Rail transport in Izaland
Rail transport in Izaland plays an essential role in domestic transit thanks to its dense and punctual network extending about 10,000 km, including classic railways, city rapid transit (subway, commuter rail, tram, monorail and different technology transit system) and high speed railway. Besides passenger transportation, Izaland also has a good network of freight trains.
Rail transport in Izaland is provided by different companies, mainly being:
- Izarail: the main railway company, formerly a group controlled by the state, got privatized in 1998.
Todays controls most of the rail network in the country, including the high speed railway, with the subsidiary IZX.
- Several private companies, mostly controlling suburban lines in certain cities and subway networks
- Izarail Kwabus, the national-wide freight operator (outside Kubori Island, foreigner freight railway operators are allowed to enter Izaland)
Most of the railways in Izaland are built in standard gauge (1,435 mm), including the high speed railway, allowing thus interoperability with the former railways. Some local lines or subway lines have also different gauges, such as 1,067 mm or 1,544 mm. The usual distance between tracks is 5,5 m from the edges.
Almost the 86% of all the railways in Izaland are electrified (overhead lines, 25000 V 50 Hz AC for high speed rail and 3000 V DC for local lines). Non electrified lines are mainly run by hybrid trains or battery trains. Since 2014 Izaland, in order to diminish CO2 emissions, started a massive program of withdrawal of diesel trainsets and locomotives.
Railways have played an important role in Izaland since their first diffusion in the 19th century, with the first line opened between Sainðaul and Kawayatsu in 1845.
- 1838 - Planning of the first national railway network
- 1841 - Beginning of the construction works for a railway between Sainðaul and Nowodate (nowadays Shirukami)
- 1845 - Opening of the first section to Kawayatsu
- 1847 - Opening of the remaining section to Nowodate
- 1848 - Opening of the Warohan Railway, between Warohan and Naeba, the first railway section on Kubori island
- 1852 - Accident of Toryoshun, an explosion happened during the tunnel excavation works of the Subusai Line
- 1903 - Opening of the Aigan Alps railway, and first international connection
- 1913 - Start of the Shuto Tsōnkin Chesdo, the first commuter railway network in Izaland
- 1933 - Opening of the first two lines of Sainðaul metro
- 1975 - Opening of the first High Speed railway, from Niji-Sainðaul to Warohan
- 1978 - Opening of the Sainðaul - Humabe Kukujai Resort Line (then called Shin-Keihuku Line) from Sainðaul to Isadashi
- 1986 - Opening of the first railway tunnel between Sainðaul and Kubori island allowing direct services from Sainðaul to Warohan and other cities.
Suburban or intercity railway lines usually have different types of trains running on their tracks (列車種別, ryessha shubyes) with different stop patterns.
A train that stops at every station is called a local train (普通列車, futsōn-ryessha). Trains that stop at fewer stations and are therefore faster than local trains are classified as Rapid (快速列車, kwaisoku-ryessha), Express (急行列車, kyungyō-ryessha), Limited Express (特急列車, tukkyun-ryessha), etc. and may require surcharges depending on company policies.
Intercity trains, mainly operated by IR, are called City-linker Limited Express (都市連結特急列車, toshi-lyenkes tukkyun-ryessha, often shortened in 都急, tokyun) and run on traditional non-high speed railway (although they can reach 200 kph).
High speed railway (IZX) has different train types, including direct, all stop and fast trains.
Izaland counts 11 cities with a population over 1 million inhabitants. In these and also less large cities, Izarail, altogether with locally administered subway networks and private railways, operates several commuter lines, using either existent railway tracks and newly built ones, to move million of commuters every day.
Capital suburban Network
The Capital suburban network (首都圏近郊𐐊𐐁ⵗ𐐛ᱺ𐐇𐐀ⵗ𐐠, shutokwen kinkwō nettwākk) serves the urban area of Sainðaul and the main cities and urbanization gravitating around it, such as Riimibaiken, Showanul, Osenude, Shakihori, Oitsura etcetera. It is composed by 16 lines.