Romanish language

From OpenGeofiction Encyclopedia
(Redirected from Romanish)
Jump to: navigation, search
Romanish language
Limba romenească
Pronunciation/'limba rome'ne̯askə/
Native toAntharia, Aurenia, Commonia
RegionRomany
EthnicityRomanies
Native speakers28,000,000 (2011)
Erasince the 11th century
Language familyUletarephian
Early formsRomantian
DialectsAromanish
Egano-Romanish
Moldavian
Old Romanish
Standard formsAntharo-Romanish
Writing systemin Antharia and Aurenia:
Romantish Alphabet +ă, â, ï, î, ș, ț
in Commonia:
see Old Romanish Alphabet
Official status
Official language inAntharia, Aurenia, Commonia (Transcommonia and Transmoldavia)
Minority language inGobrassanya, Egani, Niscavo, Euresia, Pretany, Midistland
OGFL-1ro
OGFL-2/Trom
OGFL-2/Broa
File:Romanish tree diagram.png
Tree diagram of the Romanish language

The Romanish language (in Romanish Limba Romenească, Iviran Romanish Límba Romeneáscъ, in Old Romanish (Glagolit) Ʌи́мбa Рѡмєнѣ́скъ) is the official language of Antharia and *. Outside Antharia it is also spoken by communities of Romanies in the countries that today make up Niscavo, *, * and Suria. The language is spoken by around 15 million people as native language, primarily in Antharia and *, and by another 4 million as second language. It is part of the Northern Uletarephian Romantish languages.

The Romanish language evolved from the Garlian language, as people from Garlis settled in the early 9th century the historic region Romany. Before the colonization, people living in this area spoke an early Slevic language, known as Romano-Slevic. The Garlians withdrew from Romany in the 11th century and left the region strongly influenced by the Garlian language. The following 5 centuries, Garlian mixed with Romano-Slevic, Antharian and Eganian and evolved to the Romanish language.

Until 1862, Romanish used an own Syrillangan Alphabet. Since 1862, the old and the new Romanish alphabet coexisted. In 1948, Antharia gave up the Old Romanish Alphabet forever. Other Romanish minorities in Suria and in * still use the Old Romanish Alphabet sometimes.

Example text

Old Romanish Alphabet (until 1862):

Фїєкáрє ʌѡкꙋїтѡ́р aнѳaрѧ́н, ѡрйкáрє ï'áр фѝ фѡ́ндꙋʌ, є́стє ѡбʌигáт пє ти́мп дє ръзбѡ́й съ сє aʌъ́тꙋрє aрмáтєй aнѳaрїє́нє. Чи́нє сє фъръ́ш̩є дє aчѣ́стъ ѡбʌигaцю́нє вa фѝ пєдєѱи́т кꙋ мѡáртѣ.

Transitional Alphabet (1862-1950):

Fïe'cáre locuïtór anѳarïán, orĭ'cáre ï'ár fì fóndul, éste obligát' pe tímp' de rĕḑbóĭ sĕ se aléture armáteĭ anѳarïéne. C̦íne sĕ fĕréște de ac̦ástĕ obligațïúne va fì pedeѱít' cu moártë.

New Romanish Alphabet (since 1950):

Fïecare locuitor antarian, oricare i-ar fì fondul, este obligat pe timp de război să se alăture armatei antariene. Cine se ferește de această obligațiune va fì pedepsit cu moartea.

In Ingerish:

Every Antharian locator, whatever his ethnic backgrounds are, is obliged to join the Antharian army during war. Who yields to this obligation is going to be punished with death.

(Jean Gheorghe-Barraca, Ʌꙋ́птa Мѣ́)

List of Eganian loanwords

Eganian word Romanish word Ingerish translation
Alema Alemă Forest
Eklisa Ekliză Church
Ektiri Ektiră Palace/Mansion
Emporgos Empurgă Tower
Gjefěri Geafără Bridge
Kastem Kastemă Castle
Katrem Katremă Boulevard
Kepa Chepă Park
Pantotcheos Pantotcee Inn
Stipê Stâpă Embassy
Xetrem Șetremă Street

Romanish Alphabets

The Romanish language used two alphabets:

New Romanish Alphabet

The new Romanish alphabet is a variant of the Romantian alphabet used by the Romanish language. It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters, six of which (Ă, Â, Î, Ï, Ș, and Ț) have been modified from their Romantish originals for the phonetic requirements of the language:

Letter Name
A, a a / aleph
Ă, ă ă / șva
Â, â î / î din a / gagh din aleph
B, b be / bî / beth
C, c ce / cî / khet
D, d de / dî / dalet
E, e e / ayin
F, f ef / fe / fî / peh deschis
G, g ge / ghe / gî / ghimmel
H, h haș / ha / hî / heh
I, i i / yud
Letter Name
Ï, ï isur / i sur / iota / dublu yud
Î, î î / î din i / gagh din yud
J, j je / jî / zayin ghereș
K, k ca / capa / kuf
L, l el / le / lî / lammed
M, m em / me / mî / mem
N, n en / ne / nî / nun
O, o o / vuv deschis
P, p pe / pî / peh închis
R, r er / re / rî / reș
S, s es / se / sî / sameciu
Letter Name
Ș, ș șe / șî / șin
T, t te / tî / tav
Ț, ț țe / țî / țadik
U, u u / vuv închis
V, v ve / vî / beth vuv
W, w dublu ve / dublu vî / dublu vuv
X, x ics / khet sameci
Y, y igan / i egan / ipsilon / yud igan
Z, z ze / zet / zed / zî / zayin

For words ending with stressed vowels, the New Romanish Alphabet uses the grave accent: aveà, Adakalè, fì, marò, făcù.

Transitional Alphabet: Until 1950, the New Romanish Alphabet used the letters C̦, c̦ instead of Ce/Ci, ce/ci; Z̦, z̦ instead of J, j; Ḑ, ḑ instead of Z, z and Ģ, ģ instead of Ge/Gi, ge/gi.

Old Romanish Alphabet

The Old Romanish Alphabet is a strongly derived version of the Surian Alphabet, using many Hellanisian characters:

Letter Transitional
letter
Latinic
letter
A, a a a
Ã, ã an an
Ъ, ъ ĕ ă
Ѫ, ѫ î â
Б, Б b b
К, к k ch
Д, д d d
Є, є e e
Ѣ, ѣ ë ea
Ф, ф f f
Г, г g gh
Х, х h h
И, и i i
Letter Transitional
letter
Latinic
letter
Ï, ï ï ï
Й, й ĭ i
Ꙟ, ꙟ î î
Ꙟ̃, ꙟ̃ în în
Ʌ, ʌ l l
М, м m m
Н, н n n
Ѡ, ѡ o o
П, п p p
Ѱ, ѱ ѱ ps
Р, р r r
С, с s s
Ш, ш ș ș
Letter Transitional
letter
Latinic
letter
Ш̩, ш̩ șc̦ șt
Т, т t t
Ѳ, ѳ ѳ th
Ц, ц ț ț
Ꙋ, ꙋ u u
В, в v v
Ѯ, ѯ ks x
Ѵ, ѵ y y
З, з z
Ѩ, ѩ ïa ia
Ю, ю ïu iu
Ч, ч ce, ci
Џ, џ ģ ge, gi

Differences between different alphabets

Old Romanish Syrillangan Transitional Romanish New Romanish
Чѣ́ртъ Чеартэ C̦ërtĕ Ceartă
Вѫʌчє́ш̩й Вылчещй Vîlc̦éșc̦ĭ Vâlcești
Ѩ́ръшй Ярэшь Ïárĕș' Ïarăși
Aнѳáрѧ Антаря Anѳárïa Antaria
Ꙋʌє́ѳѣ Улетеа Uléѳë Uletea
Кѵри́ʌик Кирилик Kyrílik Kirilic
ЮБи́рє Юбире Ïubíre Iubire
Дєш̩єптъчꙋ́нє Дещептэчуне Deșc̦eptĕc̦úne Deșteptăciune
Ѵ́ѱиʌѡн Ипсилон Ýѱilon Ipsilon
Џѣ́мъѳ' Джамэт Ģëmĕѳ Geamăt

Romanish on the map

Ingerish Romanish Regionalisms[1]
Avenue Cale (ca) Patremă (eg), Uliță (sl)
Boulevard Bulevard (fr) Katremă (eg), Șosea (fr)
Bridge Pod (ga) Geafără (eg), Punte (fr)
Castle Cetate (ga), Fort (fr) Kastemă (eg), Kală (tr), Kremlin (sl), Rad/Radeț (db)
Cathedral Catedrală (fr) Katedrikă (eg), Sobor (sl)
Cemetery Cimitir (eg) Țintirim (eg)
City Oraș (es) Pală (eg)
Church Biserică (ga) Ekliză (eg), Basilică (ga), Țârkovă (su)
Dock Bazin (fr) Darsenă (dc)
Embassy Ambasadă (fr) Stâpă (eg)
Forest Pădure/Pădurice (ga) Alemă (eg), Codru (ga)
Inn Han (tr) Karavanserai(l) (fr), Pantotcee (eg), Bezesten (tr), Posadă (ca)
Lake Lac (ga) Liman (tr), Iezer (sl), Râmnic (sl), Baltă (sl), Râbniță (db)
Market Piață (dc) Bazar (tr), Agolă (eg)
Monastery Mănăstire (sl) Mânăstire (sl), Abație (dc)
Mosque Moschee/Moschiță (fr) Geamie (tr)
Palace Palat (ga) Ektiră (eg), Palas (fr)
Park Parc (fr) Chepă (eg), Grădină (sl)
Passage Pasaj (fr) Pasagiu (fr)
Peak Vârf (sl) -
Platform Peron (fr) Binariu (dc)
Skete Schit (eg) -
Square Piață/Piațetă (dc), Scuar (fr) Ploșcead (su)
Street Stradă (dc) Șetremă (eg)
Synagogue Sinagogă Templu (ga), Havră (tr)
Tower Turn (gm) Empurgă (eg), Foișor (es)
Town Sat (ga) -
Train station Gară (fr) Statou (eg), Nădragiu (db)

IPA

Consonants
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
b ban boy
d dop day
ger gender
f foc face
ɡ gol, unghie good
h horn hat
k cal, chip, kilogram, quasar skip
l lună love
m mic moon
n nor name
ŋ lung long
p pas span
r rac, mare curd (Scottish (?) Ingerish)
s sare sun
ʃ șarpe shape
t tare stop
ts țară cats
cer choose
v val, watt voice
z zid zone
ʒ jar measure
Non-native consonants
ɲ Saligny roughly like canyon
Vowels
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
a a roughly like father
e erou roughly like bet
ə ăsta about
i inel, mie beet
ɨ înspre, cârnat roses
o oraș law (Pretanic Ingerish)
u uda, dual fool
Non-native vowels
ɑ̃ Henri roughly like croissant
ɵ chemin de fer roughly like sir
ø bleu, loess
y ecru, fürer roughly like few
 
Semivowels
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
j iarnă, creioane, rai, yacht you or boy
w băcăuan, dulău, tweeter wine or cow
Diphthongs
e̯a bea, Andreea short e followed by full a; similar to yard
e̯o vreo short e followed by full o; similar to yawn
o̯a foarte, oace short o followed by full a; similar to wagon
 
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ dulău [duˈləw] Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ extraordinar [ˌekstra.ordiˈnar] Secondary stress
. mie [ˈmi.e] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus
ʲ rupi [ˈrupʲ] Palatalization (placed after the palatalized consonant)
  1. their origins in parentheses: Castellanese (ca), Drabantian (db), Darcordian (dc), Eganian (eg), Estian (es), Franquese (fr), Gaerman (gm), Garlian (ga), Proto-Slevic (sl), Surian (su), Turquese (tr)