Litvania

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Republic of Litvania
Litvenská republika
National Seal
FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
"Boh, Česť, Vlasť"
God, Honour, Fatherland (unofficial)
Anthem:
Litvény sa poratujú! (Litvanians will rescue themselves!)
Location within North Central Uletha.
Location within North Central Uletha.
Capital
and largest city
Loravia
Official languagesLitvanian
DemonymLitvanian
GovernmentParliamentary Republic
 • PresidentAndrej Maliar
 • Prime ministerMaria Lincová
LegislatureParliament
 • Upper houseSenat
 • Lower houseSejm
Area
 • Total22763.44 sq. km[1] km2
 • Water (%)to be calculated
Population
 • Estimate (2020)2,600,000
 • Census (2020)2,565,342[2]
 • Density112.7/km2
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
 • Total$101.5 billion
 • Per capita$39,561
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
 • Total$63.72 billion
 • Per capita$24,841
HDI (2016)Increase 0.86
very high
Timezone+5:30 (no DST)
CurrencyLitvanian Korona (λ) (LKR)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.lk

Litvania (Litvanian: Litvensko, officially Litvanian Republic, Litvenská republika) is a lakeside country in North Central Uletha. It is bordered by Zalivnia to the west, UL180G to the northwest, Beldonia to the northeast, and Drabantia to the east. Litvania's territory spans 22,700km2, and is mostly mountainous. Its population is estimated at 2,000,000, and consists of mostly ethnic Litvanians. The largest and capital city is Loravia, and the official language is Litvanian.

Slevic tribes arrived and populated present day Litvania in the 2nd century BC. Together with the Drabantia they united to create the first independent state in the area, Grand Loravia. This state fell to numerous invasions by the neighbouring Egalians. The Egalian Empire ruled Litvanian territory for 300 years, until an uprising led by the Dranians liberated Litvania's lands. This new state was referred to as the Union of the Drabantian Crown Lands. In the 15th century, the Egalians gained power again and invaded. The period from 1379 to 1617 was characterised by enforced violent conversions of religion and banning of the Litvanian language and culture. Many items of cultural importance are destroyed by the Egalians. Litvania gained more power and recognition during the 16th century, when many reformist movements emerge around the region, and the Empire loosened its grip on the province. The country gained much larger regions of territory in the Wars of the Emperor's Crown, when Litvanian militias conquered much of today's northern Litvania.

The country gained its independence in 1780, after a conflict with the loyalists supported by the Egalian monarchy ended in the Third Peace of Loravia. The mid and early 19th century saw large industrialisation, much like its neighbours, however Litvania struggled with political unrest and economic stagnation. As a consequence of the urban industrial environment, many in Litvania listened to communist and socialist ideas, beginning a large movement that would anger the ruling aristocracy and wealthy business owners. As a reaction, the Litvanian political scene started to be populated increasingly with nationalistic and later fascist movements, which gained much support in the early 20th century. After an election victory in 1920, the National Party for the Workers of Litvania began an era of dictatorial, militaristic rule in Litvania which lasted until 1945. This period is characterised by extreme nationalist policies and political suppression, expansionism and militarism, as well as economic growth. The left-wing movements which had been forced underground came to power in 1945, supported by Drabantian members of the Socialist Front. The Litvanian Revolutionary Committee ruled the country from 1945 to 1960, causing economic disasters with food shortages and inflation. The socialist government was dissolved in 1960 by its president, Ludovik Kohler, after 5 years of unpopularity had rendered continued rule useless.

The Second Litvanian Republic was officially established in 1961. Since then, the country joined the AN in 1980, and has participated in many global economic and social unions, such as the Egalian Union, which it joined in 1986.

Litvania has a high income advanced economy, an increasing and high HDI, with a very high standard of living, and performs well in civil liberties, human rights, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness indexes. Litvania has a free market economy, and citizens are provided with free healthcare, free education and the right to economic activities.

Etymology

Main Article: Etymology of Litvania
Where exactly the name Litvanian comes from in Ingerish is unknown, however is believed to be a simple transliteration from the Litvanian name of the peoples. Historians have done little research as to where the name comes from in the Litvanian language, but have come to a reasonable conclusion that it comes from the Proto-Syrillangan word for "peoples", lid. Variations of this name were first used by the Drabantians, as Lidvane, Lidvanie or Lidvaně. Surians also used the Ludvanye, Lydvanye or Lydvane names. The Litvanians themselves apparently later changed the d to a t for an unknown reason, believed to be under Egailian influence, who called them the Litvins.

History

Prehistory

The earliest evidence of settlement in the area today known as Litvania dates back to 1700BCE, with the archaeological consensus being that those who settled were likely eastern-migrating Egalians and proto-Gaermanic peoples. Around the 3rd century CE, after invading present-day Drabantian territories, Suric peoples migrated further westward to Litvania and settled around the banks of the Brah and Lorava rivers, building the first Slevic cultures in the region.

The Yunic invasions necessitated an increase in fortifications, such as Strechov castle.

During the 6th century, the Litvins (the Surics who settled Litvania) were on the frontier of Slevic expansion in the region, with their western borders being constantly raided by Egalian and Gaermanic peoples. After the Gaermanics were assimilated and the Egalian raids petered out, numerous feudal rulers emerged in the area, just before the Yunic invasion in the 7th century. Numerous records mention a powerful Egalian tradesman, Lajos, who settled in modern-day Loravia. According to records, he pleaded with the King of the Egalians to provide him with an army to defeat the Yunic invaders and protect the frontier. Lajos helped the Litvanians win the battle, and as a gift of honour from the local populace, he was proclaimed Regent of Grand Loravia, the first distinctly Litvanian state entity.

The entire area was christicised in the 9th century.

Grand Loravia (8th - 9th century)

King Stanislav I. of Grand Loravia, considered the first Litvanian monarch.

After a number of border wars with the Egalians, the first King, Stanislav I, was crowned in Loravia in 750, marking the beginning of the Stanislav dynasty. The country emerged as a stable but weak force, a poor situation with the emerging Egalian Empire on its western borders. In 823, Stanislav II ascended to the throne. He greatly expanded Litvania's territory southward, establishing the trading port of Jankovar on the Egalian lake, which would greatly help trade. The majority of Litvanian Egalia was also conquered under his reign.

Egalian conquest and the Drabantian Crown Lands (11th - 14th century)

Tapestry showing victims of a famine caused by the economic strangling of the Union being buried.

Until 1020, Litvania remained a growing and stable, but still weak, state on the frontier of Slevdom, when it was invaded by the Egalian Empire and conquered completely. The Egalians continued their conquests further east into Drabantian Egalia and parts of Drania.

The Empire started to fall apart in the 11th century, and, together with the Drabantians, Litvanians fought an uprising in the area to liberate their lands from Egalian rule. This uprising was successful, however, Litvania was absorbed into the Union of the Drabantian Crown Lands, rendering it a semi-autonomous province of Drabantia. During this time, the military significance of Litvania increased, as the Micheny mountains started being seen as more strategically important against Egalia. The union was relatively prosperous; with the two nations coexisting in peace and trade.

Around the 13th century, the Egalian Empire started to become powerful again. Most of the lands surrounding the Union were conquered by the Egalians, which inhibited trade and communication with most other nations. This situation destroyed the Union economically, and increased political tensions among the people. In 1377, king Bronislav III was assassinated in Tresno, and the Empire immediately threatened invasion, unless certain demands were met. Despite their demands being satisfied, the Union was invaded and decisively defeated in 1379.

Further Egalian rule and unrest (14th - 17th century)

The Egalian attitude toward Litvania was very apathetic, many of its rulers did not consider it a real state, but merely a Drabantian puppet in the way of further expansion. As such, the Egalian rule in Litvania was cruel, combined with Emperor Brenald III's hatred of ethnic minorities, caused untold suffering for the Litvanian people. Despite its roots in Egalian and Gaermanic cultures, Litvanian cultural artefacts were destroyed, churches burned, the Litvanian language was banned in official communication, and the Egalians enforced a policy of strict and ruthless Egalianisation. The Drabantian Black Death, which had killed 150,000 people, spread along trade routes to Litvanian cities and killed a further 75,000.

In the 15th century, while the anti-Egalian Kossite movement was gaining serious attention in Drabantia, Litvania remained a quiet and pacified state under firm Egalian control, though there were silent undercurrents of resistance and dreams of self-rule, as in the days of Grand Loravia. In the 16th century, a wave of reformation swept Central Uletha, and the Egalian Empire fell victim to numerous economic crises. After three episodes of famine, in 1576, 1588, and 1591, the population was dissatisfied, poor, and hungry. Litvania was hit particularly hard by the famine of 1576, which killed over 100,000 people, and caused massive political instability as even the ruling class of the country could not feed itself adequately. This dissatisfaction, combined with the assassination of Emperor Theodor I in Tresno, resulted in a general insurgency in the region. The Wars of the Emperor's Crown were fought intermittently between 1600 and 1617, and resulted in a stalemate, and another famine in 1616. The only gain for Litvania was the addition of the northern provinces of Freske and the Micheny mountains as core Litvanian areas. The war was ended in 1617 in the First Peace of Loravia, which gave autonomy to the provinces of Drabantia and Litvania.

Margraviate of Litvania and Drabantia (17th - 18th century)

Litvania and Drabantia existed within the Empire as the Union of Litvania and Drabantia, and in 1622, Drabantian noblewoman Alzbeta Boravska was elected marchioness, thus creating the Margraviate of Litvania and Drabantia.

Under this arrangement, with autonomy and sympathetic rulers, Litvanian culture saw a massive revival and restoration. Litvanian national spirits were raised high as cities were restored, the Litvanian language was made a secondary official language in the Union, and the churches were formed. In 1678, when the Vaclav dynasty took power, the people criticised the monarchy for being too sympathetic to their former Egalian oppressors. After Vaclav II was stabbed in Tresno in 1716, the Empire declared war on the Union, resulting in the Second Peace of Lorava, in 1721. This event is often cited as the tipping point for Litvanian-Drabantian relations, as in Litvanians' eyes their former allies had sold them to their former oppressor. It came to be known to the Litvanians as the proditione Drabantii (Latin for "Drabantian betrayal" or "treachery").

Modern history (18th century - present)

Post-separation and early republic

The Ascension of Stefan I., by Jan Hrust.

Following the war, Litvania remained a highly autonomous kingdom of the Egalian Empire under Ludomir I. The monarch appointed an early form of parliament (known as a parliament but actually an assembly of rich nobility) to serve as interim legislature. The parliament was ordered to work on several documents, including the first drafts of the Basic Law; the proto-constitution of the kingdom. With the king being old, sick, and near death, the parliament tried to negotiate a deal with the future monarch of having a dual-power system between the king, who would rule by overseeing and advising the parliaments’ activities, and the Parliament, which would be composed of 230 individuals appointed by the king, and would be responsible for advising the King on current events and various issues. The monarchy was at first reluctant, wishing to preserve absolute power. After many uprisings and social unrest due to poor economic conditions and very high taxes, and after the Parliament promised to address these issues if independent, the monarchy conceded. In 1730, Ludomir died, acceding Stefan I to the throne, creating the First Republic of Litvania where monarchy and parliament shared rule under a dual-power system.

As Litvania was under the Egalian Empire, the people were starting to get sick of the political despotism, colonialist attitude, and apathy of the Egalians toward the Litvanians. Movements created by theologian and poet Jan Prosek to secede from the Empire in order to maintain full independence and prosperity gained in popularity. By 1770, this movement had caught the attention of the government. The government opposed the growth of the movement, as it threatened the legitimacy and existence of the monarchy if it rose to prominence. Despite the staunch action against the secessionist movements, many members of the Parliament joined as a protest to the inflexibility of the monarchs, who continued to cling on to their political powers.

After a series of confrontations over the status of the common peasantry, the monarch dismissed the Parliament. This event triggered many violent uprisings in towns and cities across the country. The army was unable to effectively suppress these rebellions, and some garrisons defected.

Republican War

These events were the start of the Republican War, with the king commanding the loyalist troops and the former members of Parliament commanding the republican side. The loyalists lost stronghold of many key cities, such as Kolin, cradles of liberal ideas. By 1780, the war had been decisively lost by the loyalists, who appealed to change for peace.

First Republic of Litvania

After the war had ended, the monarchic system was adapted, with almost all power being taken away from the monarchy and given to the Prime Minister, an elected member of parliament. The constitution was rewritten to assure freedom of speech and press, as well as distance the government from religious institutions. As a state, the First Republic had a difficult start, suffering from poor agricultural yields and an economic crisis that starved almost 50,000 people in the 1790s.

Rise of nationalism

Gen. Radoslav Koller, the chancellor of the NSPL addressing followers at a party rally in 1923.

As Litvania entered the 19th century, the country saw rapid industrialisation like its neighbours. Many rural peasants migrated to cities to find work in factories, and a railway network was built throughout the 1840s. With the rise in industrial society, many workers' unions were formed. A small group started a political movement known as the Edwardites in 1852, inspired by the writings of Edvard Kočiš, a proto-socialist critic of the industrial economy. The Edwardites continuously pressured the government for worker's protections, and redistribution of wealth among the common folk. The movement was quite popular, with many parliament members showing affection for the ideals of Kočiš.

In the early 20th century, largely as a reaction to the Edwardite movement, Litvania saw a rise in nationalism. Many nationalist movements started to form around the country. Many nationalistic sympathisers and anti-Edwardite supporters backed these movements, who eventually formed the National People’s Front (NPF) in 1904. The nationalists believed in a large Litvanian state, with all Litvanians living under this state. A small fraction of the NPF started gaining ground in the 1910s known as the National Party for the Workers of Litvania (NSPL), which had an unseen combination of ethnic nationalism, socialist social policies, and militaristic expansionism. This group was active in the streets of Litvanian cities, mugging and robbing known Edwardite sympathisers. In 1915, the NSPL split from the NPF, and ran for elections, which they won in 1920, amid a national economic crisis and nationalistic fervour. The NSPL gained enough support in government to get 119 seats out of 230, getting a plurality of 47.8% of the vote in the September of 1920.

Women were given the right to vote in parliamentary elections in 1917.

National worker's dictatorship

SP officers raiding a suspected undeground hotspot, 1937.

After their election, the nationalists developed the "5 year plan"; an economic plan to reduce unemployment and boost economic growth, which they promised to enact if they got elected into the majority of the Parliament. The plan promised to improve industrial and agricultural output, creating jobs and giving educational opportunities.

After the election, the nationalists quickly enacted an “Emergency Protection Act” to dismiss the constitutional monarchy and government. The military also gained a large role in the daily lives of citizens - rapid militarisation, the army tripling in size due to aggressive conscription and large armaments manufacturing. Military police detachments were formed to police order in the cities. By 1921, the NSPL had totalitarian power over the population. The štatná policia (state police) was formed and systematically carried out purges of non-Litvanian citizens as well as terrorised those who did not conform to the party line. In 1924, the first internment camps for political prisoners opened.

In 1935, Litvania invaded the Litra region of Zalivnia, beginning the Litvano-Zalivnian conflict. The NSPL leadership promoted the idea of an "Imperium Litvanica" - a Litvanian state stretching from the hills of Luhava to the plains of eastern Egalia, where Litvania had once conquered the Egalians. This aggressive expansionism would heavily strain the Litvanian economy, despite its growth, and lead to massive disapproval for the government.

The previously popular Edwardite movement was forced underground, and was still active during the NSPL era. In 1940, Litvania suffered an economic crisis that left over 350,000 unemployed, and many more in poverty and hunger. The socialists organised a protest with over 25,000 attendees, but the government responded by shooting the protesters. This event largely removed support for the regime. After two failed attempts, the vodca was assassinated during a military parade in May 1945.

Socialist coup and Litrevkom

After the assassination, small sleeper cells of socialist supporters and agents assumed control of different agencies in the chaos. Various leaders were arrested and executed. The Litvanian Revolutionary Committee (Litrevkom, Litvensky revolucionarny komitet), supported by the Drabantian Socialist Front, established a fragile government led by Michal Korcak.

The new government set about removing demagogues and old leaders of the nationalists. In 1950, the government attempted to collectivise all Litvanian agriculture, which led to mass starvation in rural areas, and protests from anti-socialist organisations. Support for the socialists further declined when a protest against total redistribution in 1955 was countered with the military firing on civilians. In January 1960, the Litrevkom decided to dissolve itself, fearing another bloody coup from the growing democratic opposition.

21st century

After the dissolution of the Litrevkom, a new constituent assembly and provisional government of ministers was established, following a snap election. The Second Republic of Litvania is founded on the 14 April. The country is reformed into a new direct democracy, with a president as a head of state and prime minister as head of government. A parliament of constituent members is given powers to create and improve laws. The government adopts a division of powers and a secular ethic. The country joins the AN in 1980, and has prominence in various cultural and scientific organisations, with a mission to the Southern Islands. The country had its latest elections in 2016, with the Centrum party gaining most votes.

Geography

Panorama of the Micheny range, as viewed from the east of Lyšperk.

Litvania lies between the 53° and 56° latitude parallels and between 85° and 88° longitude meridians.

Litvania's landscape is relatively varied for its small size. Much of the country is noted for its mountainous nature, with the Micheny mountains extending in a northeast-southwest direction across half of the country longitudinally. Much of the north of the country is occupied by subsidiary ranges, such as the Prebis Mountains, the Luhavian Highlands, and the Litvanian Ore Mountains. The southern portion of the country; the Litvanian Lowland, is a fertile lowland, covered in forests. Forests cover 56% of Litvania's surface land area. The highest point in the country is the Trispica, at over 2301m ASL.

All waterways in Litvania drain into the Egalian Lake. The largest rivers, the Lorava and the Brah, act as two drainage watersheds for almost all other rivers in the country. The water that drains from Litvania all eventually drains into the Great Rift Sound via the river Ina. The longest and largest river is the Lorava, which has its source in the Western Micheny range and flows into the Egalian Lake. The biggest volume of discharge in Litvanian rivers is in spring, when the snow melts in the mountains.

Litvania is divided into four historical lands; called krajinas, each of relatively small area: Litvanian Egalia (Pomorie), Loravia, Prebis, and the Northern Regions. These lands are historically significant and correspond geographically to the boundaries of the different landscapes that make up the country.

Climate

The climate of Litvania is varied, and is of the continental temperate type. Summers are usually humid with high temperatures, and plenty of rainfall. Winter on the other hand are dry, with very cold temperature and moderate snowfall. The coldest months are December through February, with an average low being around -0.5C. These months usually experience low humidity, and moderate snowfall, though sometimes snowstorms do occur. During the warmer months, the average temperature reaches up to 22C. Weather during this period of the year is characterised by high humidity and intense periods of rainfall.

The lowest temperature was recorded in 1965, in a valley in the western Micheny mountains, in the village of Dolne Kostelice. The highest temperature was recorded in 2018, in Loravia.

Climate data for Loravia (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
(68)
19.1
(66)
25.0
(77)
30.3
(87)
33.4
(92)
36.3
(97)
38.2
(100)
39.3
(100)
34.0
(93)
30.0
(86)
21.3
(70)
17.9
(64)
39.3
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 2.7
(37)
5.1
(41)
10.3
(51)
16.7
(62)
21.8
(71)
24.9
(77)
27.5
(82)
27.0
(81)
21.7
(71)
15.6
(60)
8.2
(47)
3.3
(38)
15.4
(60)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.4
(31)
1.2
(34)
5.5
(42)
11.0
(52)
16.0
(61)
19.1
(66)
21.3
(70)
20.7
(69)
15.9
(61)
10.4
(51)
4.9
(41)
0.7
(33)
10.5
(51)
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
(26)
−2.3
(28)
1.3
(34)
5.4
(42)
10.2
(50)
13.4
(56)
15.4
(60)
15.0
(59)
11.0
(52)
6.1
(43)
1.8
(35)
−1.9
(29)
6.0
(43)
Record low °C (°F) −24.6
(−12)
−20
(−4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−4.4
(24)
−2
(28)
3.0
(37)
7.0
(45)
5.0
(41)
−2
(28)
−8
(18)
−12
(10)
−20
(−4)
−24.6
(−12)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 39 37 38 34 55 57 53 59 55 38 54 46 565
Average relative humidity (%) 83 78 71 64 67 66 64 65 73 78 83 85 73
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.1 81.9 151.9 204.0 263.5 270.0 275.9 269.7 207.0 142.6 60.0 46.5 2,038.1
Source: Litvenský meteorologický institut / Úrad meteorologí a pohody UVL

Economy

Litavnia is a developed, high-income economy. It's GDP per capita is equal to 35% of the de facto GDP per capita of the Egalian Union, Litvania's direct economic partner. The country has had difficulties addressing wealth imbalance by region, but programs are underway to improve the situation.

In 2017, the ETDB reported that:

The Litvanian Republic continues to show robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and large inward investments being encouraged and made.

Litvania was ranked as the 42nd richest country in the world in 2019.

Industry

Main office of the aerospace concern MIC.

Although most of Litvania's GDP comes from its tertiary sector (services), there is still a large industrial capacity in the country left over from the 1930s and 1920s. The country's main industries are automotive manufacturing, aerospace and defence, and electrical engineering. The country has the region's highest automobile manufacturing per capita in 2018. About 120,000 people are employed directly and indirectly by the automotive industry in Litvania. Major manufacturers are include Iven in Molburg, Zeta in Nové mesto nad Brahom.

For aerospace and defense companies, there is MIC Aerospace in Loravia, with manufacturing plants all over the country, and employing over 40,000 people.

Electrical engineering companies include Rexconn and LEEP, both involved in assembling TVs and computer monitors.

Transportation

Aircraft taxiing at Loravia Airport.

Litvania is a developed Ulethan country with an extensive road and railway network.

There are 5 motorways; A1-5, and one expressway, E1. The A1 connects Loravia to Bajakovo, Nikolia; the A2 connects Kolin to Nové mesto n/Bráhom, the A3 connects Jankovar to the A1, near Tresanov; and the A4 connects the A3, near Vlno, to Loravia.

There are currently 8 bridges over the Lorava in the Loravia. They are (from upstream to downstream) Renov Viadukt (rail), Prvý Most, Nalachov Viadukt (rail), Nalachov Most, Nový Most, Klimeného Most, Klášterný Most, Lasockého Most, and Prístavný Most.

The city's road system is of a radial-circular shape. Lately, there has been an increass in road traffic, putting preassure on the road system, and forcing an expansion soon. There are about 150,000 cars registered in Loravia (about 2 inhabitants per car).

Loravia's International Airport is the main international airport in Litvania. It serves both domestic and international scheduled and unscheduled flights. It is located about 9km from the the city center. The current runways support all types of commonly used passenger, military and general aviation flights. It has been slowly gaining popularity within the country and has enjoyed over 12,000,000 passengers since it opened to the city as an international airport in 1995. Smaller airports in Litvania include Molburg International Airport and Jankovar Airport.

The Port of Loravia is one of 3 international ports, but is the only international river port in the country. It gives Litvania access to international waters, and even the Great Rift Sound through the river Ina. Tourism boats operate from the port to give tours of the northern part of the river.

Tourism

Naturally occurring features in the Litvanian landscape include mountains, caves, cliffs, and ridges. The country boasts many spas, ski resorts, medieval castles, towns, villages, and churches. Most of the country's towns and cities are built around castles or forts of some sort. Many ANESCO heritage sites are located in Litvania.

Politics

Palace of the Constitutional Tribunal of Litvania in 2007.

Litvania is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The last parliamentary elections were held in October 2015, and presidential elections took place in December 2016.

The head of state and head of the executive is the president, though with very limited powers. The president is elected by a direct popular vote in a two-round system for a four-year term. Most of the power lies in the head of government, the prime minister. The prime minister is not elected, but appointed by the head of state, and is almost always the leader of the winning party in parliamentary elections. The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on recommendation of the prime minister. The current president is Andrej Maliar, the 15th president.

Composition of the parliament after the 2019 election.
Green
- Center Party
Navy blue
- Our Litvania Party
Blue
- Social Democracy
Brown
- National-Socialist Party of Litvania
Grey
- Christian Party
Red
- Edwardite Legacy Party

The highest legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral Parliament of the Litvanian Republic. Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation.

There are three equally powerful judicial bodies responsible for administering law in the country. The Constitutional Tribunal for violations and protection of the constitution, the National Administrative Court for legal procedures, and the Supreme Court of the Litvanian Republic for civil cases.

The Constitution of the Republic of Litvania was ratified on the 16 September 1960, and made effective on the 1 January 1961. It was amended in 1970 to allow for the direct election of the president, and again in 2012 to allow for same-sex marriage.

Office Name Party Since
President of the Litvanian Republic Andrej Maliar Centre 1 January 2017
Prime Minister of the Litvanian Republic Maria Lincová Centre 1 November 2015
Speaker of the Parliament of the Republic of Litvania Jirí Buzak Non-partisan office 2 April 2014
Supreme Overseeing Justice of the Republic of Litvania Peter Lindeman Non-partisan office 19 May 2019

Foreign relations

Litvania is one of the safest countries in the world, according to the World Peace Index.

The country is a member of the Assembly of Nations since 1962, and participates in its specialised agencies. The country was accepted into the Egalian Union in 1986, and maintains two of its agencies; the Egalian Aviation and Maritime Safety Agencies, within its territory. Litvania also participates in the Ulethan Alliance for Culture, which it jointly founded in 1980.

Litvania maintains permanent missions in most countries in the world, and all foreign embassies are hosted in Loravia, with minor honorary consulates in Molburg.

Military

Main article: Litvanian Armed Forces

Litvanian soldiers during an exercise in 2019.

Litvania maintains a small, primarily defensive military force in the form of the Litvanian Armed Forces. It consists of the Litvanian Army, Litvanian Air Force, and the Litvanian Naval Defense Force. The LAF numbers 25,000 uniformed personnel in total.

The Army consists of three active mechanised infantry brigades. The Air Force consists of three tactical air wings, and one naval aviation wing. Various training, logistical, and intelligence support units are under the broad command of the General Staff.

Administrative divisions

Litvania's administrative divisions were decided after the collapse of the NSPL regime, dividing the country into 11 kraje, which divide further into 55 okresy, which divide further into municipalities. Loravia has the special status of hlavné mesto (capital city).

Numerous criticisms have blamed the overblown division for large regional spending, and overcomplications in administration. A referendum took place in May 2020 on whether or not the region system should be simplified into four or five large regions. The vote turned out 78% in favour, and plans are being prepared to abolish the current system.

Region name
in Ingerish
Region name
in Litvanian
Abbreviation Administrative seat Area
in km2
Population Population density
in residents per km2
Map
Litvanian Egalia Pomorie PO Jankovar 2866.05 177,458 61.9 [1]
Central Mountain Region Stredohorský kraj ST Lešovský Hrad 1523.09 143,660 94.3 [2]
Loravia Hlavné mesto Lorava LO Loravia 416.13 665,212 1598.6 [3]
Lower Loravia Region Dolnoloravský kraj DL Bohdanovce na Lorave 522.65 80,873 154.7 [4]
Western Region Zapadný kraj ZA Nikolín 922.04 125,056 135.6 [5]
Molburg Region Moliborský kraj MO Prerieče 986.08 200,673 203.5 [6]
Upper Western Region Záhorský kraj ZH Bánovce 1107.93 74,212 67.0 [7]
Lysava Region Borovnický kraj BO Lysava 1014.98 96,857 95.4 [8]
Micheny Region Michenský kraj MI Tranberok 2576.58 47,527 18.4 [9]
Prebiš Region Prebišský kraj PR Lyšperk 4324.08 110,346 25.5 [10]
Brah Region Pobražský kraj PB Nové mesto nad Bráhom 3861.88 579,212 150.0 [11]
Tirsten Region Tirstenianský kraj TR Tirstená 620.28 96,900 156.2 [12]
Northern Region Seversko SV Freské 778.24 79,628 102.3 [13]
Northwestern Region Severozapadný kraj SZ Sviborce 1133.96 87,728 77.4 [14]
Total (average for density) 14 22650.97 2,565,342 112.7

Demographics

Litvania's population is just over 2,500,000 inhabitants. The average population density is 210 inhabitants per square kilometre. According to the 2020 census, the largest ethnic groups are Litvanians (87.3%), Drabantians (6.35%), Zalivnians (4.1%), and Beldonians (2%).

In 2020, the median age of Litvanians was 41.

The largest waves of Litvanian emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries, which caused almost 1.2 million people worldwide to be of Litvanian descent or ancestry.

Languages

Main article: Litvanian language

The official state language is Litvanian. Drabantian is spoken widely throughout the eastern regions. Zalivnian and Beldonian have small language communities in Litvania along the western and northeastern borders respectively. A minority language is granted co-official status when its prevalence exceeds the required 15% threshold in a given municipality in two consecutive censuses.

Litvania was ranked in the top 100 countries for knowledge of foreign languages in 2019.

Religion

The majority of Litvanians follow the Western Christic religion.

The Litvanian constitution guarantees freedom of religion. In the 2020 census, Litvanians identified as being Western Christic (67%), Eastern Christic (15.7%), and Irreligious (10.6%), with 6.7% not answering the question on their beliefs. In 2004, about one third of Litvanians regularly attended church services. Before 1934, there were an estimated 85,000 Jews in Litvania. Most were murdered during the purges carried out by the NSPL.

In 2020, they were 15 state recognised religions, of which 10 were Christic, and 5 were Jewish.

Education

The AN Educational Index ranked Litvania in the top 50 worldwide for education in 2009. Compulsory education in Litvania exists for ages between 4 and 18. The first stage, between ages 4-6, is kindergarden, or priedškola. At age 6, children enter primary school, or základná škola. This lasts 6 years, until age 12, when the students are given a test in math and the Litvanian language, and given a choice to continue to secondary school (gymnázium) or enroll in an art gymnasium or technical gymnasium. Secondary school lasts until age 15, when students take another test in mathematics, physics, Litvanian language, and history, and geography. This test enables to give them a choice on whether to continue to high school; liceum, or to enroll in a vocational school (učilištia), technical college (technikum), or humanities college (humanistické collegium). High school lasts till age 18, when students complete their secondary education and apply to universities.

Litvania has a wide range of universities. The oldest is the University of Loravia, which was founded in 1378, by King Bronislav III. Universities in Litvania are publicly funded, so anyone can apply.

Culture

Folk tradition

Folk tradition has rooted itself deeply in Litvanian culture, and has reflected itself in the literature, cuisine, architecture, and art of the country.

Litvanian culture manifests itself in many ways, most popularly through the "Zapadná striela" festival, which occurs in March every year in the town of Hanušov. There also a large cultural society in the country, the "LLKK", the Litvanian Folk Cultural Collective.

There are many examples of traditional Litvanian architecture in the Micheny and Prebiš regions. The most notable example of this is the well-preserved village of Levočské Údolie. This architecture is different from that of its neighbours due to the relative oversupply of timber and hard wooden construction materials, and relative difficult of access to softer materials. Most of it is protected by Litvanian law as cultural heritage.

Art

Visual arts in Litvania are represented mainly through painting, drawing, illustration, printmaking, arts and crafts, and sculpture, with photography and conceptual art making an appearance during the early 20th century. The Litvanian National Gallery, founded in 1856, houses two exhibitions; one in Philipp's Palace (Filipyho palác) in Loravia, and one in the Mountain Barracks (Horné kasárne), on the Lorava riverfront.

The Molburg City Gallery of Visual Arts is the second largest collection of international art. It offers an exhibition in the Michelara Palace (Michalého palác) in the city centre.

Literature

Early Litvanian literature includes translations of the Christic Holy Text (Sväté spisy).

Medieval literature in Litvania was mainly written in Latin or Egalian, as the primar controllers of written media were institutions such as the Western Christic Church, strongly founded in Egalian culture. The first major text discussing Litvania's history was the Chronica Litvaniensis, written in the 1400s by an unknown author, most likely an Egalian.

Two leading persons are now considered to be codifiers of the Litvanian language - Kvetoslav A Luaínn and Miroslav Fryder. A Luainn was the creator of the first Litvanian concept language, based on the southern Egalian dialects spoken in Jankovar and Litvanian Egalia in the 1400s. Fryder on the other hand created the first Litvanian alphabet, with all modern orthography, adapted mostly from Drabantian in the early 1600s.

Cuisine

Litvanian cuisine is based mainly on pork, poultry (chicken is most popular, followed by duck, goose, and turkey), flour, potatoes, vegetables, and various m dairy products. It is closely related to the Drabantian and Zalivnian cuisines, though with some influence by Beldonian cuisine in the northern regions.

Wine is commonly cultivated and enjoyed throughout Litvania. Special kinds of northern wine are made, most notably in the Stredohorie region, with the Váreň and Brotzmann varieties being most popular. Beer is also popular and widely produced.

Sport

Sport is practiced widely throughout the country, many on a professional level. Ice hockey and football have been the traditional sports, with over 150 professional clubs registered between the two sports.

See also

References

Regions of the Republic of Litvania
Litvania-seal.png

Loravský krajPomorieMoliborský krajPobražský krajZáhorský krajZapadný krajSeverskoTirstenianský krajBorovnický krajMichenský krajPrebišský krajStredovýchodný kraj

Litvenska Flaga.jpg
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