Sãikyel

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Sanain Republic
Sãikyel
The flag of SãikyelSeal of the Republic of Sãikyel
FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
"Eninendes eset berege"
Unity makes Strength
Capital
and largest city
Nevensad
Official languagesSanain
DemonymSanain
GovernmentUnitary Semi-Presidential Republic
 • Prime MinisterErven Ogudek
 • PresidentTomasy Maikanagisek
LegislatureNational Assembly of Sãikyel
 • Upper houseHouse of the States
 • Lower houseHouse of the People
Area
 • Total30947 km2
11984 sq mi
Population
 • Estimate (2016)11,254,000
GDP (PPP)2014
 • Total$560.859 billion
 • Per capita$44,416
HDIIncrease 0.910
very high
CurrencySanain Pia (P) (SPA)
Internet TLD.sy

Sãikyel (/'saːj.kjɛl/, capital pronunciation /'sɑj.kjæl/), officially the Sanain Republic (Sanain: Sanain Hervesi) is a small country in southeastern Uletha. In July of 2016, the population of Sãikyel was just over 11 million residents, with 30.5% of the population (3,435,100 residents) living in its capital city, Nevensad.

Etymology

The current demonym of the country, sanain, is supposedly descended from a combination of the Old Sanain words *soa and *nûjneg (modern standard Sanain sãya and nayunek), together meaning "old farmer", or "original farmer". As of yet, very few links have been made connecting these terms logically, save for the presence of agriculture as a vital source of wealth throughout the history of Sãikyel. As for the name of the country itself, most probably deriving from OS *soa + *gyel ("old mountain", compare modern syen + keyel, speculations have been made by many top Sanain linguists that this term refers to the Urosedkeyelet hilly region in the south of the country.

Geography

Sãikyel is positioned in southeastern Uletha, and borders the Darcodian Sea to the north, Nelavia to the east, Supernia to the south, and UL021 to the west. Sanain territory covers 30,947 square kilometers or 11984 square miles. Elevation ranges from Terkorr peak in the High Vesa range across southern Sãikyel (at 3,015 meters above the Darcodian Sea) to the coast in the north. Many of the rivers originating in the Miunit are tributaries of the largest rivers in the country, the Niva, Ohan and Oburb. Medium-sized mineral reserves contribute to the natural production in the country, while agricultural production flourishes in the central Sanain Steppe at the foot of the Vãnnyunat foothills.

Climate

Biodiversity

History

Early history

There is evidence of continuous inhabitation of the area around the southwest of modern Sãikyel, overlapping with the province of Sayageyel and extending up as far as Navasy, starting in the late 5th century AD. There is attestation during this time of four closely related tribes inhabiting the area: the Fel, Ni, Huna, and Varva (or Warwa). It is commonly accepted among Sanain anthropologists that these tribes settled in the low areas of the Sanain steppe and built permanent homes there. By the mid 6th century, however, these tribes had migrated further north, most probably along the course of the Niva and Oburb rivers, reaching the coast of the Darcodian Sea around 580-590 AD. Varvezyek (found in inscriptions as Warweθek or Warwazek) was founded in 593.

Around this time, the Huna peoples spread eastwards, toward modern Hunuda along the Central Highlands of the Sanain steppe. They eventually reached the Nakisara mountain range, the boundary of the Ohan river watershed, to the east of Sãikyel's border with Supernia. Though some Huna villages remained around Vãikili in the traditional Huna homeland, interbreeding and tribal fights led to the greatest concentration of Huna ancestry today to be in the far east of the country.

Similarly, the Fel peoples left their residences in the southwestern region to migrate along the course of the Fel and Niva upwards towards Meigen and the present-day province of Burban in the northwest. Most of the hydronyms in the west of Sãikyel descend from the Fel dialect of Old Sanain, and Lake Felo and the Fel river both take their names from the tribe.

Modern history

Starting from the middle of the 19th century, the area today known as Sãikyel was divided into three independent states: The Principality of Sãikyel, the Principality of Nevensad, and the Kindgom of Hunuda. With much of the population and army might concentrated there, the Principality of Sãikyel was both the largest and the most powerful, and it was the only state with direct access to the coast.

The states were almost constantly in tension with each other, with border lands being constantly invaded and reclaimed. The decision of the Kingdom of Hunuda to invade the Principality of Nevensad in 1923 began an armed conflict between the two countries, into which the Principality of Sãikyel was introduced after the attack on the city of Hanbibi by Hunudan troops in 1926. Within a year of its involvement, the armed conflict escalated into a full-on war between the three small countries, with over 1 and a half million civilians and military troops dead by its end, which at the time was almost one-fifth of the population of the area. The end of the war came about with the Treaty of Sãikyel City in 1935, which passed most of the blame onto the Kingdom of Hunuda. While forced to sign the treaty, which contained provisions of demilitarization and eventual unification, the ten signatories from the belligerent states were unhappy with the treaty, and later campaigned extensively against it.

The first recorded mention of the name "Republic of Sãikyel" appears on the Treaty of Sãikyel City, shown here in its Ingerish version.

The ultimate result of the Treaty of Sãikyel City was the retreat and conglomeration of all of the countries' armies, the establishment of an interim government, and the approval for unification of the lands in the Sãikyel area. From the Treaty was created the Republic of Sãikyel, as well as a new Constitution and a legal code. Since the War of 1923-1935, the country has been in no further armed conflicts, and retains a stance of peace and cooperation with surrounding territories. However, the country has a network of allies in the region, which could drag it into future wars.

Economy

Banking

Sãikyel has limited natural resources within its boundaries, leading to over 20% of its economy to be based off of banking. Seven of its giant banks, colloquially known as the "Big Seven" have a combined market capitalization of almost USD350 billion. The largest bank in the country, and one of the largest in the continent, SãiBank, employs about 1% of the entire Sanain workforce.

Banks have been an integral part of the Sanain economy since the nineteenth century, when the oldest of the Big Seven, the Nevensad and Tomogeyel Financial Cooperative (or NATOFCO), was established in Nevensad in 1875. Since then, its banks have expanded to service most of southern Uletha. The Sãikyel and Uletha Republic Bank was founded to aid in this endeavor.

One of the reasons that the country is banking-centered is that the government imposes few regulations on finance and business in the country; this was part of an initiative by the government to open up the Sanain market after the Sanain War, when the economy was practically ruined. Since then, banks have been established almost every decaded up to 2000.

Culture

Membership in the UAC

The Sãikyel Is In! logo celebrated the country's successful bid to be in the UAC in 2009

Sãikyel has been a member of the Ulethan Alliance for Culture since 2009, when it was nominated to become a member.

Currency

The currency of Sãikyel is the pia (P), with an exchange rate of USD 1.072 per pia. It is further divided into satlakat (s), each of which is 1/100 of a pia. However, only 1, 5, 10, and 50 s coins are minted.

Prices are typically written either in decimal format (e.g. 1.15 P) or with piat and satlakat separate (e.g. 1 P 15 s). It is common to see the symbols P and s in superscript next to numbers, instead of being written the same size.

Etymology

The word pia shares an etymology with pegy, the Sanain word for money in general. Both terms are derived from Middle Sanain pja-ɣə and pjaʒ, ultimately coming from an Old Sanain word meaning "value, cattle".

Infrastructure and transportation

Roads

The national route system of Sãikyel is called the N-system (N-syistema) and spans the entire country. All roads that connect cities have numbers that are multiples of 5.

Air travel

The flag carrier of Sãikyel is Air Sanain, which is a member of Geolliance. Air Sanain is only 50% government-owned, and is based out of Sãikyel International Airport, the largest airport in the country.

Politics and Government

The emblem of the National Government

The government of Sãikyel (Sanain Andallagtas) is a unitary parliamentary democracy based in central Nevensad, its capital. The current Prime Minister, elected in the 2016 Parliamentary Elections, is Erven Ogudek of the United Social Democrats (OSD), serving under President Tomasy Maikanagisek.

National Assembly of Sãikyel

The legislature of the country, the National Assembly (Sanain Uśtatalagtas) is divided into a lower chamber, the House of the People, Narudai Kuda, and the House of the States, Hervesiervatai Kuda. The House of the People has 281 deputies, while the House of the States has 90.

Political administration

The Republic of Sãikyel is divided into nine provinces (hervesiervat), which are further divided into numerous municipalities (ibidinat), most of them based around an urban nucleus and farming or other resources in the surroundings. Three of these provinces are provincial-level cities (Sanain: sadat hervasiervati arvalte): Sãikyel City, Nevensad, and Hanbibi. Provincial-level cities are not divided into municipalities, but boroughs (besakat) or neighborhoods (kaldat).


Administrative
Level
Native Name Description Number Representation in Parliament
Sãikyel 2 Vara The country 1 Constitutes
Provinces 4 Hervesiervat Major subdivisions of the country 9 Delegates apportioned per municipality count, 10 in the House of States
Provincial-level cities 4 Sadat hervesiervati arvalte City-states 3 10 in the House of States, proportional to population
Municipal cities 6 Ibidinai sadat Urban areas that are governed similarly to municipalities 10 Represented by municipalities
Municipalities 8 Ibidinat Subdivisions of provinces 50 Make up provincial delegate count
Boroughs 8 Besakat Divisions of provincial-level cities, or of municipalities within cities Varies by city Representation only in city legislature
Kaldat (rural or urban) 9 Kaldat Village or town Hundreds Municipalities
Neighborhoods 9 Taigat Subdivisions of city boroughs Varies by city Represented by boroughs in city legislature
Province 2-letter code 3-letter code Numerical code (government use) Area code (+380) Vehicle registration code
Sãikyel Sad SS SAS 10 47/43 S
Nevensad NE NEV 20 32/33/45 N
Hunuda HU HUN 30 59 U
Burban BU BUR 40 24 B
Hanbibi HA HAB 50 41 H
Tomogeyel TG TOG 60 91 T
Sayageyel SL SGL 70 39 G
Omyumai OM OMY 80 68 O
Egatavad ET ETA 90 68 E

Government

The government of Sãikyel is unitary, composed of one central, National Government (Uveskai Andallagtas), and local authorities in each Hervesierva, municipality, and kald. It is composed of three separate branches: the executive (Besyegelegtesi), legislative (Andadartasi), and judicial (Bedigyelegtesi), with powers vested in the President, National Assembly, and the national court system, respectively, by the Constitution of Sãikyel. With this format, it is a semi-presidential republic, with the President alongside a Prime Minister. The executive branch is composed of the President, the Vice-President, and various extra-ministerial executive bodies. The legislative branch consists of the Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and the bicameral National Assembly. The judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court, the non-geographic Constitutional Courts, intermediate appellate courts within three circuits, and local trial courts; as well as separate military, claims, and international trade court systems.

The Prime Minister is elected each new term by single transferable voting. Each term normally lasts 2 years, unless the National Assembly (and by extension the government) is dissolved, a power held by the President and the Assembly by a two-thirds supermajority.

Elections

Elections can be divided into three types: elections for the House of the People, elections for the House of States, and elections for local politicians and mayors. Elections for the National Assembly take place at the provincial level, while local elections are largely left to city or municipal authorities; sometimes, however, local elections are supervised and monitored by the Local Government Administration, a government agency. Elections for the House of the People in Sãikyel normally take place every 2 years, and citizens vote at a local level. The country is split up into 550 electoral districts, which are changed each election season by the Office of Electoral Districts and Boundaries of the National Elections Commission (UIK), an independent government agency answering to the President.

National Assembly

At the national level, the Prime Minister is elected indirectly through the National Assembly. Elections usually take place in September or October, although the dissolution of the National Assembly can push this date up. The Constitution mandates that elections take place at least six weeks before the end of an Assembly.

Parties which wish to participate in the elections must proclaim this to the National Elections Commission (UIK) around two months before the scheduled voting day, and are issued a license to do so shortly thereafter. Sanain law does not specify how candidates for parties are chosen; however, almost all parties, including the IP and Socialists, hold several public meetings for party members to vote on nominees. The final list, no more than five candidates, is submitted to the UIK about a month before the voting day, and from then on a 30-day long campaigning period is allowed.

On election day, voters go to numerous voting centers per district. Election officials ask them for identification—usually an ID card or driver's license, although government employees can present an ID card from their respective agency. Voting is private, so booths are curtained off, and either computers or paper ballots are used. Regardless of the format, each voter is given a list of candidates per party. Since a single transferable vote system is used, voters are asked to number the candidates for whichever party they choose in ascending order of precedence. Although rare with the somewhat firm party loyalties voters have, they are also technically allowed to rank candidates outside of party boundaries, meaning that a voter could enumerate candidates of several parties in this manner; however, this is uncommon, and instructions do not mention this.

Current Cabinet

The Cabinet is appointed by the Prime Minister after National Assembly elections. All nominees must, however, receive consent from the House of the States before assuming their duties.

 
Cabinet of the Republic of Sãikyel
Office Name Political party
Prime Minister Erven Ogudek Freedoms Party
Secretary of the Interior
Deputy Prime Minister
Peter Helesnek Freedoms Party
Secretary of State Borisy Magyayan Freedoms Party
Secretary of Finance and Economics Mihãl Felenek Freedoms Party
Secretary of Defense Aleksander Atavad
Prosecutor General Marina Ladmar
Secretary of Water and the Environment Nattalya Boznarai Freedoms Party
Secretary of Public Health, Family, and Youth Denisy Sigetin Freedoms Party
Secretary of Labor and Social Development Vazyer Pedrenek Freedoms Party
Secretary of Housing and Urbanization Tomasy Vandoberti Freedoms Party
Secretary of Education Matãn Isukaldak Freedoms Party
Secretary of Transportation and Infrastructure Angela Ditis
Secretary of Tourism, Culture, and Sport Serei Tuhuder Freedoms Party
Secretary of Science and Technology Valentina Ikeśnek Freedoms Party
Secretary of Energy Gregor Tazubin Freedoms Party
Cabinet-level Representatives
Deputy Secretary of International Trade Alicia Futanbak Freedoms Party
Director of National Intelligence Temen Bizyenek Freedoms Party
Ambassador to the Assembly of Nations Andriusy Kitosin Freedoms Party
Deputy Secretary of the National Environment Agency Valentina Sarapona
Secretary for National Intelligence Ossin Bedeter Freedoms Party
Director of the Presidential Office of the Budget Giret Nebener Freedoms Party
Secretary for Government Affairs Miklau Hośkezyek
Members of the Eastern Ulethan Organisation of Independent Allies (EUOIA)
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