"Johdossa on kunnia (Karolian)/ Purduc su onore (Romans)"
'Lead with honour'
|• Linnapea (mayor)||Henrik Vaas|
|• Estimate (2014)||2,120,000|
Säntjana is the capital city of Karolia and has a population of around two million in the greater metropolitan area. It is the centre of government and commerce in the country. The city-state of Osmila, although politically a separate entity, is often referred to as part of greater Säntjana and shares transport and administrative organisations.
- 1 History
- 2 Government
- 3 Economy
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Culture and tourism
Settlements in the area existed since prehistoric times. Fishing in the Gulf of Osmila and farming inland both provided subsistence living for early Karolian peoples. The strategic position at the end of the peninsula was also important for controlling trade and defences were constructed from the Iron Age.
By 1100 the city of Säntjana had grown up around the castle which was founded as the main defensive stronghold of the medieval state (although was used in war only for ten years during the Wars of the Baronacies). The town was ideally placed as a trading port with a sheltered harbour, access to the ocean and to the roads inland. Population in 1300 was around 5000 adults and 8000 in 1430 based on records of military service in the Wars of the Baronacies. The city-state extended around 100 km to the north and was ruled by a series of kings until unification. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries Säntjana grew enormously is size and power. It became the capital of the unified Republic of Karolia in 1806 and the government buildings constructed there as part of a wholescale rebuilding of a 'new city' to the east of the old centre. Grand avenues formed the main arteries of the new streets, which were constructed on a rough east-west grid, but with many irregularities. Canals were built both to facilitate building and as a means of transportation along with the landscaped Park Cjentra/Kastpark. Port facilities were built on both sides of the Vaina as well as artificial islands as flood defences. Despite the modernisation, much of the old town has been preserved almost unchanged since medieval times, with buildings dating from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in some streets.
Säntjana-Linn is both a city and state and has a single elected body of representatives. Local government is comprised of a body of 112 members elected through a system of wards (in contrast to the PR system used for most other states) who are elected for overlapping 3-year terms (so a third of the seats are contested annually) and a mayor who is elected for a four-year term. Säntjana also elects an Elector to represent the state in the lower house of the Riikskogu. The incumbent mayor as of 2014 is Henriik Vais and the Elector is
Säntjana is the centre of government and trade for most of the country, and most national and international businesses have offices in the city. The Karolian stock exchange is located in neighbouring Osmila. Tourism and the entertainment industries play an important part in the economy of the city, as does banking, media, digital industries and transportation. The three current Liiga 1 football teams in the city also generate income for the city, as do the hosting of national and international sporting events.
Säntjana has an integrated transport system consisting of trains, suburban rail, metro, trams, buses and trolleybuses, ferries and cycle hire. All use a common ticketing system and management authority. The city is also responsible for transportation in Osmila, one of the few cases in Karolia where states share governance.
Säntjana is served by two airports: Tougu, to the north of the city, was formerly the main intercontinental gateway but has been downgraded (although still serves international flights) following the completion of the first stage of construction at Anola-Fiorii Airport to the south of the city. When complete, Anola-Fiorii will have two runways, six terminal piers and is expected to handle around 500 movements per day.
Säntjana is one of the hubs of the Karolian motorway network. The A1 runs past the east of the city centre onto Osmila and curves round to terminate at Anola-Fiorii. The new A105 road which links to it was built to serve the new airport to the north via an undersea tunnel and grade-seperated expressways through central Osmila. The city is part of a peninsula and access routes are liable to congestion at busy periods. Congestion charging has been suggested to alleviate traffic in the city centre, but so far no legislation has been brought for consideration. The local government has instead chosen to pursue a policy of expanding rail and metro capacity in the city and building an extensive network of cycle infrastructure. There are several cycle flyovers and tunnels around the city, including the Linnajaam 'horseshoe bridge' [] and the four-story integrated cycle garage at the Kaastjaam, which together with a secondary cycle park gives around 5000 spaces, and includes a repair shop and cycle hire.
Most of the main roads are built several lanes wide, although side streets are often narrower. In some cases the outermost lanes have been given over to parking, cycleways or bus lanes.
Säntjana is a major terminus and through destination for trains from all over Karolia and international services from Darcodia and Ispelia. The central station (Kaastjaam) was completed in its present configuration in 2009 as part of one of the biggest infrastructure projects in the country's history. It now has eighteen platforms over two levels and serves high-speed rail, middle-distance trains, suburban rail and the metro system. The other main station in the city centre is Säntjana Linnajaam which is a terminus on the surface and a through station on the underground Cross-City Link tunnel opened in 2004 to link Osmila with northbound lines via the city centre.
Main article: Säntjana Metro
The Säntjana Metro currently comprises 6 metro lines and 1 light-rail line in Osmila. Line 1 is the oldest and has the section running under Maasriias Ot from Park Cjentra to Parliamentakog inscribed on the register of National Heritage Sites. The other metro lines were constructed from 1928-2009. The metro system is the largest in the region and handles around 8000000 journeys per year. Line 7, which is located in Osmila, is built to light rail standards and has driverless trains.
Main article Säntjana S-train
The S-Train is Säntjana's suburban railway network and is analogous to an S-Bahn system. It uses heavy rail loading gauge and full-size trains, and runs with a frequency of around 10 minutes between trains in normal service. The lines are numbered S1-S26 and serve suburbs and other towns in the region.
The metro and rail lines are supported by a tram system organised into several semi-connected networks. Trams were introduced as early as 1874 using horse-drawn services, and electricity allowed the network to expand. There were cutbacks in the 1940s-1950s but since the 1990s expansion has been taking place as a cost-effective way to expand to areas with little or no rail connection.
Buses and Trolleybuses
The bus network serves the whole metropolitan area, and included night buses. Trolleybuses are more common in the suburbs but run into central Säntjana where they share power lines with trams.
Passenger and vehicle ferries between the city's outlying islands and across the Väina operate year-round from numerous piers in the city. They provide an important link for commuters and relieve pressure on the bridges and tunnels over the water and many are free of charge. The fleet of vessels ranges from small 30-seat boats to the vehicle ferries on the Vraakis crossing which can carry up to 50 cars. The majority of the current fleet are catamaran jetfoils which carry around 200 passengers and include space for bicycles and also cargo of the civic authorities. Cargo bicycle spaces may be reserved in advance, and across the Vaina the boats are mostly 'ride-on, ride-off' open decks. Karolijas Post own three cargo boats for dedicated mail services around the city. A hovercraft service also operates around the Capolii archipelago and between Osmila and Santkriistja islands, due to the sand and mutflats in these areas which make conventional vessels unsuitable. In 2014 when the existing diesel hovercraft dating from the 1980s were approaching replacement, the city decided to commission the world's first electric-hybrid hovercraft, in order to reduce noise and pollution. As the crossings are generally no more than a few kilometers in length, the 70-seat craft are powered by batteries, with a small diesel engine to provide auxilliary power and emergency battery recharging in flight, for example if the craft is facing a strong headwind or waves. When the hovercraft docks, it is plugged into a quick-charge port on the shore which tops up the batteries for the next flight.
Modern Säntjana was built to incorporate a network of canals, which are used to operate several 'water-bus' routes around the city centre. There are also numerous tourist boats and water taxis that use them.
Culture and tourism
Säntjana attracts large numbers of domestic and overseas tourists every year. The largest visitor attraction is the Old Town (Alte Linn) which comprises Säntjana Castle (Säntjanas Losse), the castle grounds, the adjacent Palota and the medieval town below. Other significant attractions include the Stadion sports complex, the Opera House and theatre district, the Capolii islands to the east of the city and the suburbs of Jurnova.
Museums and Galleries
Several of the largest museums in the country are based in the capital, mostly in the district around Park Cjentra. These include the National Museum (Riiksmuseii), the Museum of Science and Technology (Tieda-ja-Tekniliinenmuseii), the National Art Gallery (Riiksaartgalleria), the Museum of Natural History and the Karolian Design Museum.
Other museums and galleries include the Museum of Säntjana, the President's Collection of artworks, Säntjana Castle museum, Karolian Music Centre and Karolian Sport Museum. There are also small museums as part of the stadia of Säntjana Linna FC and FC Säntjana Losse.
The oldest church in the city is dedicated to Sjent Janos and is found in the Old Town. The largest is the 19th century St Michaeli Dom which is located in the south of the city centre. This functions as the city's cathedral and has a large dome which is a city landmark.
Park Cjentra/Kastpark occupies a large part of the city to the east of the centre.
National Heritage Sites
Six National Heritage Sites are located in Säntjana:
|Line 1 subway (Park Cjentra to Parliamentakog stations)||1961|
|Parliament building (Riikskogu) and other structures associated with unification||1934|
|National Stadium of Karolia||1989|
Arts and entertainment
The city has a cultural district (Culturslaat) located in the area around Alafjiläs Ot. This contains the Musicäverne, home of the Säntjana Philharmonic Orchestra, the National Theatre (Teatra Riika) and several other theatres and arts venues. There are also numerous other arts venues across the city in churches, small halls and arts schools.
The area of Momina is known as being the bohemian quarter of the city; here are located the most famous gay bars and clubs as well as other venues for certain kinds of night-time entertainments. Many of the most legendary rock musicians in Karolia have played or lived in this area, and a few even have streets named after them. Several famous clubs that opened in the 60s and 70s are still hosting up-and-coming rock acts.
Säntjana has five professional and seven amateur football teams in its metropolitan area (excluding those in Osmila). Säntjana Linna (Säntjana City) and FC Losse Säntjana (FC Santjana Castle) have both both played in the top flight (Liiga 1) since the inception of the current league system in 1970. In the second division, Hoivaapoo and FC Century represent the east and north of the city whilst Sport Baiakov lie in the third tier.
Säntjana is home to both the National Stadium of Karolia and the Stadion sports complex which comprises a multi-purpose stadium (with running track and retractable roof), indoor arena (also used for concerts), hockey pitches, tennis courts and press centre, with training facilities.
|States of Karolia|