Singkangia

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9, -3.092, 118.581
Republic Of Singkangia
Republik Singkangpura (Melayish)

新慷共和国 (Babelic)

Кангпубик ла Сингканг’ра (Kanglapolish)
Singkangian FlagCoat of Arms
FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
""Ич Поскийати, Ич Кангсам, Ич Сингканг’ра""
"One identity, One nation, One Singkangia"
Anthem:
Ich Poskiyati, Ich Singkangia
CapitalSingkangia
Largest cityOu-Czhong-Sa
Official languagesKanglapolish
 • National languagesKanglapolish, Babelic, Ingerish, Melayish
Ethnic Groups
(2017)
Katayans 55%

Melayii 20% Babelicans 15% Other Archantan Natives 7%

Others 3%
NationalitiesSingkarean
DemonymSingkarean/ Singkangian
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
 • PresidentVu Zhang Da
 • Prime MinisterKeng Tong Li
LegislatureParliament (Фуполеменда)
Area
 • Total18843.84 km2
Population
 • Estimate (2017)12,309,000
GDP (PPP)
 • Total$208.051 billion
 • Per capita$174,979
HDI (2017)Decrease 0.888
very high
CurrencySingkarean Pound (SKP)
Drives on theleft
Internet TLD.sk

Singkangia (Kanglapolish: Сингканг’ра; Babelic: 新慷国; Melaysish: Singkangpura), officially the Republic of Singkangia (Kanglapolish: Кангпубик ла Сингканг’ра; Babelic: 新慷共和国; Melayish: Republik Singkangpura), is a sovereign nation in Archanta, bordering AR054 to the east, AR007 to the southeast, and Yuethon to the south. These land borders are marked with the Kavva valley in the east and Kasai Valley in the south. Singkangia also shares maritime borders with AR001 at the north. Singkangia's territories include several islands near the mainland, including the 'Southern Islands' and Keppong Island. The currency used in Singkangia is the Singkarean Pound. The four national languages spoken in this country are Kanglapolish, Babelic, Melayish and Ingerish. Out of the four, however, Kanglapolish is the official language.

Established by the last prince of the Melayish Kingdom as the Singkangian Kingdom in 1299, Singkangia began as a prosperous kingdom ruled by kings. After a cultural dispute, the kingdom was divided into Melayish-majority Nabibia in the north and Singkangia in the south, which was then colonised by Karolia in 1550. The two nations reunified when the Ingerish colonised both of the countries in 1776. After independence, Singkangia was ruled by the Singkangian Nationalists until the communists launched a coup against the government in 1946, starting a quarter of a century of communist rule under Ming Sa Hing. When Ming Sa Hing died, his son took over and launched an election for a new government to replace the failing communist government. The new government, under Li Ching Sam, established new policies which helped develop the nation rapidly.

Modern Singkangia has a robust economy and is one of Archanta's major financial centre and commercial hub. Singkangia is often praised to be one of the least corrupted countries in the world and have the lowest crime rate due to quality law enforcement in the country. The government is currently led by the Singkangia's Action Party (SAP), which played a dominant role in ensuring progress and development in Singkangia since 1972. Due to a low level of press freedom and restrictions on civil liberties and political rights, Singkangia's democracy is often questioned.


Etymology

The native name of Singkangia 'Singkangra' came from two languages (Melayish and Kanglapolish). When the Singkangian Kingdom was established in the 1200s, the name 'Singa-Kerajaan' was adopted, which literally means 'Lion Kingdom' due to the presence of lions in the area. The Katatayan explorers referred the nation as 'Kangsamlan la Pobaora', meaning 'country of/with refuge'. This was because, the Singkangian Kingdom accepted the Katayans, who were fleeing from the chaos in the Kanglapolsih Kingdom, into the country and gave them comfort by providing fertile land set for the Katayans. The Katayans find the place to be a 'country for refuge' to them. In the 13th century, when the first Katayan king of Singkangia Keng Si Lou took power, he combined the Melayish and Kanglapolish names together, creating the name 'Singkang'ra'.

In the old maps of Archanta, the name 'Sinkanea' was used ever since the 15th century. When the Karolians colonised Singkangia, the name was then translated by the Karolians to be 'Siinkanija', and subsequent maps then used another Ingerish name 'Sinnkanya' alongside with the existing name. In 1799, the Ingerish colonial government officially announced that the Ingerish name for the territory will be 'Singkangia', after consultation with the various ethnic groups in the country. The name then became the official Ingerish name for the country since then, and the first two translations were thus ommitted.

History

Prehistory

The Singkangian Annals which mentions the early origins of Singkangia. The scripts shown are in ancient Mazanic.

Very little could be gathered about the events before Singkangia's establishment as a kingdom in the 12th century. What could be gathered, however, was that there were already settlements in the area ever since around 500BC. The first mentions of Singkangia could also be found in several journals of Ulethan explorers visiting or sailing past Archanta. In the Singkangian Annals, it was stated that a runaway prince from the Melayish Kingdom, probably referring to the Wali Kingdom or today's Wallea, arrived in Singkangia probably around 1150 or so. It was stated that he was trying to escape from unknown foreign powers attacking the kingdom, and in the midst of the chaos, he was separated from the fleeing royal family. During this time, there were conflicts between the tribes, due to disagreements such as land allocation and valuables. The prince approached one of the strong tribes' leader and seek for protection against the foreign powers hunting for him while in exchange, help conquer the other tribes and place all the tribes under one rule. It was agreed, and then the tribe managed to conquer all the other tribes using the prince's military knowledge, and defeat the warriors seeking the prince.

However, the tribe leader died soon after the conquest, and the prince automatically took over as the tribal leader. The prince then crowned himself king of all the tribes in the area. The people of Singkangia accepted him as the king, and thus the kingdom was established without resistance.

Monarchy

Singkangian Kingdom

A portrait of Ta Se Choung, which was restored and now in the National Museum of Singkangia.

The prince, after ruling the kingdom for 12 years, passed away. His son took over, and he decided to consolidate power over the kingdom by building defences against invaders. To establish trade with other nations, he set up a port, and build up a vast trading fleet. Trade relations were established with Yuethon and also as far as Lorredion, but no explorer from Singkangia went further across the Asperic Ocean. Sometime in 1299, probably after a visit from 'a mysterious merchant across the sea', the then king of the Singkangian Kingdom sent out explorers into the 'vast open sea'. The team of explorers set out by the king brought back resources from Goytakanya, Suvuma and even as far as Khaiwoon and Gobrassanya. However, it was never stated that official trade relations have been established with these countries at this time, neither was it said that Singkangia's wealth has increased.

In the year 1360, the kingdom faced a refugee crisis as Katayans fled and came to the country. To manage the problem, the king ordered to set up villages for these guests and hoped to re-settle these people to the other nations once they can leave. However, the Katayans still remained in the kingdom, and the people accepted the 'new race' which arrived in the kingdom. However, unknown events after the Katayans arrived led to Singkangia facing a period of anarchy in the early 15th century, likely because there was no one who wanted to take over the throne. It was not until 1410 that during a massive attack by an unstated foreign power, Ta Se Choung led the people to combat the invaders. It was successful, and the people nominated him as king.

Ta Se Choung became very popular, as he expanded and developed the ports for merchants to trade, improve the people's living and ensure law and order are kept in the country. He also established trade relations with the countries beyond the Asperic Ocean, which then expanded Singkangia's trade. His death in 1430(?) was mourned by many. His son Ta Men Dai took over. Though he ensures law and order are kept in the country, he was labelled often as a hypocrite, mainly because he had many affairs with foreign women who visited him. This has created problems for the kingdom in the future, however, as his sons and daughters have different ethnicities and it was often noted that they were biased to their respective races.

Nabibia and Singkangia

In January 1458, Ta Men Dai died without a will, creating problems on who will be king. Eventually, it was decided by the Katayan majority that his 2nd elder son, who is still in Singkangia, Ta-Chang Sai to be king. However, the Melayii did not approve of him as Ta Chang Sai appeared to be a threat to the Inams and Melayii. They instead wanted Mohammed Habib Hussein I, the eldest son, to be the next king. However, as Habib Hussein I is overseas on a diplomatic tour, Ta-Chang Sai became king instead of Hussein I. As expected, he oppressed the Melayii terribly and they were expected to pay higher taxes than the other ethnic groups in his kingdom.

When Habib I arrived back to the kingdom, he requested for the throne, but Chang Sai refused and made the lives of the Melayii tougher. Eventually, the Melayii nominated Habib I to be king of the Nabibian Kingdom, on the northeast of the Singkangian Kingdom where the majority of the Inams settled. Chang Sai was not happy, but not wanting a war with his brother, he agreed with his brother on the division of the kingdom. Officially on 1 September 1458, after the signing of the Separation into Nabibia and Singkangia Agreement, the two kingdoms separated.

After separation, there were huge migration by Melayii into Nabibia, and Kanglaporeans and Babelicans into Singkangia. The Nabibian King Habib I built a border wall which separated the kingdom, preventing Nabibians going into Singkangia and vice versa. The two kingdoms often compete with each other in terms of trade. It was stated in a few documents that there were a few wars between the kingdom.

However, the Singkangian Kingdom is not to last without the Nabibians. Ta Chang Sai was later in 1488 assassinated by his chief general Di Lang Sop, who had an argument with the king beforehand. Di Lang Sop became the next king, but despite his military background, he has little experience on leadership. Technically, Singkangia fell into an anarchy as there were failures in keeping law and order in the country. In 1503, Di Lang Sop died and was replaced by his son Di Kod Sev, who was even incapable of ruling. He even taxed people heavily and gave only privileges to the rich and notable.

Colonisation

Karolian Colonisation

Battle between the Nabibian troops and the Karolian troops.

In the 1500s the Karolians were on an expedition to establish new colonies in Archanta. The Karolians were instructed to form trade relations with the countries at the west side of Archanta. When the Karolians arrived in Singkangia, they saw that the kingdom has abundant resources which the Karolians could exploit. The Karolians also made use of the locals to help overthrow the king Di Kod Sov, whom the locals despised. As Kod Sov was weak, the Karolians managed to conquer the Singkangian Kingdom in 1550. The Karolians, however, did not manage to take over the Nabibians due to their strong army and forces. An attempt to tear down the border wall in 1580 by the Karolians was futile, and thus all the Karolians retreated from the powerful Nabibian army.

The Karolians, defending the new colony, set up new outposts in the sea and land to prevent any attackers. The Karolians has not made many plans, however, to develop the nation, and technically nothing much has changed under Karolian rule. The Karolians only make use of the nation's resources for passing Karolian ships which are on expeditions in Archanta. In 1602, a rebellion by the locals was staged onto the Karolian government, which failed. Instead of suppressing the locals, surprisingly, the Karolians created new policies to improve the living conditions of the locals so that the locals will support the Karolian rule. A Western-style system of modern education was developed in the colony, and Roman Christianism form the Karolians was propagated widely. Karolian mythology and folk tales became widespread in the nation, though they were actually modified and adapted by the locals in different ways.

In the later years, however, as the Karolians decided to focus on developing a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee, they largely ignored increasing calls for Singkangia's self-government and civil rights. Another nationalist political movement soon emerged in the 1680s, but mutinies by the locals were brutally suppressed this time, discouraging others from calling to the Karolians for self-governance.

In the 1740s, as the Karolians faced a domestic crisis, the number of troops stationed in the colony was reduced as the troops were sent back to Karolia to settle the crisis, weakening the defences of the Karolian colony. In 1764, Sir Edward Camchall Hughes arrived at Nabibia, seeking to establish another Ingerish port in Archanta. The Karolians were unhappy with the Ingerish presence in Nabibia, yet they cannot do anything to drive the Ingerish out.

Ingerish colonisation of Nabibia and Singkangia

The Odessa Port of Singkangia in 1887.

On arriving in Singkangia on 16 May 1768, the Ingerish team led by Edward Hughes managed to sign a trade pact with the Nabibians in 1768, which enforces close alliances with each other and give the Ingerish permission to establish an Ingerish port in the kingdom. This helped in the conquest of Karolian Singkangia in 1776, which was met with least resistance due to the weakened defence force. Officially on 27 September 1776, the battle between the Karolians and the Ingerish seized, and an official handover agreement was signed on that day to hand over Karolian rule to the Ingerish.

Although the Nabibians are still in power, they are still indirectly controlled by the Ingerish. The then king of Nabibia Habib Hussein II tried to rebel against the Ingerish, but he was eventually exiled onto Teikang Island and was replaced by his brother Ihsan Hussein in 1802. Being more gullible than his brother, Ihsan's last mistake was ceding all the Nabibian power to the Ingerish unknowingly in an agreement in 1819. Ihsan tried to recapture Singkangia but to no avail; eventually, Ihsan was also exiled like his brother.

The Nabibian government was then officially replaced by the Ingerish colonial government on 13 January 1819. The locals accepted full Ingerish rule when it was announced that the Ingerish is ruling the country, provided that the Ingerish still allow the locals to observe their own local customs and cultures. In 1831, to 'sort out' the racial groups, the governor of the colony Luke Brian set up 'cultural towns'. Some of the locals and the Ingerish subjects opposed the move, but this move was still enforced.

More job opportunities were created even for the low-income group. The population of Singkangia swelled, from just about 60,000 people in 1800 to 82,500 people in 1835 as more foreigners settled in the colony. The Kulangke (then Kurangsoon) and the new Odessa Harbour thrived as Singkangia was made a free port-anyone can trade without any restrictions. It was said that there was no time that the port is not crowded.

However, in 1899, the new governor took charge and wanting the locals to be more loyal to the Ingerish, new policies were implemented as part of the so-called 'Ingerish programme'. During this campaign, the inhabitants of the colony were expected to assimilate so that they will be like the Ingerish people. This includes the ban on traditional local games like 'chapteh' and 'five stones', and the Ingerish language was made compulsory to be taught in all schools.

One of the signs and posters put up in Singkangia to promote Ingerish

The locals did not benefit from the programme, as jobs created by then requires Ingerish communication skills. Traditional food and snacks were also banned and only Ingerish desserts are allowed to be sold, pulling those selling traditional food and snacks out of business. A rise of nationalism took place, as people wanted to keep their own culture and heritage. The locals then questioned colonial rule, whether it will benefit Singkangia in the long run. There were calls by locals to the Ingerish to grant self-governance, and after much discussion and deliberation in the 1910s, the colonial government re-shuffled and set up new positions in the legislative assembly for elected locals.

(more stuff about Singkangia's road to independence will come up soon).

Free State of Singkangia

Keppong Industrial Estate in 1945. The SN only managed to build up a small part of today's Keppong.

After tough negotiations, Singkangia was officially declared independent on 27 August 1940, and thus the Free state of Singkangia came into existence. However, the SN government has to then independently settle several crises which threaten Singkangia's economic stability and security. Due to the world wars raging outside Singkangia, trade relations with Singakangia were suspended. Although the SN government officially declared its neutrality, not many countries were willing to trade due to the World War being played out prominently in Singkangia's neighbouring countries.

The Ingerish made a surprise announcement in May 1943 that it will withdraw its troops from Singkangia so as to defend its other colonies from attacks. This has made Singkangia vulnerable and questions were raised about the possibility of Singkangia's future as an independent state. The SN government were considering options for Singkangia's own military, but nothing was done even after the Ingerish withdrew all of its troops in 1945.

In desperation, Ga Hang Di tried to negotiate with the Commonian Confederation for arms sales and an army to protect the country. When such negotiations were made known to the public, there were cries of public outrage. Fortunately, the negotiations did not go as planned, but this has lowered the SN government popularity. With decreasing support from the people, the SN tried to bribe people to speak out the goodness of SN rule, but they were found out and there were calls to bring down the SN government. With proposed high taxes for Singkangia in 1946, the people revolted and demanded the SN to step down. This helped the rise of the Singkangia Democratic Communist Party (SDCP), which then seized the opportunity to overthrow the SN government in June.

Communist rule

After the June 13 communist coup, the communist regime was put in place into Singkangia with Ming Sa Hing in power. Under the first few years of communism, the communists started to restore basic services for civilians which were not provided by the previous government, such as restoring electricity, water and gas needed to keep Singkangia running. Under the idea of 'Zilisk', or 'Independence', there has been positive growth in the economy up until 1952, when a famine struck the country. This had adversely affected the economy of the nation. About 200,000 people had died of starvation during the whole course of the famine. The Singkangian Dollar dropped drastically, and by 1954 to value dropped to about USD 0.13 as the supply of Singkangia's goods decreased.

To prevent a revolt, the communist rule became rather more dictatorial. Sa Hing then spread fear and terror among the people so as to consolidate power. He refused to allow reforms in the country, such as the proposed 'Kelasnou' policy, fearing that it will backfire against the government. In the 1960s, Singkangia adopted an 'army first' policy, as the government sees the needs for Singkangia to protect itself from external 'threats'. Much of its remaining resources was then diverted to the military, and then Sa Hing built up a nuclear arsenal to strengthen Singkangia's defences. The nuclear tests were condemned by the international community.

In 1971 Ming Sa Hing died, ending the communist regime in the country. Ming Sui Lang, his elder son, took over. Seeing that the communist government is dysfunctional as the result of poor decisions in the past few years, Sui Lang decided that Singkangia should move into a democracy. For the first time since 1940, Singkangia held proper elections, and this time the communists did not take part. Eventually, the Singkangian Action Party won with Li Ching Sam as the new prime minister after Ming Sui Lang, who stepped down soon after the elections.

Democracy

Building on Sa Hing's previous policies, Ching Sam and the new government then reformed the policies to suit Singkangia's reforms and growth in the 1970s. This had led to Singkangia's economic successes, with real GDP growth averaging at about 8%, higher than during communist times. Singkangia began normalisation of relations with other countries, and apologise for its past aggressive actions. By 1975 Singkangia re-entered the Assembly of Nations as the Republic of Singkangia and has re-established ties with over 50 countries. Singkangia officially became de-nuclearised in 1985. During the 1980s, Singapore began to upgrade to higher-technological industries, such as the wafer fabrication sector, in order to compete with its neighbours which now had cheaper labour. Singkangia also expanded its port operations by expanding the Keppong Harbour and closing down the old port of Odessa in 1987.

Singkangia major infrastructure also expanded, with...

Infrastructure

Transport in Singkangia

The Ayangcha Expressway, which is one of the expressways in Singkangia.
SMRT Trains
Cyclists in Singkangia

As Singkangia is a small nation with a high population density, the number of private cars on the road is restricted so as to curb pollution and congestion. Car buyers must pay for duties one-and-a-half times the vehicle's market value, and bid for a Singkarean Certificate of Entitlement (COE), which allows the car to run on the road for up to only twenty years. The cost of the Singkarean certificate of entitlement alone is also a quarter of the car, and car prices are generally significantly higher in Singkangia than in other countries in Archanta. As with most Ingerish colonises, vehicles on the road and people walking on the streets keep to the left.

Bicycles are a rather more common mode of transportation than cars, as it is more affordable. Cycling has actually been more popular since Karolian colonisation and still a popular trend during Ingerish rule. The cost of bicycles was greatly reduced during communist times so that every citizen 'can afford to travel around easily'. There are also dedicated cycling routes throughout the country, and it in Singkangia's recent statistics it shows that there are about 3 bicycles for every 2 citizens.

Singkangia also has public transportation, such as buses, taxis, the metro system Singkangian Underground (SKUD) and Singkangian Railways (SR). The SKUD is run by the Singkangian Metropolitan Railway Transit Corporation (SMRT Corporation) and Singkangian Urban Train Express (SUTE), while the buses are run by several local bus companies. The SR also comprises of several local rail operators which always manages tram networks in every city or town.

Singkangia is a major international transport hub in Archanta major, serving some of the busiest sea and air trade routes. The Changke International Airport, the primary civilian airport in Singkangia, has been rated one of the best international airports by international travel magazines.

Technology and Communications

Information and communications technologies (ICT) is one of the pillars of Singkangia's economic success. Singkangia has always been rated as the most "Tech-Ready Nation". It is the most comprehensive survey of the pervasiveness and network-readiness of a country, in terms of market, political and regulatory infrastructure for connectivity.

Singkangia has the world's highest smartphone penetration rates. Overall mobile phone penetration rate is at 158 mobile phone subscribers per 100 people, as of 2017.

Water access and sanitation

File:Gamchang Reservoir.jpg
Gamchang Reservoir, one of the many reservoirs in Singkangia

Access to water in Singkangia is universal, affordable, efficient and of high quality. Innovative integrated water management approaches such as the reuse of reclaimed water, the establishment of protected areas in urban rainwater catchments and the use of estuaries as freshwater reservoirs have been introduced along with seawater desalination to reduce the country's dependence on water imported from other countries. The Singkangian Public Utilities Board (SPUB) is set up to ensure proper legislation and enforcement, water pricing, public education as well as research and development.

Government and Politics

Singkangia is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government representing constituencies. The country's constitution establishes a representative democracy as the political system. Executive power rests with the Cabinet of Singkangia, led by the Prime Minister who is the head of government and, to a much lesser extent, the President, who is the head of state. The President is elected through a popular vote and has veto powers over a specific set of executive decisions, such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of judges, but otherwise occupies a largely ceremonial post.

The Parliament serves as the legislative branch of the government. Members of Parliament (MPs) consist of elected, non-constituency and nominated members. Elected MPs are voted into the Parliament on a "first-past-the-post" (plurality) basis and represent either single-member or group representation constituencies. The Singkangia's Action Party has won control of Parliament with large majorities in every election since the communist regime collapsed.

The legal system of Singkangia is based on Ingerish common law, but with substantial local differences. Trial by jury was abolished in 1962 so that judicial decisions would rest entirely in the hands of appointed judges. Singkangia has penalties that include judicial corporal punishment in the form of caning, which may be imposed for such offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. There is a mandatory death penalty for murder, certain aggravated drug-trafficking and firearms offences.

Singkangia has been consistently rated among the least corrupt countries in the world. Singkangia's unique combination of a strong almost authoritarian government with an emphasis on meritocracy and good governance is known as the "Singkangian model", and is regarded as a key factor behind Singkangia's political stability, economic growth, and harmonious social order. However, in Singkangia, there were limited and restricted freedom of speech, which are imposed due to riots in the past caused by comments made by the public. All public gatherings of five or more people require police permits, and protests may legally be held only at the Speakers' Corner. Singkangia's democracy is often questioned.


Foreign relations

Singkangia is officially part of the Assembly of Nations (AN)[1]. Singkangia's foreign policy is aimed at maintaining security in Archanta and surrounding territories. An underlying principle is political and economic stability in the region. It has diplomatic relations with more than 100 sovereign states, though it does not maintain a high commission or embassy in many of those countries. It also maintains its close relationship with its neighbours, though sometimes conflicts between the two nations occasionally occur, such as the developments near Singkangia's borders.

The foreign policy of Singkangia is based on the premise that national security is best served by staying free of alliances in peacetime in order to remain a neutral country in the event of war. Singkangia maintains ties with both socialist and democratic states ever since a review of Singkangia's foreign relations in October 1975 after the new government took over.

Military

The Singkangian Military Forces (SMF) is the of the most technologically advanced in Archanta. It comprises the Singkangia Land Forces (SLF), the Singkangia Navy (SN), and the Republic of Singkangia Air Forces (RSAF). This principle translates into the culture, involving all citizens in the country's defence. The government spends 4.9% of the country's GDP on the military—high by regional standards—and one out of every four dollars of government spending is spent on defence, as Singkangia is one of the most vulnerable countries to terrorism and invasions.

Education

Singkangia's education system is one of the best in Archanta. The Singkangian Ministry of Education (SMOE) aims to help our students to discover their own talents, to make the best of these talents and realise their full potential, and to develop a passion for learning that lasts through life. Compared to other education systems in Archanta, it is rather more flexible and diverse. The aim is to provide students with choices to meet their different interests and ways of learning. Being able to choose what and how they learn will encourage them to take greater ownership of their learning.

The education system's principles are based on meritocracy, which has helped to promote a competitive environment for students to strive for excellence in both academic or non-academic aspects. However, in recent years there were criticisms that parents who are more educated or have higher social-economic status levels are able to provide more academic support for their child. As a result, students with more academic support may have a higher starting point academically are able to do better than their peers. This was seen as a flaw in the system, and the government are pumping in resources to ensure everyone is given equal opportunities to succeed.

Healthcare

Singkangia's healthcare system is based on a model of shared responsibility where citizens and the government share the cost of healthcare. It is praised for having the government to spend less on healthcare and yet allow Singkareans to have equal access to healthcare. This model of shared responsibility comprises the 3Ms- Medisave, MediShield Life and MediFund.

To ensure further affordability of healthcare in response to rising healthcare costs, healthcare costs continue to be heavily subsidised by the government by implementing a string of various schemes. Despite all this, many have urged the government to bear a larger share of the healthcare costs.

Geography

Climate

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Climate data for Singkangia (2017)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.2 35.2 36.0 35.8 35.4 34.3 33.2 34.3 34.0 34.5 34.2 33.8 36.0
Average high °C (°F) 30.7 31.1 32.3 32.7 32.4 32.9 31.5 31.0 30.7 30.6 30.2 29.8 31.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.5 27.1 27.5 28.0 28.3 28.3 27.9 27.8 27.6 27.4 27.0 26.4 27.48
Average low °C (°F) 23.9 24.3 24.6 25.0 25.4 25.4 25.0 25.0 24.8 24.7 24.3 24.0 24.7
Record low °C (°F) 19.4 19.7 20.2 20.7 21.2 20.8 19.7 20.2 20.7 20.6 21.1 20.6 19.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 39 37 38 34 55 57 53 59 55 38 54 46 565
Average relative humidity (%) 84.4 82.0 83.4 84.1 83.5 81.9 82.3 82.2 82.7 83.1 85.7 86.5 83.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 172.4 183.2 192.7 173.6 179.8 177.7 187.9 180.6 156.2 155.2 129.6 133.5 2,022.4
Source: Singkangia Environmental and Metrological Agency (SEMA)

Singkangia has a tropical rainforest climate with no distinctive seasons, uniform temperature and pressure, high humidity, and abundant rainfall. Temperatures usually range from 22 to 35 °C. Relative humidity averages around 79% in the morning and 73% in the afternoon in the coastal areas, while inland areas have a lower relative humidity of 67% in the morning and 62% in the afternoon. While temperature does not vary greatly throughout the year, there is a wetter monsoon season from November to January.

Further contrasts that prevent true all-year uniformity are the monsoon seasons which happen twice each year. The first one is the Northeast Monsoon which occurs from mid-November to early March. The second is the Southwest Monsoon season which occurs from June to September. Periods between monsoon seasons receive less rain and wind. During the Northeast Monsoon, northeast winds prevail, sometimes reaching 20 km/h (12 mph). There are cloudy conditions in December and January with frequent afternoon showers.

Spells of widespread moderate to heavy rain occur lasting from 1 to 3 days at a stretch. It is relatively dry in February till early March although rainfall still exceeds 120mm. It is also generally windy with wind speeds sometimes reaching 30 to 50 km/h in the months of January and February. During the Southwest Monsoon season, southeast winds prevail. Isolated to scattered showers occur in the late morning and early afternoon.

Economy

Keppong Harbour, the port of Singkangia

Singkangia has a highly-developed economy, based historically on extended entrepôt trade. It also had a huge proportion of immigrants from other countries, making Singkangia have the most number of manpower in Archanta to help in its growing economy. Even though Singkangia's economy has stagnated and declined during communist times, rapid industrialisation from those times helped staged the foundation for Singkangia's economy. The new government's ongoing pursuit of economic growth and longstanding pro-trade stance, reflected in numerous market access through free trade agreements with many countries, has helped Singkangia emerge as one of the primary nodes in the global economy. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, Singkangia is consistently perceived as one of the least corrupt countries in the world. The country is home to a large number of multinational corporate headquarters, global trading markets, banks and other financial services providers.

Due to Singapore's small domestic market and limited natural resources, the country needs to continue to continue attracting Multinational Corporations (MNCs) which help to sustain her competitiveness. This strategy has contributed to Singkangia's strong and stable economy. However, the presence of MNCs has created challenges for Small and Medium Entreprises (SMEs). SMEs in Singkangia are important as they contribute more than 50% of the economic output and 70% of employment in Singkangia. The SMEs has many challenges to face the MNCs such as shortage of labour and expertise, insufficient profits and small domestic market. The government in response has drafted measurements to help SMEs sustain in Singkangia's economy.

Singkangia used the Singkarean Pound, named after the people who helped Singkangia's economy. It is normally abbreviated with the pound sign £, or alternatively S£ to distinguish it from other pound-denominated currencies. 1 pound equals to 20 sen, which equals to 50 el and then 100 bar, which is worth 1000 kav. The kav is much less in use.

Tourism

Singkangia presents tourists with a variety of activities. Tourists in Singkangia can visit places with rich culture and heritage, with a variety of attractions and facilities. The Integrated Resorts (IRs) such as The Bayfront@Mariana are large-scale developments with a mix of facilities for large-scale events with entertainment and performance venues, hotel, retail and gaming. The IRs helped position Singkangia as a major centre for entertainment and conventions by catering to both business and leisure tourists. There used to be many casinos built in Singkangia for foreigners during communism before 1990, but ever since 1990, to control money laundering and addiction, these were forced to close down. However, two IRs were still opened so that the tourism industry can sustain.

Tourism is to provide employment and businesses opportunities to many Singkareans, and a good incentive for Singkangia to improve infrastructure and boost its economy, through foreign exchange and generating tax revenue. However, Singkangia cannot pursue tourism to support its development due to its limited resources.

Demographics

Singkangia is a multi-racial society, due to migration of settlers from other countrie during the colonisation of both Ingerland and Karolia. As of mid-2017, the population estimate was 11,809,000, out of which 72% were Singkareans, the remaining 18% were either foreigners or holds Singkangian Permanent Residentship (SPR). 90.3% of resident households (i.e. households headed by a Singkangian citizen or permanent resident) own the homes they live in, and the average household size is 3.43 persons (which include dependents who are neither citizens nor permanent residents). Most of them (about 86%) live in apartments. Also, 75.9% of resident households live in properties that are equal to, or larger than, a four-room (i.e. three bedrooms plus one living room) apartments or in private housing. Live-in foreign domestic workers are quite common in Singkangia, with about 213,500 foreign domestic workers there, as of December 2015. However, the number of foreign domestic workers are falling ever since 2013 when the government discouraged employing of maids.

The median age of Singkarean residents is 39.3, and the total fertility rate is estimated to be 0.80 children per woman in 2014, one of the lowest in the world and well below the 2.1 needed to replace the population. To overcome this problem, the Singkangian government has been encouraging foreigners to immigrate to Singkangia for the past few decades. However, conflicts sometime occur between immigrants and locals over competition of limited resources.

Language

A construction sign in Singkangia showing 3 of 4 languages spoken in Singkangia.

Even though Kanglapolish is the official language, Ingerish is more commonly spoken, as Ingerish is the language of instruction in all public schools, and all subjects are taught and examined in Ingerish except for the "mother tongue" or 3rd language language paper. Also, public bodies in Singkangia, such as the Singkanrean's Public Service, (which includes the Singkarean Civil Service and other agencies), conduct their business in Ingerish, and official documents written in a non-Ingerish official language such as Babelic, Kanglapolish or Melayish typically have to be translated into Ingerish to be accepted for submission.

Singkareans are mostly Bilingual, or sometimes Multilingual as besides Ingerish lessons, mother tongue and 3rd language lessons are conducted in schoolsso as to preserve each individual's ethnic identity and values. Kanglapolish, however, has a symbolic rather than functional purpose. It is used in its motto, national anthem 'Ich Poskiyati, Ich Singkangia', citations of Singkarean orders and decorations, and in military commands. In general Kanglapolish was only spoken by Katayans, the majority of the population.


Culture

Singkangia's culture has shaped throughout history. Singkangia has a diversity of languages, religions, and cultures. Former Prime Ministers of Singkangia have stated that Singkangia does not fit the traditional description of a nation, calling it a society-in-transition, pointing out the fact that Singkareans do not all speak the same language, share the same religion, or have the same customs.

Each Singkarean's behaviours and attitudes are influenced by, among other things, his or her home language and his religion. Singkareans who speak Ingerish as their native language tend to lean toward Western culture, while those who speak Babelic as their native language tend to lean toward Babelican Culture. Melayish-speaking Singkareans tend to lean toward Melayian culture, which itself is closely linked to Isalamish culture. Racial and religious harmony is regarded by Singkareans as a crucial part of Singkangia's success, and played a part in building a Singkarean identity.

Cuisine

The diversity of food is touted as a reason to visit the country, and the variety of food representing different ethnicities is seen by the government as a symbol of its multiculturalism. In Singkangia, food is viewed as crucial to national identity and a unifying cultural thread. In Singkangian media, eating is declared to be a national pastime and food to be a national obsession. Food said to be a frequent topic of conversation among Singkareans. Religious dietary strictures do exist; Inams do not eat pork, and there is also a significant group of vegetarians. People from different communities often eat together, while being mindful of each other's culture and choosing food that is acceptable for all.

Other than Sinkarean cuisine, it is also common in Singkangia to find restaurants specialising in cuisine from a great variety of countries around the world, such as Karolia.

Food menu showing types of food sold in Singkangia
Chicken Curry Noodles, a simple yet popular delicacy in Singkangia

Music

Singkangia music is quite unique due to fusion of Melayian and Babelic Music with other western music from Uletha. Since Karolian colonisation, an individual's skill at singing or playing an instrument or two that decided their social standing and suitability to govern or marry, as it was considered to be a measure of their ability to empathise and communicate with others. Music has been encouraged since young, and is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and times like harvest. Singkangian Music is based around percussion instruments, the most important of which is the gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums used in Singkangian Music derived from Melayian Music. Drums and other traditional percussion instruments are often made from natural materials. Besides drums, other percussion instruments (some made of shells) include: the rebab (a bowed string instrument), the serunai (a double-reed oboe-like instrument), the seruling (flute), and trumpets. The music itself combines western polyphony with Babelic melodies and scales.

The Singkangian Wind band, made up of young people aged 13 to 16.

Pop music, however, lacks in popularity in Singkangia even after the ban on pop, jazz and rock imposed by the Communists had been lifted in 1992. Before then, it seemed to contribute to noise pollution, and therefore not encouraged.

Since the 1990s, the government has been promoting Singkangia as a centre for arts and culture, in particular the performing arts, and to transform the country into a cosmopolitan "gateway between the East and West".

Art and Architecture

The Communist Government have emphasised on building grand and glorious buildings, passing a law that they must stand tall and look new for at least 100 years. Today, grand buildings such as the old Parliament Building in Farahda and the Singkangian Underground Station's can be seen, still shining in its glory and beauty, and are important landarks in Singkangia.

Sports and recreation

Singkangia was famous for their unique hybrid sport- known locally as Dodge football. Other popular sports in Singkangia include association football, badminton, field hockey, bowls, tennis, squash, martial arts, horse riding, sailing, and skate boarding. Badminton matches in Singkangia also attracts thousands of spectators, and table tennis also is ranked one of the top in the world. Water sports are popular since it is near coastal areas, including sailing, kayaking and water skiing. Scuba diving is another popular recreational sport in Singkangia.

References

Notes

  1. "List of Countries Recognised by Assembly of Nations". AN. St Richards, Pretany. 2016. Retrieved 4 May 2016.

While much effort has been down to track down the sources of information stated, we may have overlooked any. Please go to the discussion page to tell what references have been missed out.

See also

Democratic People's Republic of Singkangia



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