|8, -32.951, 141.866|
|State of Sierra|
Estado de Sierra
A Whole New World
Mi Sierra Bonita
|Constituent state of||Federal States|
|• Governor||Maggie Woods|
|• Lieutenant Governor||Jonathan Torres|
|• Upper house||State Senata|
|• Lower house||State House|
|• Total||136,088.42 km2|
52,544.03 sq mi
The State of Sierra (Castellanese: Estado de Sierra) is a state is the western Federal States. It is one of the largest states in terms of area, but more sparsely populated. The state is known for its landscape consisting of the Sierras, wide, open high plains and plateaus, desert areas and rivers. It borders Tauhon in the west, Clamash to the south, Riopoderos to the southeast, Apawiland to the east, AR120-74 to the north and AR120-73 to the northeast.
Sierra was first settled around the year 800, had vibrant Native Archantan cultures, settlements and even some cities by 1000-1200. Sierra was explored by the Castellanese from around 1530, though primarily from 1650 onward. The first settlements sprang up around the rivers, primarily in the west. Sierra became a possession of the FSA from 1841, and a territory in 1858. Statehood was achieved in April 1872.
- 1 History
- 2 Government and politics
- 3 Culture
- 4 Political divisions
- 5 Geography
- 6 Economy
- 7 Transportation
The territory of present-day Sierra was inhabited by a variety of different native Archantan tribes. In the northwest the western culture tribes of the Asuma, Yahomas, Undaia and Zusi (related to Tejoma and Cosperican tribes) were found, and they were known for working with and making impressive clay potterywork, adobe houses and settlements and fairly colorful art and permanent structures. In the center the Sa'kuas (Saguas), Whitehead and Planos were found, and they were known for some farming, and adept hunter-gatherers. Around 1650 war broke out between the Sa'kuas and Planos, and the first confirmed encounter between Castellanese and the Sierran tribes is recorded (Castellanese may have explored the northwest as early as 1530).
In the north and east the Timona, Kwiskona, Kaitenas and Yunica were the most prominent tribes. These were able hunters, and would provide much resistance to expansion by settlers.
Castellanese settlement became permanent in the 1780s, with the founding of Fortín de la Sierra near modern-day Folsom; this was a small wooden fortress with several families building houses in the area. Various settlements were founded and often abandoned due to raids by indigenous warriors, but portions of the state were in continuous Castellanese control by then. Francisco de Lola y Bergara (1755-1817) was the first military commander of the area, and successfully founded the oldest continually-inhabited town, Fronteras in 1789 (founded as Fortín de la Frontera]). Lola y Bergara was killed in a clash with the Sakuas in 1817.
Construction of Fortín de Lola around 1820 gave the Castellanese control over the Upper *Colurona* River area, and by the 1830s had settlements in the east of the state, as far as San Daniel in the late 1830s.
Overland caravans of settlers began arriving to Sierra in the late 1840s and through the 1850s.
The Sierra Territory was proclaimed in January 1858; the small mining town of Colurona was named temporary capital prior to the confirmation of Lola as capital that year. The growth of Elvira and particularly Dennison threatened Lola's position as the most important city, and in 1864 Dennison's businessmen proclaimed it the capital. Assemblymen from Colurona, Montillo and Dillon supported the Lola government and helped form a militia, and those in Chapman, Elvira, Hernandez and elsewhere backed the Dennison government. Fighting between rival militias broke out in April 1864 and ended in 1866, a period called the Sierran Civil War.
The only major pitched battle was fought north of Fountainhead in June 1864, which proved a victory for Lola's militias, but they were unable to advance any further due to the weather. Most of the fighting was in turn small skirmishes and raids, but after 1865 fighting was much reduced. 2000 federal troops were moved to Fort Lola (now Fort Nickerson) and helped prevent significant fighting, but some raids persisted until 1866. The Congress in Huntington eventually named Dennison capital in 1866.
The first moves for statehood were in 1868 with the first constitutional convention. While a constitution was drawn up, the issue was derailed on the selection of a capital. Elvira also began to position itself as an alternative for a capital, especially due to its central location between Lola and Dennison. With the construction of a railroad from to connect the state with Tauhon in the west and the rest of the country, all three cities hoped for either the railway passage or the capital. Elvira's businessmen and politicians were eventually the most adept, and with rumors of much bribing vitally ensured that the railway would pass through it in 1869. By early 1870 offices of the Great Western and Asperic company were built in Elvira, and construction of the railway reached the city in late 1870.
The selection of Elvira as capital in 1871 paved the way for statehood, achieved 1 April 1872. In 1873, women were allowed the right to vote after a law passed in the state legislature. Large deposits of silver and gold were discovered in the center-west in 1874, leading to a huge influx of prospectors and their families, though many would leave as the easy gold was mostly gone around 1879. Many small towns sprung up, thrived and then declined with the gold, and later silver and other mining.
Conflict with native Archantans
Conflict with the various native Archantan tribes began in the 1820s, with two battles fought near Lola, in 1823 and 1828, between the Castellanese and Whitehead tribe.
When Sierra became F.S. territory, wars were fought with various tribes on numerous occasions. F.S. cavalry fought the Whitehead in 1852 and secured a treaty with them to end fighting. A bloody war was fought with the Planos tribe (near Dennison) from 1854 to 1857. Many early settlers to Dennison and Redonda were killed, but vast numbers of Planos people were in turn killed by F.S. troops. Militias formed in Lola and Dennison by the late 1850s also were used to fight. Most tribes agreed to peace treaties with the Federal States, and many were forced to give up much land in exchange for reservations, and others were specifically moved to a Native Territory (today part of Brenton and Elgin counties).
Battles were fought in the northwest with the Yahomas, Undaia and Zusi tribes in 1877, and from 1880 to 1882 with the Navarro and San Pedro Zusi. The longest-lasting conflict was the Kaitenas Wars, beginning in 1859 and lasting until 1887. Led firstly by Ancawa (d. 1872) and later by his son Teni (c. 1850-1910), they frequently attacked overland caravans, disrupted construction of the transcontinental railroad and kept up to 1000 soldiers tied up between La Rue and Harding. The death of Ancawa in a failed raid saw many Kaitenas captured, but Teni led most of the tribe to safely by hiding out in the Vilchez Peak area in the winter of 1872-73. Teni was captured in 1875 and imprisoned in La Rue, but a famous jailbreak by 100 Kaitenas tribesmen saw them free him and cross into Apawiland, and into western Tejoma in 1876. Teni avoided capture, but was engaged at least three times by F.S. troops, in 1877 near Homage Mountain, in 1879 near Andaguani City and in 1880 in Elgin County. He likely spent several years hiding in the Native Territory among other tribes until being found and detained in Lovell in 1884. Other bands of Kaitenas warriors continued raiding until 1887.
Reservations were established for several tribes in the late 19th century, for: the Western (San Pedro) Zusi (1882), for Poyé Zusi (1882), the Undaia (1884) and Kwiskona. Most other tribes ended living outside of the reservations.
Early 20th century
In 1913 the Native Territory was disbanded; the western portion went to Brenton County and the east was made a new county. Part of the former Native Territory was turned into the Kaitenas Reservation.
Government and politics
Sierra has a government similar to that of the FSA. It is headed by an elected Governor, supported by a Lieutenant Governor. The governor appoints other members to government, such as the secretary of state, attorney general and treasurer. The current governor is Maggie Woods, of the [right-wing party] elected in 2017 to a second term.
Sierra has been a key swing state in Federal States politics since the early 1940s, and is often known as the "flip-flop state". The state has often gone from left-wing to right-wing governments in succession, and is known for election patterns that buck the general nationwide trend. The east, south and northeast is often considered to be a more conservative voting region in the state, while the center and west are more left-leaning. The major cities are more left-leaning, though Lola has been more right-leaning than all the others.
Uniquely within the Federal States, Sierra has a publicly subsidized health system; employers, employees and the state government contribute to a public health insurance, and state residents are able to augment it with private insurance as well.
The State Wildlife Department was set up in the 1930s and oversees the management and protection of a variety of state parks, forests, preserves, sanctuaries and wilderness areas. The natural areas overseen by the state include Northern Peaks Wildlife Preserve, Santa Elena Forest, Telles State Forest, Meseta State Preserve, Kaitenas Forest, Tumona and Elgin Forest, Vilchez Peak Protected Area, Fulton State Park, Fielding State Forest, South Winston Wilderness Area, Fronteras State Forest and San Felipe River Basin Nature Reserve.
Print media has existed since the mid-18th century. The Dennison Observer is the best-known and most-read newspaper in Sierra (and from the state nationally).
Television in the state has been present since the middle of the 20th century. Free Television (Free Television Sierra) is a popular Sierran station, a public television non-profit channel partly funded by the state. National broadcasters have local stations in the state as well.
One of the most famous early Sierran music stars was Jack Mitchell (1923-1961). He became a famous country and western star, not just in the state but also nationally before his death in a car accident. Another popular singer in this period was the folk artist Mary Rivas; she recorded most of her hits at the famous Modern Sounds Studio in redonda and was part of the 1960s folk revival in the west.
Food and drink
Sierra is known for having a variety of small and medium breweries. Montana, brewed in San Daniel since 1886, is one of the most popular brands nationally.
A variety of sports teams are present in the state of Sierra, both amateur and professional. The University of Dennison's sports teams are known as the Lions, the University of Sierra (Lola) teams are known as the Rangers and the University of Sierra Dennison's teams are known as the Hawks. All universities are competitive in Archantan football, soccer (football), (ice) hockey and baseball among other sports. The USL Rangers team has the oldest history of Archantan football in the state, with their team known to have played a version with a round ball as early as 1876.
Professional sports teams include the Dennison Sierrans (baseball), the Dennison Bombers (basketball) and Dennison Wranglers (Ar. football). The Bombers basketball team is the one with the oldest history, founded in 1955 and entering the Archantan national league in 1961. The Wranglers have been present in Sierra since 1975 when a franchise was moved to Dennison, and the Sierrans franchise was awarded to the state in 1984. Newer professional teams include the Sierra Rangers (hockey, 1996) and Dennison City SC (2007), which is based in Redonda.
The state is divided into 22 counties. Estancia County is the largest in terms of area, and the City-County of Dennison is the smallest and most populous. Sierra is unofficially divided into five regions: West, Central, East, North and South.
|County||County Seat||Area in km²||Area in miles||Population||Pop. Density in km²||Established|
Sierra has a varied geography with many distinct natural features. Northwestern Sierra is characterized by semi-arid and partially arid landscape, including table formations like mesas and buttes, and a lot of scrub and low-lying vegetation. Western Sierra is generally fairly flat, and has more rolling hills and higher elevation the closer to the center of the state. Central Sierra is dominated by the *Colurona* River valley, known for its verdant canyons and drops in altitude to form valleys. Most of the center and east (north and east of the river) is the backbone of the western mountain range, where the FSA's highest peaks can be found. These include snow-capped peaks, green mountains and other elevated rocky formations. A lot of this area is covered by temperate forest as well.
Most are mountains, a few are mesas or buttes (flat-topped). Mount Esguerra is the talles in the state at 4501 m. Estancia county has the most mountains of any county, and Zusi County has the two tallest.
|Asabia Peak||Estancia County||3001||map|
|Black Rock||Yahomas County||2695||map|
|Blythe's Peak||Estancia County||3456||map|
|Calvin Peak||Cusatia County||1969||map|
|Colorado Peak||Estancia County||2372||map|
|Coyanha Rock||Yahomas County||2727||map|
|Currant's Peak||Serrano County||3064||map|
|Dominguez Peak||Estancia County||3723||map|
|Flat Butte||Estancia County||2412||map|
|Gardiner's Peak||Estancia County||2641||map|
|Genevieve Peak||Asuma County||2068||map|
|Henderson Peak||Meseta County||2001||map|
|Hernandez Peak||Cusatia County||4009||map|
|Joshua Peak||Estancia County||3347||map|
|Junasias Peak||Cusatia County||4378||map|
|Mesa Luis||Zusi County||3987||map|
|Meseta Chica||Serrano County||3148||map|
|Meseta Grande||Serrano County||3112||map|
|Monte Cristo||Cusatia County||3872||map|
|Monte Guerrero||Estancia County||3996||map|
|Mount Clinton||Cusatia County||4198||map|
|Mount Elgin||Elgin County||3808||map|
|Mount Eloise||Zusi County||4006||map|
|Mount Esguerra||Zusi County||4501||map|
|Mount Geraldine||Cusatia County||2244||map|
|Mount Gordon||Zusi County||1915||map|
|Mount Gustavia||Asuma County||1799||map|
|Mount Helena||Zusi County||4468||map|
|Mount Helles||Elgin County||2102||map|
|Mount Oswaldo||Serrano County||1886||map|
|Mount Salazar||Estancia County||4150||map|
|Mount Serpentine||Zusi County||3012||map|
|Mount Vera||Cusatia County||3667||map|
|Mount Vilsack||Elgin County||2016||map|
|Norbert Rock||Elgin County||1625||map|
|Pico Grande||Estancia County||4316||map|
|Roca Grande||Cusatia County||3812||map|
|Rocky Mount||Yahomas County||2071||map|
|Saguas Butte||Saguas County||1668||map|
|Sebita Peak||Yahomas County||2214||map|
|Spearmint Butte||Serrano County||955||map|
|Truchas Peak||Estancia County||3855||map|
|Tumona Peak||Estancia County||3308||map|
|Undaia Peak||Asuma County||3100||map|
|Vilchez Peak||Estancia County||2874||map|
|Yunica Peak||Estancia County||2265||map|
Central Sierra is defined by the *Colurona* River, which begins in the northwest portion of the state in Asuma County, flowing east to Sebita lake and then south until reaching *Lake 1* of the great lakes. The *Colurona* is fed into by several tributaries, notably the San Fernando River, Rio Gordo (and Barras River) and Royston River. The *Colurona* is significantly managed, with a variety of dams having been constructed between 1937 and the 1970s.
The San Fernando River was the first to be dammed, with the creation of the San Fernando Dam and Goldman Reservoir in the late 1930s. The San Fernando was further dammed in 1975, the last of the dams build in the state, further upstream. The Upper Colurona Dam was completed in 1970 and led to the creation of Sebita Lake; this was planned together with a Lower Colurona Dam near Dillon, but was opposed and defeated by the environmental movement. The Rio Gordo was dammed in the 1950s, creating the Las Barras Reservoir.
The lergest lake in the state, Lake Mona, is natural, but the two next largest, Lake Folsom and Sebita Lake, are all man-made.
Sierra has a diversified economy. Finance, transportation, retail and tourism form a majority of the economy in the state. Companies based in the state include Western Bank (finance), flySmart (airline), ShopperSmart Companies (owners of Maxima and Shoppersmart) and Planet Desktop (electronics).
Much of the energy in the state of Sierra is provided by three major hydroelectric dams, followed by natural gas, nuclear power, coal and wind power. Since the mid-2000s, there has been a push to get away from overreliance on coal.
Reeder Dam was built from 1949 to 1953 and was the first major dam built in the state, on the *Truchas* River. It led to the creation of Lake Vilsack and growth of Vilsack and Stith (Apa.). The dam very nearly failed in 1954, when heavy rains led to minor overflows. It was heightened by about 10 meters in 1956 to prevent any further chance of water spilling over. The dam continues to provide energy to eastern Sierra and western Apawiland.
Upper Colurona Dam
The Upper Colurona Dam is a 705 ft (215m) tall dam on the *Colurona* River. Built from 1965 to 1970, it is one of the tallest dams in the country, and is used for hydroelectric energy and water supply to the Dennison-Redonda area, Elvira and Lola. The dam was one of the largest engineering works of the latter 20th century, and when completed cost nearly $170 million, $12 million over estimate. The dam led to the creation of the 18 km long Sebita Lake, which is now a recreation area, but led to the loss of many natural ecosystems.
Folsom Dam was built on the San Felipe River from 1969 to 1973, and was planned in conjunction with the Upper Colurona Dam. Considerable opposition from the nascent environmental movement led to several court cases, but construction eventually began in 1969. The dam led to creation of Lake Folsom when flooded.
Lake Mona Generating Station
Lake Mona Generating Station is a nuclear power station located near Chapman. The plant consists of one Westinghouse 735 MW boiling water reactor (Mona 2). Construction of Lake Mona Generating Station began in 1968 and was completed in November 1974. Mona 1 was an experimental sodium fast breeder reactor and Mona 2 was a more conventional boiling water reactor.
The plant suffered a significant partial meltdown in Mona 1 in July 1973. The nearby town of Geraldine was evacuated but ultimately it was determined that there was no leakage into the environment. Initial reports did announce radioactive material entering the environment, and was feared much more serious than it was. The reaction was shut down and decommissioned in 1978. Mona 2 became operational in 1974 and continues to provide power to much of western Sierra. The accident led to the cancellation of an under-construction plant in eastern Sierra, near Lovell. It has been tentatively slated to begin decommissioning in 2025, though this may likely be extended.
Motorways in Sierra
See: Highways in Sierra
There are 3 types of major highways in Sierra, FS-routes, state routes and instrastates. National routes are all dual carriageway separated highways, of which four are present in the state. State routes are primary roads managed by the state, and intrastate are secondary state routes. The counties each have their own network of county roads or routes as well.
F.S. highway sign
Intrastate route sign
County road sign
The first state railway was built in 1859, connecting Lola with Elvira, and in 1861 with Dennison. The development of the intercontinental railway was an important moment in early Sierran history. The Great Western and Asperic connected Jundah in the west with Elvira and then onto Apricity.
Vehicle registration plates
License plates were first required in 1910, but were issued by Dennison County and not by the state. Statewide plate issuance occurred only in 1917.
The standard-issue plates in Sierra feature a landscape with pine trees and a sunset. This design was issued with flat letters and numbers (from 2009 to 2017) and with embossed registration number from 2018. Special plates are issued by the state. The most common ones include a gold on blue design with the motto "The Historic West", for vintage automobiles (reissue of 1966-1971 design), and a reissue of a late 1980s design with the motto "Protect Our Wildlife", for which a percentage of sales goes to nature conservation. Veteran, University and sports-related plates are also issued.
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|Federal district||Capital District|