|10, -38.6038, 10.3060|
|Republic of Jardinia|
República de Jardinia
"Y en medio de la mar se alzó un jardín" (Castellanese)
"And in the middle of the sea, a garden arose"
"Himno de las Islas" (Castellanese)
Anthem of the Islands
|• National languages||Lunderic, Obenai|
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary people's republic|
|• President||Rafael Carretero|
|Legislature||Cortes de las Islas|
|• Upper house||Social Assembly|
|• Lower house||Chamber of Legislators|
|• Total||750 km2|
290 sq mi
|• Estimate (2019)||ca. 416,000|
|• Total||$2.63 billion|
|• Per capita||$6,320|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.695|
|Currency||Jardinian supremo (JRS)|
|Drives on the||right|
Jardinia (/dʒɑːrdɪniə/; Castellanese: /xɑrdɪniɑ/), officially the Republic of Jardinia (Castellanese: República de Jardinia)[note 1], is an island country located in the eastern Hesperic Ocean, around 30 kilometres off the coast of Oxhano, in northwestern Antarephia. It comprises 8 main islands and other minor islets, divided into 6 regions called comarcas.
Jardinia is a unitary semi-socialist people's republic which follows a dominant-party parliamentary system. Some international organizations and experts consider Jardinia an authoritarian regime without true democracy and where alarming human rights abuses are committed. Jardinia is a member of the Assembly of Nations, the International Red Shield Movement and the Developing Nations Forum.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy and infrastructure
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The name Jardinia was given to the archipelago by the Castellanese colonizers in the early 16th Century. It derives from the word jardín, which means "garden" in Castellanese, because of the dense forests and biodiversity that covered the islands.
- See also: Timeline of Jardinian history
The earliest archaeological remains found in what is now Jardinia is Las Rodantas Archaeological Site, in Gramín Island, which has been dated back to 10,000 BC aproximately. Most historians agree that either heat waves or wars between tribes in the Antarephian continent led to gradual migrations to the islands. Many prehistoric tribes established in the archipelago between 8000 BC and 2000 BC.
Around 1000 BC, Taukan tribes from now-day Guai arrived at Matano Island and quickly took control of most of the Jardinian islands. They introduced writing and a new political organization. This is considered the first civilization to establish in the Jardinian Archipelago, whose economy was based on agriculture, mining and sea trading.
During the 1st century BC, several internal wars led to the rise of the Borong Civilization, which only had control over the Jardinian islands. The Borong Era was a time of isolation and setback, with many reported genocides and famines.
Castellanese conquest and early colonization
In 1508, Castellanese explorers landed in Western Matano and quickly took control over the whole island and the majority of Zódar Island. The colonizers founded San Juan Bautista (Albún) and San Cristóbal del Monte de Onís (Mondeonís), and named the archipelago as Jardín de la Mar Nueva. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Castellanese established a colony in Jardinia whose economy was based on commerce, stonework and some agriculture. Las Rocas (now Gibalbar), Dosén and Mondonís became important cities and their ports served as a stopover point for ship routes between Tarephia and the colonies in central and southern Antarephia and Kartumia.
Florescentan and Ingerish rule
In 1812, the Florescentan Empire conquered the colony and ousted the Castellanese. The territory became a colonial province and was renamed as Ilhas Jardim.
In 1874, the collapse of the Florescentan Empire and local revolts for independence led by Francisco Yécora forced the colonizers to flee. On November 16th 1874, Yécora declared the independence of the Free State of Jardinia and proclaimed himself president. That same day, hundreds of native Jardinians invaded the streets of several towns to protest against independence and the rule of criollos.
The pro-independence pretensions soon fell on deaf ears when, in that same year, Ingerish colonizers arrived and took control of the islands, partly thanks to the support of natives. Indepence leaders were imprisoned or executed, including Yécora, who is claimed by many chroniclers to have been forced to throw himself into an active volcano, now named Calderilla de Yécora in his honour. The archipelago became part of the Ingerish Empire with the name of New Gardenland, but was largely unattended by its rulers due to its isolation from the rest of the Empire and the apparent lack of resources, leading to constant clashes between settlers, criollos and natives and to failed uprisings against the occupation.
Second Castellanese rule (1905-1959)
In 1905, Ingerland and Castellán signed the Treaty of Winburgh, which granted Castellán full control over Jardinia. They established a protectorate and gave Jardinia some autonomy and self-government institutions, allowing criollos to access important positions and powerful jobs.
Independence and First Republic (1959-1986)
Independence from Castellán was obtained in 1959 through a peaceful transition. Democratic elections were held that year and a new constitution was enacted. During the 1960s and 70s, Jardinia became a modern and richer nation, mostly because of the rediscovery of Naú lead mines (research later found that Taukan tribes had also exploited the mines in the first millennium BC).
In the 1980s, however, tensions started growing as several economic crisis at the beginning of the decade had left 40% of the population unemployed. Political instability also became an issue in 1984, when the Communist Party of Jardinia won 37 of the 50 seats in the Cortes and pushed the right-wing Patriotic Alliance out of the government. The polarization of the society and the two main parties became more visible as violence grew. On one hand, the Communist Party and its allies were preparing for a Socialist Revolution, as they believed it was the only solution to the economic and social crisis; on the other hand, the Patriotic Alliance had concluded that the only way of avoiding a Socialist Revolution was planning a coup d'etât, something on which some members of the army were already working. Both of this events would end up happening at the same time in 1986 and leading to a long and bloody civil war.
Civil war (1986-1991)
- Main article: Jardinian Civil War
Laredo's coup d'etât in 1986 led to a civil war between the Patriotic faction (supporters of Laredo and the Patriotic Alliance) and the Popular faction (supporters of the Communist Party of Jardinia, renamed as Workers' Party in 1987). The war lasted until 1991, when the Popular faction entered in Naú, the last bastion of the Patriots.
Post-war era and People's Republic (1991-present)
In the first years after the Civil War, the government led by Ximénez enacted a quasi-socialist constitution and took many draconian measures, specially towards the political persecution of dissidents. Thousands of pro-Patriots had to go into exile and those who stayed were put through tortures and imprisionment. The government also expropriated most private companies and private media was shut down. This line of action drew Jardinia into the international spotlight. Soon, the pressure from international governments and agencies, including some of Jardinia's allies, led to a change in the political regime, with a new constitution and the adoption of Jardinian socialism.
The Constitution of 1995 establishes a bicameral parliament with a Chamber of Legislatiors for political parties and a Social Assembly for trade unions. Only parties which have adopted Jardinian socialism as part of their ideology are legalized and allowed to concur to elections, which means that in fact only the Workers' Party and allied parties such as the Socialist Party of Jardinia have representation.
In the late 90s and early 2000s, the succesives goverments took liberalizing measures and tried to recover from the wounds of the Civil War. More embassies were built and private companies were given more freedoms.
In 2008, a new turning point took place after the election of Manuel Rojas as President of Jardinia. His government started taking radical measures as the ones from the post-war period, including expropriations, nationalizations, more strict censorships and persecution of dissidents. That combined with the closure of the mercury mines of Naú in 2010, which skyrocketed unemployment and poverty rates, led to an unbearable situation for the Jardinian population.
During the 2010s, civil demostrations and insurgencies have been common. Jardinia currently is one of the poorest countries in Antarephia and has one of the highest inflation rates in the world. Since the resignation of Rojas in 2019, weak and short-lasting governments have tried to calm down the situation of the country.
The islands that form Jardinia sum up an area of about 750 km2. The biggest island is Matano Island, followed by Zódar Island, Gramín Island, Flat Island and Head Island. The archipelago is located in the Hesperic Ocean, 30 kilometres away from the Antarephian continent. The islands are mostly mountainous, with dense forests and fertile valleys and plains, being the largest one the Plains of Zódar.
Grandón is the highest peak of Jardinia at 2079 metres above sea level. During centuries, however, it was believed that the highest mountain was Angradudú, in Matano, which lies at 1804 metres MSL.
Jardinia has a mediterranean climate, with hot or warm summers (Csa to Csb in the Köppen climate classification). The highest mountains, specifically Grandón and Angradudú, have a colder, continental climate (Dsb), and the easternmost parts of Zódar, Gramín and Sargrades Islands have a semi-arid climate (BSk), probably because of the continental winds which bring hot air from the Antarephian Desert.
|Climate data for Jardinia International Airport (1981-2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.8
|Average high °C (°F)||29.8
|Average low °C (°F)||15.5
|Record low °C (°F)||6.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.0
|Average precipitation days||2.4||2.3||3.9||8.7||13.3||16.9||19.1||18.9||17.1||9.9||6.5||3.8||122.8|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||11.5||11.0||9.6||8.3||6.9||5.9||6.1||7.2||7.7||9.6||10.6||11.5||8.8|
|Source: Jardinian Meteorological Agency|
The Jardinian archipelago is home to a high number of endemic plant and animal species, many of whom are endangered. The different climates and habitats that can be found on the islands due to their location and orography have contributed to its wide biodiversity, that includes all biological groups and kingdoms.
Species endemic to the islands include the Jardinian petrel, the green flowereater, the white possum or the giant cardamom.
Jardinia's constitution defines the country as a "people's democracy", which is "guided by the ideas and thoughts of Yécora and Ximénez". Technically, the country follows a parliamentary system, in which the President is elected by a Parliament elected in a general election every four years.
The national legislature is the Cortes de las Islas (Islands' Courts), which is formed by two houses: the Chamber of Legislators for political parties and the Social Assembly for trade unions. The Cortes also elect the President.
Each of the two chambers of the Parliament has 50 members elected by six constituencies (matching the comarcas) by proportional representation.
The main party is the Workers' Party (called Comunist Party of Jardinia until 1987). It was the only party allowed to participate in elections until the constitutional reform of 1995. Through that constitutional reform, the country abandoned the stricter communism that had been Jardinia's ideology since the end of the Civil War, and adopted the Jardinian Socialism.
|Workers' Party||Rafael Carretero||47|
|Socialist Party of Jardinia||Luis Pérez||2|
The executive power is exercised by the Government. The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and is elected by the Cortes. As of 2021, the President is Rafael Carretero.
Normally, the President of Jardinia is also the First Secretary of the Workers' Party, although there have been exceptions. The only president who wasn't a member of the Workers' Party was Arsenio Montálvez, who belonged to the Socialist Party of Jardinia.
The legal parties, which can stand for elections, are:
- Workers' Party (Partido de los Trabajadores, PT) — main party of Jardinia, leader of the Popular Faction in the Civil War and single party from 1991 to 1995. Its ideology is Jardinian Socialism and left-wing nationalism. It is linked to the Workers' Confederation (Confederación de los Trabajadores) trade union.
- Socialist Party of Jardinia (Partido Socialista de Jardinia, PSJ) — socialist party, part of the Popular Faction and ally of the Workers' Party. It has had parliamentary representation since 1995 and is the only "small party" which has occupied the presidency of Jardinia. It had to adopt Jardinian Socialism as part of its ideology in 1995 in order to be legalized.
- Main article: Foreign relations of Jardinia
After the Socialist Revolution and the Civil War, and since the adoption of Jardinian Socialism, Jardinia has had a fluid foreign policy. Despite international condemns to the regime, Jardinia has established bilateral relations with many different countries. Suria, Ohesia and other states in the socialist sphere are the most important political allies and economic partners of Jardinia, but the country also has somewhat cordial relations with neutral and capitalist countries.
The Federal States of Archanta is one of the countries which not only hasn't retaken pre-war-like relations, but also has imposed harsh embargos and restrictions on Jardinian goods and citizens. Oxhano, while having diplomatic relations with Jardinia, is very critic with its political regime and has had many tensions because of illegal immigration, military practices, etc.
On the regional level, Jardinia is quite isolated. Most of its neighbours in northwestern Antarephia have repudated Jardinia's political regime and have failed to establish friendly bilateral relations. The most important economic partners in the region are Guai, Brulias, etc.
Jardinia is a member of the Assembly of Nations since its foundation. It is also a member of the Commonwealth of Castilophone Countries, the Developing Nations Forum or the International Red Shield Movement.
The Republic of Jardinia is divided into 6 regions called comarcas. Each comarca has a capital, a trial court and a local council composed by the mayors of its municipalities.
|Name||Name in Castellanese||Code||Capital||Municipalities|
|Eastern Matano||Matanó Oriental||ME||Gibalbar|
|Montes de Zódar||Montes de Zódar||MZ||Naú|
|Nostras Islands||Islas Nostras||IN||Treana|
|Western Matano||Matanó Occidental||MO||Abidom|
Economy and infrastructure
For centuries, Jardinia's economy has relied exclusively on agriculture, fishing and mining. Nowadays these sectors coexist with other manufacturing industries thanks to the processes of industrialization in the 1960s and in the 1990s. The industrialization of the 1990s made Jardinia one of the fastest-growing economies in the world until the late 2000s and early 2010s, when the crisis hit the country and many factories were closed, sending many people back to agriculture and fishing.
Tourism is a growing industry in Jardinia. In the latest years, governments have tried to promote the country as an international tourist destination. However, tourism is still undeveloped because of the small size of the country, the lack of infrastructure and the strict visa requirements.
Since 2016, the number of international tourists has spiked thanks to the devaluation of the supremo and the construction of new hotels and resorts. To this day, many countries advise against visiting Jardinia due to the social unrest, the action of terrorist groups and the political authoritarianism. In 2018, the country received 140,000 international visitors, with a total expenditure of $90 million.
In the 1990s, the government tried to promote the automobile industry in Jardinia through the National Motorization Plan, which was based on encouraging people to buy FANA cars as a way to promote the industry and the modernization of the country. As part of the plan, the road network in Jardinia was largely improved.
There are a few trunk roads (autorrutas), which are mostly accesses and ringroads in the main metropolitan areas. They have at least two lanes on each way, no level crossings and a maximum speed of 100 km/h.
Conventional roads, which link urban areas, have traffic signs, surface markings and a maximum speed of 80 km/h. Their ID is a letter C followed by the number of the comarca and the specific number of the road.
Rural parts of the country are still conected by precarious roads in which landslides, impassable potholes and accidents are not uncommon.
Buses play a major role in the public transport of Jardinia. In most of the country, the bus is the only means of transportation available other than private cars. A dozen companies operate urban and interurban routes, some of which are state-owned while others are cooperatives.
During the colonial period some rail lines were built to serve ports, quarries and agricultural lands.
Currently there are two operative lines:
- Dosén-Naú line: connects both cities through a 1435 mm non-electrified track. The journey lasts 45 minutes.
- Mondeonís Metropolitan line: runs from Mondeonís city centre to Vonga through Salabar and Calabur. It has a metric gauge and is electrified. A fork connects the main line to Mondeonís Port.
The Matano Rail Corridor is a plan to build a rail line connecting all towns in Matano Island. Although the plan dates back to the early 2000s, construction never started and isn't planned to start in the near future.
Jardinia International Airport is the country's main and only international airport. It is located in Matano Island, near the Mondeonís Metropolitan Area.
Jardiniana de Aviación is Jardinia's flag carrier, and the only airline operating domestic flights within the country.
Most energy produced and consumed in Jardinia comes from non-renewable sources and is generated through thermoelectric and oil-fired power plants. Many of them were built in the 1990s with Surian technology, since much of the energy infrastructure was destroyed during the Civil War. Other sources of energy include hydroelectric plants like the ones in Axal Dam or in Bodesa; the geothermal energy plant in Casadudú; or the wind farm in Gramín Island, financed by the Jardinian and the Surian governments.
In the last years, the Government has reached agreements with international companies to invest in the development of renewable energy plants in Jardinia. These plans include building more geothermal plants, wind farms and solar panels, as well as improving the electric network and ensuring the access to electricity to all of the population.
The supremo is the currency of Jardinia. With an exchange rate of 38,000 supremos for 1 USD, it is one of the most devalued currencies in the world.
Jardinia is an ethnically diverse country. Before colonization, the archipelago was inhabited by indigenous Jardinians belonging to various tribes. Native Jardinians are still a considerably numerous group, representing 10% of the country's population, distributed mainly in the mountainous areas of Matano and Zódar and in Sargrades and Head Islands.
The Castellanese colonization in the 16th Century meant the arrival white Ulethans, which together with mestizos (descendants of Ulethans and Natives) form up 73% of the population.
Another numerous ethnic group is Lunderic, formed by the descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves, mostly of Imani faith, brought by the Castellanese. They represent 12% of the population, mostly distributed along the eastern coast of Matano, specially in Gibalbar, and the Plains of Zódar. To this day, they mantain a unique culture and language, Lunderic, which has a special status and protection.
Castellanese is the official language of Jardinia, spoken and understood by the vast majority of the population. Since its introduction in the 16th Century as a result of colonization, the Castellanese spoken in Jardinia has evolved until becoming a distinct dialect, Jardinian Castellanese.
Jardinia has other two national languages, which despite not being official have a special protection status:
- Obenai, a Taukan-related language spoken by Native Jardinians.
- Lunderic, a language closely related to Mazanic spoken by the Lunderic people (descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves).
Largest municipalities in Jardinia
Source: Centro Jardiniano de Datos y Estadísticas
|1||Gibalbar||Eastern Matano||86,318|| |
|4||El Espartizal||Mondeonís (comarca)||29,720|
|8||Cenoba||Mounts of Zódar|
|10||Naú||Mounts of Zódar||14,210|
The 1995 Jardinian Constitution declares that "Jardinia is an atheist state, but religious freedom is granted in privacy and in temples". As a result, a large percentage of the population is non-religious.
The Jardinian education system is entirely public, with only one private institution allowed: the National Independent Education Centre. In recent years, the economic crisis has led to the deterioration of the public educaction system, which in the 90s and 00s was world-wide known for its quality. Education is free from elementary school to higher education (university). The basic education (Educación Básica) is eight grades long, from 6 to 14 years-old. The middle education (Bachillerato) is four grades long, from 14 to 18. The university education can be three, five or six years, depending on the degree. There is also vocational education (Formación Profesional) which can be two or three years. The only university in Jardinia is the National University of Jardinia. The National Independent Education Centre, despite not being considered a university, offers some valid degrees.
The Consitution of Jardinia guarantees free and universal healthcare. The entire health-system in Jardinia is public and state-owned, from primary care to hospitals, specialties or asylums. Due to the economic crisis and the embargoes some countries have against Jardinia, there are persistant shortages of medical supplies and equipments. Nonetheless, Jardinia is one of the countries with the highest ratio of doctors per habitant and has a life expectancy of 80.4 years for women and 73.5 for men, a favourable figure for a developing nation. The infant mortality rate in 2010 was 14 deaths per 1000 inhabitants.
Jardinia is one of the countries where the AIDS pandemic has been most severe, specially during the Civil War and the postwar years. Over the last decade, the government has succesfully controlled the spread of HIV with the help of NGOs and international organizations. As of 2020, HIV adult prevalence rate is estimated to be around 1.7%.
Since the 2000s, state-owned hospitals and reasearch facilities have performed avant-gard experiments and treatments, and have developed new and succesful pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines.
The Jardinian government directly or indirectly controls most media in the country. The state-owned Empresa Nacional de Difusión (National Broadcasting Company) has the monopoly over television and owns six of the eleven legal radio stations and the most read national newspaper.
Traditionally, the most popular sports in Jardinia have been football and bullfighting. Football was introduced by the Ingerish colonizers in the late 19th century and consolidated during the first half of the 20th century, when the first football teams were founded. In 1942, the Jardinian Football League was established. The most renowned teams are the Unión Deportiva de Gibalbar, the Atlético de Dosén and the Minera de Naú.
Bullfighting saw great popularity in the 1920s and 30s, when Castellanese soldiers, noblemen and chiefs financed the construction of bullrings and imported bulls from Castellan. Many native people started fighting bulls with the purpose of participating in contests and acquiring fame. After independence, bullfighting fell in disgrace as it was seen as a symbol of imperialism and colonialism. Many bullrings were dismantles and the sport was even banned for some years. During the Civil War, however, bullfighting became popular among members of the Popular Faction, and after their victory in the war its popularity was restored. Now, it is one of the most popular yet controversial sports in Jardinia.
In recent years, other sports such as basketball, cycling or martial arts have collected a noticeable number of followers.
- The Jardinian Constitution does not establish any official name for the country, but the denomination República de Jardinia (Republic of Jardinia) was made official in a 2002 ordinance and is usually used in official documents and international treaties. Nonetheless, other denominations such as República Popular de Jardinia (People's Republic of Jardinia) or República Cooperativa de Jardinia (Cooperative Republic of Jardinia) have been used in a few occasions.
Geography: Biota · Comarcas · Geology · Municipalities
History: Province of Ilhas Jardim (1812-1874) · Province of New Gardenland (1874-1905) · Protectorate of Jardinia (1905-1959) · Civil War (1986-1991) · Jardinian Crisis (2010-present)
Politics: Foreign relations · Jardinian socialism · Military
Society and culture: Bullfighting · Languages (Jardinian Castellanese · Lunderic · Obenai) · National symbols · Notable people · Universities