
  • gjila = place, where the soul is (grave abstrct); gjile are the real stones of a grave
  • golo = many (as 10.000); the word means the leaf of a gras and is conventionel masculinum and therefore with ending -o.
  • happa-n = lake (the calme of a lake abstract. The ending "n" shows a locative means "at")
  • hita = the remembrance / hito, hiti = I know, hitu = we know / hite = forgotten
  • hoca = the way, hoco or hoci = my way, hocu = the fate and hoce = the world behind
  • lecu = the swamp / leca = moisture, lece = dry
  • pena = power of gods; peno is the spear, penu an army, pene the deads after the battle and peni the unkindness of women
  • pokelo = stone / pokeli = sand, pokelu = earth, pokela = earth as mother of all, pokele = the end of all
  • stoga = spilled blood / stogo, stogi = murder, stogu = crime, stoge = killed person
  • tafaka = secret / tafake = treachery, takaku = good ressource, takato, takati = my knowing
  • topa = wood (the wilderness abstract). Topo is one real tree, topu a real wood, tope the fallen tree
  • wapa = work, wapu = working together, wapo / wapi = work of man / woman, wape = unusable work
  • wapa-l = leader, king (means worker abstrakt with the "l"-locativ for around)
  • wicu = the grass / wicu-l = locativ as "on the (grass) around"

Verbs / Adverbs

  • kalap(ita) = running (-ita is word for to do it now and further, otherwise you use -n- after the verb)
  • huppon = standing, strong
  • kip = flying, watching

Colours

  • taha = blue (as "blue" itself)
  • siga = red
  • faga = yellow
  • sica = green
  • mafa = brown
  • fala = mauve

other

  • tama = water (as water) / tamo = great river, tami = small river, tamu = lake, tame = dirty water