|4, 72.0, 26.2|
|Republic of the Northern Lands|
"'Góðir vindar, ríkar strendur - lánsöm, blessað Norðurland'"
'Good winds, prosperous strands - blissful, blest Norðurland! '
|• National languages||Sigalenska, Bjarnalenska, Nærs|
|• Upper house||Þjóðarráð (National council)|
|• Lower house||Þjóðþing (National assembly)|
|• Total||1'614'936.73 km2|
|• Estimate (2014)||About 20 Million|
|• Total||Not sure yet|
|• Per capita||Not sure yet|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.78|
|Currency||Norlensk króna (NOK)|
|Drives on the||left|
Norðurland, officially 'þingræðislyðveldi Norlenska' (ing. the parliamentary republic of the Northern Lands) is a country in northern Uletha. It is one of the ten most biggest countries of the world; however, large parts are only sparsely inhabited due to their cold, harsh climate. Its capital is the city of Frjálshöfn, while the city of Markvað holds the seat of government and is also the largest city of the country with more than four Million inhabitants. This duality was arranged to emphasize the geographical dichotomy but unity of Norðurland.
The historical roots of the nation are situated around 500 AD, when loose groups of clans started to interact and partly unite. The Norðmanni were seafarers and used their knowledge to explore, to trade but also to pillage. Today, the country's expanse roughly resembles their former lebensraum.
In today's form, Norðurland exists since 1903 when both parts of the country were united in the now called First Republic. However, the borders of both former countries were stable for a much longer time before the unity.
Between 1952 and 1984, the land was governed by a cruel military regime which made Norðurland to teeter on the brink of economical and social collapse and led it into political isolation. However, in 1984, a civil uprising led to the proclamation of the Second Republic and the abolishment of the complete military juggernaut. Since then, Norðurland has quickly developed from a backward, isolated land into a flourishing, emergent country.
Today, Norðurland is well-known for its leading role in environmentalism and is also noticeable for its anti-automitive politics and the focus on public transport facilities. In politics, Norðurland follows a strictly pacifistic attitude and consequently abandoned all military facilities in 1984. The country plays an important role on the international resource market and is one of the leading countries in the microelectronics industry. Most of the nationwide institutions are state-owned, including telecommunications, the postal service, the road and rail network as well as a very high amount of facilities and industries. The economic politics of the government are highly protective. The government's primary economic aim is to achieve a high level of income equality and a high standard of education for all citizens.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Nature
- 3 Administrative division
- 4 History
- 4.1 Ancient times
- 4.2 Rise and fall of the 'Norðmanni'
- 4.3 The Vinna (Vinnic League)
- 4.4 Bjarneland and Nærsland in the middle ages
- 4.5 Bjarneland and Nærsland in the early modern era
- 4.6 Sigurðland in the early modern era
- 4.7 Industrial revolution
- 4.8 Nationalistic attempts and the first civil war
- 4.9 The First Republic
- 4.10 The second civil war
- 4.11 The coup d'etat and the Stríðþing
- 4.12 The Rauðsumar
- 4.13 The Second Republic
- 4.13.1 Abolishment of the military juggernaut
- 4.13.2 Nærsland's longing for independence
- 4.13.3 Economic recovery and revival
- 5 People and Culture
- 6 Politics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Infrastructure
Norðurland mainly spreads out from 10th degree of western longitude to 62th degree of eastern longitude and from 59th to 79h parallel. However, some smaller islands are situated beyond these boundaries (west of the above map excerpt). More than half of the country's land mass is situated north of the arctic circle.
Basically, Norðurland is divided into two large main parts: a south-western part, called Bjarneland, and a north-eastern part, named Sigurðland. The parts are named after two kings and national heroes. Both parts are traversed by an extensive mountain range. In general, the shape of the landscape is rather hilly; only small planes can be found. In the middle, the Hleðesund (the strait of Hleð) forms an aquatic barrier between both parts. In the north-east and west of the country, large island ranges can be found: the Nærsland bank in the west and the Eldureyjar (the fire islands) in the north.
Water plays an important role in the geography of Norðurland. More than 80 % of the country's border is situated offshore. Five large bay-like oceanic structures are part of Norðurland. The largest one is situated between the Nærsland bank and the Eldureyjar and is called either Norðsþverganga (the northern passage) or Stórhornið (great horn), where the latter one is a more historical expression. Between the Nærsland bank and Bjarneland, the Þokusjór (the misty sea) is located. To the south, it is separated from the Western Ocean by the Lænsund (the strait of Læns). The epicontinental sea at Bjarneland's eastern shore and south of the Hleðesund is called Finsjór (Vinn Sea). Connected to this, the sea south of the provinces of Sigalðsfylki and Hafiðfylki is called Sigalðsjór. This is a regional designation; officially, it is a part of the Vinn Sea. The Heittsjór (the warm sea), is located at the south-eastern border to Ingerland.
The south-western part can be divided roughly into a southern and a northern half. The south - which in fact is just called 'Suður' (the south) by most Norlenskers - is remarkable for its high grade of urbanization. Lots of cities can be found there, which are often merging into each other. Some of them count more than a Million inhabitants. More than three quarters of the country's population is living here, due to the good climatic conditions in this area. This is also the reason for the extensive agricultural usage of the more rural areas of the south.
The relation Kræðingsmynni - Stægishólmur - Ritgrjót - Stykishólmur can be seen as demarcation line between the south and the north, although this isn't a governmental separation line at all. But north of that imaginary line, the landscape and population density are rapidly changing, while south of that line, the above description mostly matches.
The northern part is characterized by a gradually decreasing population density (more in the south, less in the north). The largest cities can be found along the eastern coastline, followed by the western. The very north is covered by widely spreading forests and lots of smaller and larger lakes, which gives that region its name: Þusundvatnasfylki - the land of thousand lakes. The largest part of this region is influenced by its location north of the arctic circle.
The north-eastern part can also be divided into two halves. The northern part is notable for the highest mountain ridge of the country, which spreads from north to south and forms the border to Norðurland's neighbour state Konsíat. This region, which is mostly covered by the province of Eldfjallafylki (the land of volcanoes), lies completely north of the arctic circle. Large snow fields and glacial structures can be found there, as well as the highest elevations of the country with more than 8.000 metres. On the other side, a high number fjords form the characteristic shape of the coastline with its hundreds of smaller and larger bays and islands. Only smaller cities and towns can be found here; most of them are home to less than 1.000 inhabitants. However, this region is intensively used for mining and energy harvesting, which requires people to live in this harsh environment.
On the other side, the southern part, which is formed by the provinces of Austurfylki, Sigurðfylki, Frederikfylki (the southern halves of these provinces) and Hafiðfylki is quite similar to the northern part of the south-western half of the country. A very outstanding place is the capital area with the largest city of the north-western part; Frjalshöfn. Due to a very sharp water stream in the Sigalðsjór, a sandbank was formed, which slowly developed into a vast lagoon. Protected against the cold and wet climate of the rest of the country by the large mountain range in its north-west, the capital area has a quite mild climate, which explains why Frjalshöfn is the only city on the noth-eastern part of the state with over a million inhabitants.
The Nærsland bank
The island range in the west of Norðurland is called Nærsland (which roughly means 'the nearby islands'). These islands are characterized through extensive, hilly grasslands. Strong winds inhibit the formation of larger trees and forests. The islands also experience the most rain of the whole country. This is due to their exposed location in the very west, which makes them vulnerable to the oceanic climate conditions with its strong west winds.
The Hleðesund Islands
The islands, situated in the center of the country, are in between of both country-parts and share their characteristics. Historically seen, these islands played a tremendous role in the development of Norðurland as it is today. The Hleðesund islands are forming one half of the province Hafiðfylki (which can be translated into 'the land at the seaside').
Norðurland is adjacent to four other countries. Bjarneland neighbours to the countries of Ingerland and Slavonia, while Sigurðland neighbours to the countries of Konsíat and UL150. If you count the "maritime" neighbors abutting to the Vinn sea, Norðurland is also adjacent to Bayland, Florescenta, Ionadàlba, Ísztianország, Kalm, Bloregia, Schwaldia, Tircambry, Gwalia and Wesmandy.
In genereral, Norðurland's climate is influenced by strong west winds, which bring mostly cold, wet weather. Some parts of the country are more or less protected against these climate conditions by mountains, especially the western shores of the Vinn Sea. The average yearly temperature varies as the country spreads out extensively.
As large parts of the country are situated north of the Arctic circle, they are heavily affected by the long polar days and nights. The warmest part of the country is the southern coast, due to a warm ocean current which moves from the south-west towards the coasts of Sólinfylki and Ingerland. Due to that current, Sólinfylki experiences an unusual mild climate for its geographic position, which in turn leads to a very intensive landuse.
Norðurland has lots of it. Lots of wood, ice, elks 'n stuff. Details are coming soon...
Norðurland is divided into 12 federal administrative units, the fylkið (provinces). Five fylkið are located on Sigurðland, another five on Bjarneland and the remaining two are forming the Nærsland bank. The fylkið are:
|Code||Name||Ingerish Transcription||Capital||Area (km²)||Inhabitants||Time Zone||Remarks|
|AF||Austurfylki||Eastern province||Jaðafor||???||???||WUT +3|
|EF||Eldfjallafylki||Land of the volcanos||Kærivík||???||???||WUT +0/1/2/3||Largest fylki, smallest pop. density, completely north of the arctic circle|
|FF||Frederikfylki||Frederik's land||Þrírborg||???||???||WUT +2|
|HF||Hafiðfylki||Shoreland||Frjálshöfn||???||???||WUT +2||Frjálshöfn, the state capital, is situated in HF|
|IF||Irinðurfylki||Land at the Irinður||Irinður||???||???||WUT +1|
|LF||Lúpininnfylki||Land of lupins||Silfurvík||???||???||WUT +1|
|NL||Nærsland||Nearby islands||Kristalvatn||???||???||WUT +1||Archipelagic province, least inhabitants, capital in Þúsundvatnafylki|
|SF||Sigurðfylki||Sigurð's land||Fleiribæjarhlaði||???||???||WUT +2|
|SL||Sólinfylki||Sunny lands||Markvað||???||???||WUT +1||Most inhabitants, most southern|
|SN||Suður-Nærsland||Southern nearby islands||Lænshøvn||???||???||WUT +0||Semi-autonomous|
|ÞF||Þúsundvatnafylki||Land of thousand lakes||Sigaldsfjörður||???||???||WUT +2|
|VF||Vesturfylki||Western province||Stægishólmur||???||???||WUT +1|
Each fylki consists out of several sýslur (counties) which serve some medium scale administration. Their size can vary and is roughly proportional to the population density; in Sólinfylki, they tend to be rather small while in the less populated areas, they can be as large as whole islands, as it is in Hafiðfylki.
On the lowest layer of administration, the umdæmin (prefectures) form the communal entities of the country. Singular communal entities are called sveitarfélag.
A lot to be said here... But not yet. For now, just a little outline
Rise and fall of the 'Norðmanni'
The Vinna (Vinnic League)
Bjarneland and Nærsland in the middle ages
Bjarneland and Nærsland in the early modern era
Sigurðland in the early modern era
Nationalistic attempts and the first civil war
Republic or constitutional monarchy?
The Nærsland annexation
The First Republic
The second civil war
The coup d'etat and the Stríðþing
The Konsiat conflict
In 1961, Norðurland started a conflict with it's eastern neighbour Konsiat. In the previous years, large-scale geological reconnaissance works were carried out in Eldfjallafylki. They were very promising and it was obvious that those deposits would likely continue in Konsiat. Due to the strong military force, Norðurland evaluated the possibility of a successful invasion and started to move military units to Austurfylki and Eldfjallafylki.
The invasion began at the 6th of April 1961. The first movements happened in the north, were naval forces invaded the konsiatish islands and ground forces moved into the country from the north. Until the end of April, Norðurland has invaded the northern half of Konsiat, when the movement stopped. By that time, the konsiatish forces obtained support from neighbouring countries. Norlensk forces were able to hold position until mid of may. From then on, the opponent forces regained konsiatish ground. Norðurland's troops quickly moved back to protect norlensk territory in Austurfylki, where the opponent forces gained a foothold. By the end of may, only the konsiathish islands were still occupied by norlensk forces. The rest of the old border could have been restored. At this time, both parties stopped searching further military confrontation. The government of Konsiat decided to fefrain from taking the islands with military force. However, officially, both nations were continuing being at war and were not interested in any diplomatic exchange. This situation continued to exist until 1985.
The Hleðesund conflict
The deficits in the national budget continued to grow, mainly due to the growing military expenses. To cope with the growing debts, the Stríðþing searched for new sources of income. In march 1980, the naval command came up with the idea to block the passage through the strait of Hleð. At the narrowest point, the strait consists of two relatively narrow passageways around the island of X. To block those ways, relatively few ships are necessary. This was possible because the whole strait of Hleð used to be situated in Norðurlands territorial waters.
In august 1980, the Stríðþing announced that with the 1st of september, all passages through the Hleðesund were going to be unfree. Every ship would have to pay a per-ship and also a per-tonne-load tax As the strait of Hleð is the only passage from the Vinnic sea to the Western ocean, this would have affected the trade relations of all twelve littoral states of the Vinnic sea, namely Bayland, Florescenta, Ionadàlba, Ísztianország, Kalm (partly, as it has a second shore directly with the Western ocean), Lanyenja, Schwaldia, Slavonia, Tircambry,UL150, UL175 and Wesmandy.
As many of these countries did heavily rely on transcontinental maritime trade, the protest against this tax was immense. However, the norlensk Stríðþing was't willing to give in. So with 1st of september 1980, all ships which wanted to enter the Hleðesund from the Western Sea were intercepted and prevented from continuing towards the Vinn Sea unless they would have payed the tax. On the other side, ships in vinnic harbours didn't debouch as they wanted to observe the situation first.
As it became clear that Norðurland unsheathed, the vinnic states met in XYZ to discuss how to proceed. The conference, lasting from 3rd to 5th of september, operated under an enormous time pressure. Every day without maritime traffic had huge economic consequences. The result of the conference was the forming of a military alliance to built pressure on Norðurland.
However, there were slight differences between the level of involvement in the temporary alliance from country to country. Kalm, which also directly abuts to the Western Ocean, was not so much interested in participating in that alliance as the local trade on the Vinn Sea wasn't affected by the norlensk blockade. However, the country participated in the non-military measures, which included suspension of any diplomatic activities as well as suspending economic treaties.
The foreign ministers gave Norðurland an ultimatum: if the blockade of the Vinnic Sea would not have ended until september 10th, military action against Norðurland would be taken.
As expected, Norðurland didn't even react to the threads (as it was the case in former conflicts). The norlensk military was predominant by numbers, so the Stríðþing didn't see any reason to relent. The ultimatum elapsed without any official reaction. However, both parties moved military units towards the strait of Hleð in the meantime.
On the morning of 11th september, naval military forces of all allied countries escorted civilian ships from their harbours towards the territorial border of Norðurland, where they already were already awaited by norlensk naval forces. Additionally, both sides started reconnaissance flights. The military presence was immense on both sides and led to several risky situations.
Again, the alliance issued an ultimatum: if the passage of ships was not allowed until the morning of 12th september, ships of the alliance would open fire against norlensk military units. However, Norðurland forestalled and opened fire to some ships on midnight.
... to be continued ...
Ancillary conflict: Norðurland - Ingerland
The blockade of the Vinn sea led to the search for alternative transport routes. Mid of september 1984, Kalm, Scandmark and Ingerland reduced customs fees for all affected countries if they send goods from or to their harbours. This was a great relief, however, Norðurland reacted with penetrating Ingerland's territorial waters to block ship traffic. This forced the government of Ingerland to join the alliance against Norðurland.
... to be continued ...
The trade embargo didn't miss it's purpose. Prices in Norðurland kept rising constantly. Finally, in 1984, a poor harvest due to severe weather conditions in early summer let the prices explode; in September, some products had a price more than four times higher as the month before. The people in the greater cities were hit especially hard by this shortage. In Markvað, the price for a loaf of bread rised from 0,8 Ҝ to 3,4 Ҝ in just two months. Even for the still quite well-situated middle class, this was not affordable anymore. The discontentment of the norlensk population rised to a new climax. However, the situation remained calm due to a massive military presence, especially in the larger cities.
Assassination of Anna Túrsson
The situation escalated when the very popular singer-songwriter Anna Túrsson was found dead in the morning of the 12th of september 1984. Túrsson was a castigator of the regime and wrote many songs in which she confronted the Stríðþing directly. Her last song, Rauðsumar, was seen as call of resistance and was judged by the Stríðþing as incitement and high treason against the country. Her assassination lead to a protest gathering of more than 50 intellectuals.
... to be continued ...
Overwhleming the military in Markvað
Defect of the 2nd and 4th division
The Stríðþing resigns
The Second Republic
Since the government abandoned the military juggernaut once and for all, lots of money which was bound to military expenses (more than 50 % of the GDP of 1983) can now be invested into the development of education and infrastructure. Sage political strategies led to a strong economic growth over the past 30 years. Instead of privatizing all nationwide institutions like the postal service, the telecommunications and the rail network, the government holds its hand above these facilities and does not try to run them primarily as cost-effective as possible, but as useful for the people as possible. In fact, Norðurland has a very high amount of nationalized facilities and nationalized industries. For example, more than 90% of the mining sector is controlled directly by the state.
Abolishment of the military juggernaut
One of the first decisions of the new parliament was the complete abolishment of the military juggernaut. As the military was deeply enrooted in the society, this was a very complex process. However, the parliament was to be determined to shut down all military facilities until the end of 1985 - a quite ambitious plan.
Ensuring the uselessness of the military
One of the most notable acts in the process of the abolishment was the disclosure of almost all classified military information by the government, including detailed site and technical information, communication frequencies and techniques, intelligence and weaponry information and much more. This act was taken as a measure to render all military information and operation virtually useless.
This very unique, delicate act was highly recognized by the international press (with headlines like The great undressing or Norðurland drops it's pants), as well as foreign governments, armies and the armament industry. Norðurland even received threats of war by other states if it would release any sensible information about foreign military facilities, weapon systems or national intelligence. In the end, the government managed to archive it's goal (even if there were some very radical voices demanding the disclosure of all known military information): rendering the military apparatus useless and avoid collateral damage by harming other nations.
Recognition by the Assembly of Nations
Additionally, the government published all known and accessible information about the war crimes during the military regime and charged many military leaders. Unfortunately, many of them managed to leave the country in time and disappeared. Until today, only one fifth of the charged persons could be sentenced. The rest lives still in the underground of other nations.
The charging of the military leadership was one of the most important steps to get recognized by the Assembly of Nations.
Appeasement politics and the Vinnic Economic Community
Besides the act of scorning the military junta, the new government intensively tried to establish itself in the political and economic global circus. Huge efforts were made to present Norðurland as a serious and reliable economic and political partner.
As one of the first foreign-policy acts, Norðurland officially settled the Konsiat conflict by relinquish the two islands it annexed years before.
The next act was to relinquish parts of the maritime territories in the Hleðesund to create two state-neutral passages through the strait. This officially ended the Hleðesund conflict.
The next step was the proposal of an economic alliance between the littoral states of the Vinnic Sea in the tradition of the historic Vinnic League. The proposal led to the foundation of the Vinnic Economic Community, which tries to ease trade between the participating states. However, many states, not only the participants, hoped that such an institution would 'tame' the new partner as no one at this time was able to predict the further development of Norðurland and it's over-ambitious plans.
It was obvious that the abolishment of the military apparatus together with the armament industry, if not organized well enough, would lead into a massive economic disaster and the collapse of the whole country. More than 50 % of the GDP of 1983 was bound to the military sector. Additionally, the armament industry used to be a stable source of state income. But the most important problem the government was confronted with was the accompanying mass destruction of jobs. Norðurland used to operate one of the world's largest military regular armies with more than 5 % of the population being directly involved. Another 10 % of the nation's jobs were affiliated to the military apparatus (like secretaries, mechanics, intelligence, ...) and the armament industry.
In other words: around 15 % of the nationwide jobs in 1983 wouldn't exist anymore in 1985.
Norðurland's new government was interested in bringing high quality industrial facilities to the country. But it was clear that this wasn't to happen in just one year to create new jobs in a sufficient number. So there needed to be a short-handed solution for this problem. The government passed an interim program, which included the following measures:
- extension of the national ambulance and medical service (for military health service units)
- broad infrastructure renewal program (for pioneers and military units)
- more civil aviation and ferry relations (for naval and aerial forces)
- establishment of a technical emergency service for civil protection and desaster management (for pioneers, health service and military units)
- establisment of a border protection unit as part of the police (for military reconnaissance units)
- broad retraining programs for all kinds of professions
- payment subventions for partially non-placable "hardship cases"
Nærsland's longing for independence
Economic recovery and revival
Most of the taken measures to strengthen the national industry and trade were successful and were leading to a steady economic expansion, with it's first peak around 1990.
In 1989, Norðurland participated in the Expo '89 and presented itself as a reliable trade partner with a focus on natural resources as well as the microelectronics sector. In the same year, it was awarded the contract of being host to the world exposition 2009.
People and Culture
Norðurland is completely secular. There is no official religion and everyone is welcome to practice any personal conviction, as long as this doesn't interfere with the national security.
The flag of Norðurland as well as all other flags and national symbols have been redesigned in 1984. The national flag symbolizes the forces of nature which the country experiences. Both sides of the flag stand for the corresponding part of the country - Bjarneland on the left and Sigurðland on the right.
On the right hand side of the flag, the colours red, white and black stand for the volcanic activities, the glacial mountains and the volcanic stone, mostly basalt which can be found all over Bjarneland. The left side of the flag shows the colours green, white and yellow, which stand for the extensive grasslands of the Nærsland bank, the snow which most of Sigurðland experiences in winter and the sun of which the south of Norðurland benefits from.
In the middle, a blue vertical strip is shown, which symbolizes the forces of the water that on one hand separates both parts of the country from each other, but on the other hand unites them as central element in daily life and history. Seafaring is an important part of history for both halves, which were independent countries once but are now united.
In the upper left, the flag of the semi-autonomous province Suður-Nærsland can be seen.
Each fylki has its own flag. Additionally, Bjarneland and Sigurðland also have their own flags, which are basically the associated half of the national flag, supplemented by a blue frame (which symbolizes the surrounding water) and the heraldic animal in the middle, an erected, green respectively red dragon (see Coat of arms for a closer description).
The Flags of Bjarneland and Sigurðland hoisted besides the national and regional flag in front of all national buildings, according to the respective part of the country.
Coat of Arms
The coat of arms was also redesigned in 1984. The new government didn't want to use the insignias of the military regime anymore. So, they decided to re-use the emblems and insignias of the First Republic. However, to symbolize that the government had the true intention to break with all former, they announced a contest to refurbish the coat of arms. The result is a very modern approach to the symbolism.
Two dragons, only outlined, a green one for Bjarneland and a red one for Sigurðland are holding a shield which shows a frontal view of a historic long boat. In the background, two wings ascend to the sky. Under the feet of the dragons, the national motto can be seen, enclosed by a stylized backwards folded banderole.
Both dragons are facing each other as a sign of unity. They are also facing the shield, the boat and the implied water. Like on the flag, the water stands for what separates and unites both parts of the country by the same time. The unity is also emphasized by the boat inside the shield. Norðurland once was a great nation of seafaring (before it fell apart into smaller kingdoms) - respected and feared. Boats meant weapons and defence (also emphasized by the shield) but also wealth through trade. The boat stands for all of these aspects.
The wings in the background symbolize divine protection (Norðurland has been taken under the wings of the gods) as well as wind in the sails of the boat. It also symbolizes the 'nation's eternal will to ascend and aspire'.
However, the coat of arms isn't very favoured by heraldists due to its "too simplistic, minimalist design which breaks with nearly all of the heraldic tradition".
The national motto says: 'Góðir vindar, ríkar strendur - lánsöm, blessað Norðurland'.
This means: Good winds, prosperous strands - blissful, blest Norðurland!
It is mainly a verse of the times when Norðurland used to be a nation of seafaring. The government of the Second Republic decided to use it as a national motto because "Our nation needs to remember it's most glorious past to look forward to our bright future and to forget about the dark, depressing times which we just left behind us. Norðurland is off to new strands - may they be as prosperous as the motto suggests."
The norlensk anthem is an adapted a pop song. Rauðsumar was written by the norlensk singer-songwriter Anna Túrsson in 1983. A few months after she wrote that song, Túrsson was assassinated due to her engagement against the norlensk military regime. Text passages in Rauðsumar were seen as 'rabble-rousing' by the Stríðþing. When her death was getting known, it sparked off protests in Markvað which directly led into the popular uprising which ended the time of the military regime.
As well as Túrsson's song, the uprising later was called ''Rauðsumar''. Anna Túrsson has the status of a national hero until today and her music is still popular in modern Norðurland. However, her song Rauðsumar was chosen as national anthem because of the glorifying aspect of a very common natural phenomenon in Norðurland and its character as song of the revolution.
Norðurland is a unitary parliamentary republic with two houses: the national assembly as the lower house and the national council as upper house.
It was seen as a big mistake of the First Republic that the fylkið had their own federal parliament. Today, Norðurland is governed by a centralized parliament which decides over the fate of the whole country. However, the communal entities (umdæmin) have their own regional parliaments to debate and implement (or not) the decisions of the national government.
Modalities of election
In Norðurland, there are two types of elections:
- The big election is held in a five-year cycle. Here, all political instances are elected at once.
- The small election gives the people the ability to marginally change the distribution of seats of the national assembly. It is held every year.
There is no form of an election of specific persons. The parties create listings of candidates for the regional parliaments and one for the national assembly. The seats are given by percentage to the most successful parties.
In regional parliaments, there is a 3% hurdle, in the national assembly, a 5% hurdle is given. However, the Nærslands rödd as a minority party does not need to take this hurdle in the national assembly.
- The ballot has two votes:
- The first vote counts directly for the regional parliament and indirectly for the national assembly.
- The other one counts for the national council.
The allocation of seats in the regional parliaments and the national assembly happens as follows:
- The ballots are tallied by umdæmi.
- The number of seats of each umdæmi is allocated to all parties with a result of more then 3 %.
- One seat in the regional parliaments is given per 100 citizens (rounded up)
- Then, the votes for a party (those with a result under 3 %, too) in all umdæmin of a Fylki are added together.
- The calculated sums of each fylki are then averaged (added together and divided by 12 - the number of fylkið).
- These averaged number of all parties have to be normalized to 100 %
- The seats of the national assembly then are allocated to all parties with a normalized result of more then 5 %.
- One seat in the national assembly is given per 10000 citizens (rounded up)
The allocation of seats for the national council happens as follows:
Norðurland's political scene is diverse and covers a large spectrum of meanings and opinions. Some parties focus on special interests, others can count as classic major parties. The following table summarizes all parties of the second republic which were able to make it into one of the regional parliaments.
|Logo||Name (ing. translation)||Alignment||Chairperson|
|AF||Afram! (Move forward!)||social democratic||TBD|
|BF||Bílstjóri flokkur (Car driver's party)||conservative, pro-automotive||TBD|
|FT||Framtíð (Future)||liberal, economists||TBD|
|GL||Grænt land (Green land)||green, eco-socialists||TBD|
|MN||Móðir náttúra (Mother nature)||green, preservative||TBD|
|NR||Nærslands rödd (Voice of Nærsland)||minority party, green, social democratic||TBD|
|OJ||Okkar jörð (Our soil)||agrarian, liberal||TBD|
|RÞ||Röddþjóðarinnar (Popole's voice)||populist, conservative||TBD|
|SN||SameiNorður (Sameinaður Norðurland, united Norðurland)||democratic socialists||TBD|
|VF||Við fyrst! (Us first!)||conservative, nationalistic||TBD|
|ÞF||þjóðar flokkur (Peopole's party)||conservative, liberal||TBD|
|ÞT||þingfulltrúi (civic party)||green, democratic socialists, civil rights movement||TBD|
The elections in the Second Republic tend to result in a strong majority for the left wing.
The country is well-known for its leading role in environmentalism. More than 40 % of the country is protected. Also, more than 90 % of the nation's energy demand gets covered by regenerative sources. Clean energy is available in abundance, hence the government keeps prices down, which in turn allows energy-intensive industries to produce cheap in Norðurland. Besides, the country has the highest taxes on automobiles and petrol in the world. Only cars which do comply with Norðurland's extremely strict exhaust regulations may be imported. In the country, there is a large market for e-cars. But the government does a lot to encourage its citizens to pass on automobiles completely and use the well-developed rail network instead, with reasonable success. The industry has to meet very high environmental standards, too. However, Norðurland generates the largest part of its GDP through resource mining and microelectronics production, which leads more and more to conflicts between environmentalists and the industry, strongly attended by public discussions with a highly environmentally sensitized population.
Military, national security
After the military regime was overthrown in 1984 during the Great Popular Uprising, the national assembly decided to abandon all military facilities throughout the country. Since 1985, Norðurland doesn't have an army at all. The abandonment is established by constitution.
Instead, the police took over the border guarding on one hand, while on the other hand a civil technical emergency service and desaster protection unit was formed. Also, Norðurland decided to forbid the production of any armamentin the country. The armed police forces have to obtain their weaponry from foreign manufacturers.
Additionally, the extraction of uranium and all other nuclear substances which are used for military purposes was forbidden in 1987.
Since 1986, Norðurland is a full member of the Assembly of nations. Its strict anti-war politics is reflected in the country's expectation towards other nations: the act of war of any country in the world is seen an as act of humiliation of human rights by constitutional law and is highly scorned by the government.
Furthermore, Norðurland is a founding state of the Vinnic Economic Community.
Traditionally, Norðurland generates a huge part of its wealth from resource mining. The fishing industry is also a large part of Norðurland's economy. But in the last 20 years, the tertiary sector gained more and more importance, especially in the southern part. The digital revolution with its ups and downs, which was initiated by the upcoming of the Internet, largely affected Norðurland's economy since the parliament decided to enforce the development of the 4th sector by very generous funding programs. Although the early euphoria about the new possibilities is mostly gone, Norðurland managed to become an important player in the digital industry. Many manufacturers of semiconductors have factories in the country, as well as many "internet companies" decided to operate from here.
Nevertheless, resource mining is still an important factor of Norðurland's industry. However, natural protection is getting more important and new mining projects recently got a lot of attention in the media and are highly criticized by lots of people through the whole society.
The portion of agriculture in the GDP is decreasing year by year, however, there are still lots of agricultural facilities. The most important branch is the fishing industry, followed by the woodworking and furniture industry.
Due to its location, agriculture in Norðurland is mostly based on stock farming , as well as milk and wool production. Land cultivation is found only in the southern fylkið, which leads to more and more problems due to the dense and still increasing population in that area.
As mentioned before, resource mining and processing still have a huge impact on the whole economy.
The financial center with the national stock exchange is situated in Frjálshöfn.
In the Second republic, tourism is getting more and more important. Since the 2000s, Norðurland banks heavily on sustainable and eco-tourism.
Due to its geolocation, Norðurland is an important winter sports country. Lots of reputable competitions are situated in the country. With two mountains higher than 8.000 metres, Elðfjallafylki is a magnet for mountain climbers. In the summer time, Norðurland offers many hiking and travelling possibilities. In the south, surfing is a popular sport during the warm months. However, yachts can be seen at any coasts in Norðurland during the whole year.
One of the most traditional microelectronics industries, Noratæk NBV (founded as Norlensk Bakskauslammet Verksmiðja, norlensk cathode tube factory), was founded in 1932 as a producer of radio valves. In 1943, the competitor Rafeindatækni Norðurland (RN, electronic Norðurland) was founded.
During the military era, those companies achieved some important breakthroughs in the area of microelectronics. In 1959, a chair for microtechnology was installed at the university of Markvað, followed by one for microelectronics in 1966. Due to the influence of those chairs, several other microelectronics industries were founded or opened facilities in Norðurland. This was lucrative as the government decided to use more and more clean (and cheap) engergy. Additionally, due to the abundant lagerstätten of the required resources in Norðurland, electronics production tended to be cheap from the beginning. This made Norðurland to the most important centre of microelectronics and microtechnology in the early stages of the electronics era. While lots of other branches of the economy stagnated or declined, this branch flourished.
The parliament of the second republic noticed the beginning boom of the microelectronics industry. As part of their workplace substitution program, they decided to intensively lobby and support the microelectronics sector, as well as the neccesary related physics and chemistry research branches. Today, there are international renown institues of microtechnology and microelectronics at the universities of Markvað, Frjálshöfn, ... and ... .
The national road network is bound to the administrative layers of Norðurland. National roads are maintained by the country itself. They are the backbone of Norðurland's road network. Some of them already are or are scheduled to be transformed into motorways. Federal roads are maintained by the 12 provinces. Similar to that, district roads are managed by disctricts as well as local roads are managed by the counties.
The quality of the network is very heterogeneous, heavily depending on the latitude. Only in the most populated regions in the very south, all roads are asphalt-covered. But even in Solínfylki, unpaved roads can be found in the mountains. Going north, the amount of paved roads gradually decreases until beyond the 68th parallel, almost all roads are unpaved.
The rail network in Norðurland is one of the most extensive and intermeshed in the world. It is the backbone of the national traffic and plays an important role both in freight and passenger transport. In less developed regions of the state, the rail network is less dense, but even there, passenger service is granted and well used.
The whole network is under control of the state. An own ministery is responsible for keeping the network intact and organizing transport services. Going by train is the favourite option for many Norlenskers as it is cheap and lots of relations are offered. During the last years, the state is heavily investing in the expansion of the network; especially in high speed lines. Besides, lots of money is being invested into the realignment of older, curvy tracks.
Due to its extensive coast line and lots of islands, Norðurland also has a well-developed ferry network. In the northern parts of the country, ferries once were the only possibility to reach certain cities during winter. Also, ferries are essential to traverse the Hleðesund. Especially in this part of the ferry network, lots of rail ferries can be found.
Airports can be found all over the country. The largest and most frequented airports are situated in Markvað and Frjálshöfn. But there are also plenty of regional airpots, offering lots of domestic flights all over the country. The reason for this is the large size of the country, which results in lots of long-distance traffic relations. Also, the division of Norðurland into two halves and lots of islands makes flying essential when it comes to fast cross-Hleðesund traffic relations. Many parts of the country which are difficult to reach, especially during winter, have a regional airport with at least one or two frequently offered, winter-save flight relations.
In a large state with difficult climatic conditions, such as Norðurland, transportation systems are hard to develop and even more hard to maintain. During the military regime and until 1990, only few investments were made to keep the state's road and rail network in a reasonable condition, and even less efforts were made to extend the network. Until today, there is no continuous motorway link between the two most developed areas in Bjarneland (Sólinfylki and the Irinður - Sigurðsfördur region) which leads to daily traffic breakdowns in many cities. Due to that fact, domestic flights still are a central part of cross-country traveling when going by railway is not an option.
In 2000, a new government was elected, which subsequently came up with a huge infrastructure extension plan. This plan includes the construction of a large high speed rail network throughout the country and faster construction of cross-country motorways. Reducing flight and individual traffic is an important goal of this plan, because environmental protection gets more and more attention in the schedules of the authorities.
The Þvert-sund verk (sund crossing project)
The Hleðesund divides the state into two halves. Traffic with start and destination on both parts have either the possibility to use the ferry network or take airplanes to reach their destinations. Both is rather unsatisfying, since switching means of transport is always necessary.
Together with the infrastructure extension plan, a large bride crossing project was enforced. In the future, there will be a link between both of the country's parts, allowing cars and trains to traverse the sund without the need of ferries. This project got the most attention of all projects bundled in the IEP and is discussed controversially.