Politics of Arcantonie

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Politics of Arcantonie
16th Parliament of the Republic of Arcantonie
Presidential Coats of Arms, Navy blue shield with stylised waves and tree on the front
Type
Unicameral Parliament of Arcantonie
Leadership
PresidentDammon Martin
Vice-PresidentNeil Williamson
SpeakerJames Great
Structure
Seats150
Arcantonie Election Party Diagram.svg
Political groupsGovernment
  Socialist Party of Arcantonie: 52 seats
  Communist Party: 23 seats
  Liberal Socialist Party: 17 seats
  Conservative Traditionalist Party: 36 seats
  Green Party: 4 seats
  Bolstony Party: 8 seats
  Alternative Party: 5 seats
  Pirate Party: 2 seats
  Independent: 1 seat
Elections
Proportional representation
Last election11 May 2015
Meeting place
Parliament Building
Atara, Arcantonie
Website
http://www.parliament.gov.ar/index.php



The Politics of Arcantonie take place in a framework of a presidential democratic republic, whereby the President of Arcantonie is the head of government in a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the president, advised by a cabinet. Legislative power is vested in both the president and the National Congress[1]. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature and operates under the legislation of the Supreme Justice Minister of Arcantonie. The Steinberg Foundation rated Arcantonie as "flawed democracy" in 2016.[2]


Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Dammon Martin Socialist Party of Arcantonie 16 May 2015
Vice-President Neil Williamson Socialist Party of Arcantonie 20 May 2015

Executive authority is exercised by the president, who appoints and supervises the Supreme Justice Minister and the Ministerial Assembly[3]. The president and vice-president are directly elected; each party appoints two representative candidates. The public votes every five years in Presidential Elections where votes are cast for a single party. A candidate will automatically become President if their party receives the largest number of votes, if not then the congress must vote on accepting the prime minister. However, it is uncommon for the successful candidate not to be sworn in, the last such occurrence being in 1967.[4] The president has the authority to dissolve the parliament, and as in a parliamentary regime, the Constitution of Arcantonie provides a mechanism for parliament to replace the president during his or her term of office in case of mental incapacity or gross constitutional violations.

Only the president and vice-president are required to be members of the ministerial assembly. This body advises the president in affairs. In practice, most other ministers are also members; those who are not serve as non-elected members, which permits them to debate within the assembly but not to vote. Within congress, the president is not a member but is able to have his address read out by a minister from the assembly of ministers at convenient times. Under the constitution of Arcantonie, the president is both the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Arcantonie. The President is constitutionally bound to only sit as head of state for 3 successive terms.

Legislative branch

Legislative power of Arcantonie rests in a unicameral National Congress of Arcantonie. In 1985 the composition of the National Congress was reformed. Now 100 members are elected via proportional representation from 10 Geographic Constituencies. Additionally, 50 members are chosen also on the basis of proportional representation from national lists named by the political parties. The president may dissolve the assembly and call new elections at any time, but no later than 5 years from its first sitting. Within Congress, laws can only be passed through a majority greater than 90-60; constitutional amendments can only be passed through a majority of 100-50.

Political Parties and Elections

The current majority party within Arcantonie is the Socialist Party of Arcantonie (SPA). They form a coalition government with the Communist Party and the Liberal Socialist Party in congress [5]. For other political parties see List of Political Parties in Arcantonie. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Arcantonie.

Judicial branch

The highest judicial body is the Court of Appeal, headed by a Supreme Justice Minister. The second level is the High Court, presided over by a Chief of Justice. The president appoints the Supreme Justice Minister and the Chief of Justice. Since 1995 the two roles have been held by the same person, although it is not a constitutional necessity. The Audit Office of Arcantonie (AOA) is the country's Supreme Audit Institution (SAI).

Political conditions

Race and ideology have been the dominant political influences in Arcantonie. Since 1967, the Socialist Party of Arcantonie (SPA) have dominated politics. The SPA draws its support primarily Ethnic Nokong Arcans and urban Francesque and Ingerish populations[6]. Although proportional representation limits the control of the SPA, historic power blocks are formed with the Communist and Liberal Socialist parties in congress. For many years the SPA declared itself a socialist party whose purpose was to make Arcantonie a nonaligned socialist state, in which the party, as in communist countries, was above all other institutions[7]. However, since 2015 the party has moved towards a more autocratic, authoritarian rule.

The overwhelming majority of Arcans of Ingerish and Francesque extraction traditionally have backed the Conservative Traditionalist Party (CTP), fronted by Renso Shijo. Workers in the rural areas form the bulk of the CTP's support, but Francesque Arcans who dominate the country's urban business community outside of Brésenne also have provided important support.

1967-1984

Following independence in 1967, and with the help of substantial foreign aid, social benefits were provided to a broader section of the population, specifically in health, education, housing, road and bridge building, agriculture, and rural development. However, during Mathiel Franheux’s last years as President, the government's increasing attempts to build a hard-line authoritarian communist society caused a massive emigration of skilled workers, and, along with other economic factors, led to a significant decline in the overall quality of life in Arcantonie after 1972.

After Franheux's death in 1979, President Yannick Tirren took steps to stem the economic decline, including strengthening financial controls over the parastatal corporations and regulating the private sector. In August 1983, at a SPA Congress, Tirren announced that the SPA rejected orthodox communism and the one-party state.

1984-1992

As the elections scheduled for 1985 approached, Tirren, under increasing pressure from inside and outside Arcantonie, gradually opened the political system. After a visit to Arcantonie by various Mergan leaders in July 1985, Tirren made changes in the electoral rules, appointed a new chairman of the Elections Commission, and endorsed putting together new voters' lists, thus delaying the election. The elections, which finally took place in December 1985. Elections were witnessed by 100 international observers, including a group headed by Xxxxx Xxxxxx and another from the Assembly of Nations. Both groups issued reports saying that the elections had been free and fair, despite violent attacks on the Elections Commission building on election day, which resulted in the deaths of 15 protestors, and other irregularities.

1992-1997

Example Naggoko Campaign Poster

Choddi Naggako served as transport minister (1967-73) under Franhaux and then minority leader in congress following his split with the SPA until his election as President in 1992. One of Arcantonie’s most charismatic and famous leaders, Naggako was a founder of the People’s Independence Party (PIP) which led Arcantonie's struggle for independence and earned Naggako the nickname ‘Uncle Pip’. Over the years, he moderated his hard-communist ideology. After his election as President, Naggako demonstrated a commitment to democracy, followed a pro-Ulethan foreign policy, and pursued sustainable development for Arcantonie's environment. Nonetheless, he continued to press for debt relief and a new global human order in which developed countries would increase assistance to less developed nations. Naggako died on 6 March 1994 and was succeeded by Sam Hinds, who had been vice-president under Naggako. President Hinds then appointed Michelle Naggako, widow of the late president, to serve as vice-president. However, Hinds was the centre of a corruption controversy which emerged in 1996 following a brutal repression of Toulon separatists. This forced Hinds to be forced out of office in 1997 under gross constitutional violations, who was subsequently arrested and died in prison in 1999.

1997 Elections

In national elections on 15 December 1997, Michelle Naggako was elected President, and her SPA party won a 55% majority of seats in Congress, the first time any party achieved a direct majority. She was sworn in on 19 December. Naggako was a founding member of the PIP and was very active in party politics. She was Arcantnoie's first female and vice president, two roles she performed concurrently before being elected to the presidency. She was also unique in being a naturalized citizen (being born in Gobrassanya in 1933).

The CTP, which won just under 32% of the vote, disputed the results of the 1997 elections, alleging electoral fraud. Public demonstrations and violence followed, until an international humanitarian team came to Atara to broker an accord between the two parties, calling for an international audit of the election results, a redrafting of the constitution, and elections under the constitution within 3 years. Elections took place on 30 March 2000. Over 150 international observers representing six international missions witnessed the polling. The observers pronounced the elections fair and open, although marred by some administrative problems, notably as Prestonnaire refused to declare its votes until 9 days later. The PIP held onto a majority of 51%; Michelle Naggako was re-elected President.

2000-present

Since 2000, elections have been overseen by international officials, however each election has since been peaceful. Most recently, Elenor Childs, representing the LSP became the first minority-party president since 1987 in 2010, succeeded by Dammon Martin (for the SPA) as President in 2015.

Territorial Disputes

Arcantonie is not engaged in any territorial disputes. During the 20th Century there had been occupation of areas within the Scrandstire peninsula by Ablecia; in the Millenium Reform Act these were seceded to Arcantonie in return for pastoral land north of the River Strander.

International organization participation

Arcantonie is a full member of the Assembly of Nations and is currently awaiting approval to join the Eastern Ulethan Organisation of Independent Allies. International affiliations include the IPC, SEC, ICC, ERPO, PHO, ISJC, OHAER, GBG, WCB, WFAP, ANESCO, ANCF, ANWO, GMO, and the ISORC.

References

  1. Article 11 of the Constitution of the Republic of Arcantonie.
  2. Steinberg Political Freedom Index 2017
  3. "Operation of Arcan Government", J. Reef, 2019
  4. "1967 Political Uprising in Arcantonie", M. Schulzer, 1999
  5. "SPA Finally Enters Government Though Coalition", Atara Post, 12/12 2015
  6. "Voting Patterns in Arcantonie", G. Conong, 2016
  7. "Worrying Turns in Arcantonie", Atara Post, 12/07 1983