Taukan

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OGF:Sandbox/Taukan

Taukan may refer to the Taukan language family or to the ethnic groups speaking Taukan languages.

Taukan history

Origin of the Taukans

The Taukan cradle is thought to be located in what is now northern Sabishii in Paxtar. Archaeological remains of a neolithic culture unearthed near the bank of the XXX river are the oldest remains of human presence to be found in the region. This population expanded south towards the coast and left artefacts, mainly pottery and post-holes where settlements had been located. This area is considered to be the original homeland of the Taukan culture. In a series of migrations they spread west along the coast, reaching modern-day Guai during second millennium BCE. In a later migration a group moved east across the central Antarephian mountain range to the Asperic coast, reaching Ullanyé around 500 BCE. They spread throughout central Antarephia, merging with preexisting cultures they encountered.

Taukans migrations

Early migrations

Southern migrations

Western migrations

Taukan tribes that have been established on Gonfragerran coast, started to move westward, reaching Guai between 2,000BC and 1,000BC. Some of these tribes' name are known as they kept written archives of some of their activities (namely, trades and political decisions). Their Abugida writing system has been in use until the late 17th when Romantian alphabet superseded it completely. By 500BC, the indigenous Kaitese people had completely fused with the Taukan tribes, leaving some oronyms and hydronyms still existent, and agricultural techniques previously unknown to the Taukans. Taukans organised themselves in a set of city-states usually ruled by a council of the elders. These city-states are usually divided into those based agriculture and/or mining, and those dedicated to trade by sea or land routes. This period, lasting from 500BC to 200 AD, is known as the Silver Age.

Archaeology

OGFmapicon.png 44.703 S, 58.6146 E
Summit of the Binding

Kimí Tauka
Stone circle & associated spring in Ullanyé

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Location
Town Cacamarr
State Ullanyé
Continent Antarephia
Description
Type Stone circle & associated spring
Constructed circa 500 BCE
Sculptor unknown
Owner Republic of Ullanyé
ANESCO Designation
Cultural Monument 1983
National Designation
Historic Site 1897
Transport links



Genetics

Culture

Spirituality and traditions

Taukan spiritual concepts

  • Eight Virtues

The Eight Virtues are traditionally listed as: Courage, Rectitude, Benevolence, Loyalty, Diligence, Humility, Temperance and Respect. Originally, they were expected from those who ran the city or state, but over the time, they have been taught as basic virtues of any person of integrity and honour.

Folklore

Below is listed a small sampling of types and examples of verbal lore:

  • Aspra

Aspra mythological shield that threw projectiles back at the attacker. The story seems to originate from the Kaitese People Mythology as this concept is not found in contemporary Taukan culture. Long forgotten, its popularity rose at the time the Taukans came in contact with Ulethan colonists and its fame spread across the Taukan culture sphere. Aspra can be manned only by those demonstrating the Eight Virtues

  • Kidjo & Cilia
Cilia teaching the woman to speak, c 1921 by Laran Pei

Kidjo & Cilia (usually transcribed as Keejoe & Sheilia in Ingerish) are a pair of swans living on a pond, filled with water so pure it gives immortality to the purest souls who drink it, yet it induces envy and frustration to the others. The pair, of an undefined colour, can speak and is endowed with immortality, implying their souls are the purest.
The pair is approached by a human couple that lives nearby. Unaware that human souls can never be completely pure, Kidjo and Cilia offer them water and other gifts, and start teaching them how to speak. Days after days, the swans become more and more colourless (whiter and whiter in some versions) as the humans become more envious of the swans' gift (which is the ability to speak), and display eagerness to learn more and more.
Meanwhile Kidjo and Cilia lose their own ability to speak to the point that even their own names become those of the two humans, unnamed until then. Furious at mankind, the swans retreat and, from then on valiantly defend their cygnets against any human intruder as they do not trust them anymore.

By the end of the story, Humans know how to speak but are envious, easily frustrated and usually do not know what to do with this ability apart from being slanderous.

In Guaiian, moho kidjo or swan tear means to mourn for something dear one has lost without having fought for. Moho Kidjo is also a highly alcoholic spirit produced in the Táriao Upland (southern Guai). Moho Kidjo is transparent with a light blue hue, and its sale and consumption were severely restricted during most of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Kidjo (/'kidʒɔ/) is cognate with Guaiian kidj (/'kidʒ/ - seven) and Olonyé kidynó (/'kidʒo:/). The root /k/+/dʒ/ conveys some meaning of speaking or causing someone to speak. In old epic poems, phrases such as "open my lips" are frequently affixed to Kidjo or kidj (number seven).
The swan is the national bird of Guai where it is admired for its natural grace and its fierceness to defend its kind.

  • Kirakó
Arko Pondering Kirakó's words, c 1895 by Launa Kilin

A spirit whose name is roughly translated as "the one who does not look exactly similar" and features in several Taukan mythologies. Kirakó often acts as a guide, adviser or judge and many of the tales revolve around the spirits obscure oracular pronouncements. It is associated with nocturnal animals, especially owls, and often frequents pools, hillsides and high places. It has many physical forms and is rarely described in the same way twice. A central motif of the Kirakó stories is that human protagonists are unable to recount in any great detail what the spirit looked like.

In Guaiian versions of the lore, Kirakó (/kiɾa'kɔ/) is most exclusively associated with owls, especially the white-faced barn owl, living by a pool or the entrance to a subterranean spring, whom the hero or heroin is due to come visit at night or happens to encounter. In these encounters, Kirakó, sometimes acting as a guide, always tells the very truth. The rub lies in Kirakó's rather oracular parlance that is usually misguiding. The hero runs from mishaps to tragedies and sometimes dies by the end of the story. The moral of the story is usually understood as beware of well-intentioned beings or beware of the interpretation one gives to others' words.

The meaning of the -ko ending has been lost. On the other hand, ki stem usually conveys the idea of to see, to look or to resemble, and -ra is a negative suffix. Given its behaviour in the Guaiian versions and in addition to "the one who does not look exactly similar", Kirakó is also understood as "the one who does not see the same things/same way", implying the bird is blind, clairvoyant or see the same things but in a different way. The quirk of this story was extremely popular during the 19th century, at the height of the Romantic era, to the point that women started wearing jewellery pieces that depicted Kirakó, usually with gems such as moonstones set in silver.

  • Mona

Mona is the story of a kind-hearted mother Raven. In Guaiian, the raven's name is spelt Mw̄na (/'mo:na/). Both Mw̄na and Erói(/e'ɾɔj/), Guaiian for raven, have remained popular female and male first names.

  • Tasóndy

Literally, 'stars in his back' is a mythical being from early Ullanyé religious tradition understood to act as a mediator between the conscious and unconscious mind or dream-state. He is one of the Fading Band who are believed to influence the course of a person's life. Tasóndy usually appears as a marine mammal in the myths, occasionally as a dolphin but more often as a one of the larger whale species. He is strongly associated with the sea, sailing and fishermen. The Sindyé Tasóndy is named after him.

  • Taukiri

Taukiri, also known as the Weeping or the Mourning Maiden, is popular tale originating on the coastal regions along The Koropiko bay. From place to place the plot varies but the popularity of the tale has inspired poets', novelists' and composers' works along the centuries.

Taukan languages

Taukan
Geographic
distribution
Central Antarephian Western Coast
SubdivisionsDyadye
Gonfragerran
Kaitese


Classification

Basic features

Taukan languages have a number of shared features across all languages:

  • Taukan languages are mostly analytic.
  • Taukan languages have a fairly strict subject–verb–object word order.
  • Verbal inflection is rather limited.
  • Modality is expressed using modal verbs. Modal verbs are prefixed to the verb in some language subgroups.
  • Taukan languages are genderless languages but use prefixes when gender indication is necessary.

Dyadyé languages

Dyadyé languages is a subgroup of the Taukan languages which includes Olonyé, spoken by around 6 million native speakers in Ullanne.

Gonfragerran languages

Gonfragerran languages take their name from the Paxtaren Province of Gonfragerra.

The definite article is not in use in the languages belonging to the Gonfragerran subgroup but suffixes are used to indicate plural notion. As in other Taukan subgroups, verbal inflection is limited. Tense is usually conveyed by a limited set of uninflectable suffixes, whereas mood is expressed by apocopated modal verbs prefixed to the verbal stem.

Kaitese languages

Kaitese dialects in Guai circa 1600
Kaitese dialects in Guai circa 1900

Kaitese languages take their name from River Kaita. Their main division are between Continental and Peninsular Kaitese languages.

All Kaitese languages make an extensive use of auxiliary verbs to convey both tenses and modality. The vocabulary contains a lots of pre-Taukan elements, mainly concerning agriculture and some natural features. The main differences between Continental and Peninsular Kaitese are:

  • Peninsular Kaitese dialects: in the absence of nominal inflection, number and definiteness are convey by article, the use of inflected prepositions, the amount of pre-Taukan vocabulary compared to Continental dialects
  • Continental Kaitese: extinct Old Iapan did not know definiteness article but used suffixes to convey number. Karnakian makes a limited use of articles for definiteness and keeps suffixes for number.

Peninsular Kaitese are furthermore divided between western and eastern dialects. Apart from minor vocabulary and grammatical differences, the grouping concerns phonology differences such as the lenition of western [ks] sound into eastern [s] or [z] sounds. For example, standard Guaiian eks (six) is esè in Taupan and Kinaran. Paxtar is Pasdār (/pas'dɑ:ɹ/) in Guaiian because the relation with this country was carried on by the eastern Guaiian Thalassocracies.


Cognates

Cognate Guaiian Olonyé Tenibri
/'kinib/ - KEE-nib - /wɔɾ/ - war
area that freezes. From /'kinib/ area or scope, and /wɔɾ/ to freeze
uor means frost in Guaiian
kinvar
/'kinvaɾ/
glacier
kiníbar
/ˈkɪni:'bar/
glacier
/a'wal/ - ah-WAL
to move accross/through or to move forward
From /'awa/ meaning "across, on the far side, beyond"
avál
/a'val/
ford
abálú
/abɔːɭu:/
fjord
/ɔ'lik/ - aw-LICK
to gather/to assemble
From /lik/ conveying the concept of "being together"
àlik
/ʌ'lik/
village
ulik
/ʌˈlɪk/
city
ūlūç
/uːluːç/
town
/im/ - im
forehead or vertex
Im still means forehead in Guaiian
imaj
/'imaʒ/
headland
imás
/ɪmɔːʂ/
mountain
imot
/ɪmot/
mound
/kaj/ - ki
to flow
oka
/'ɔka/
stream
okâ
/ɔkɔː/
river
oclát
/okleːt/
stream
/'kɔdik/ - KAW-dik
that which joins
From /'ɔdik/, to join, and causative prefix k-
kodi
/'kɔdi/
lane
kodik
/ˈkɔdɪk/
lane
pācod
/pɔkod/
boulevard
/'pantjaran/- PAN-tya-ran
to enclose/to pen/to limit
Guaiian pantiar (prison) and bandiar (pen) derive from the same root
banda
/'banda/
border
bandyá
/ban'dʒɔː/
boundary
pāŋje
/pɔŋdʒɛ/
close
/pa'rajk/ - par-RIKE
constricted
barj
/baɾʒ/
narrow
beraig
/bɛr'eɪg/
narrow
/sɔjd/ - soyd
to flow/to run
cuod
/ʃwɔd/
canal
chúhád
/tʃuː'hɔːd/
stream
/'sufuθ/ - SOO-footh
heat/flame
Guaiian cif (fire) and sufuth (blaze) derive from the same root
cufè
/'ʃufə/
hearth
sufú
/ˈʂʌfuː/
house
/tɔb/ - tob
high/to be high
The root is also found in Ullanne District Caztobal
dova
/'dɔva/
hill
dobâs
/dɔbɔːʂ/
hill
cobā
/kobɔ/
hill
1 aiem
/'ajem/
service
ayemah
/ajemah/
serve
2 alka
/'aɫka/
tower
aluchí
/aɭutʃi:/
tower
3 atūl
/a'tu:l/
vegetable
atúl
/aʈu:l/
green
4 avauc
/'avawʃ/
wealth
abos
/aboʂ/
wealth
5 bahīr
/ba'hi:ɹ/
cove
ebahirí

bay/cove
6 balw̄
/ba'lo:/
silver
rabalól
/ɽabalo:ɭ/
silver
7 bidji
/'bidʒi/
factory
bídyín

factory
8

Guaiian duyj (gold) derives from the same root
cèdūk
/ʃə'du:k/
treasure
sadúek
/ʂadu:ˈɛk/
gold
9 cireij
/'ʃiɾejʒ/
general
chiraig
/ˈtʃɪr'eɪg/
wide
10 cyb
/ʃɛb/
dirt
seb
/ʂeb/
grey
11 dasój
/da'sɔʒ/
whale
tasóndy
/ʈaʂo:ɲdʒ
whale
12 dekama
/de'kama/
promontary
dekama

promontory/ridge
13 djom
/dʒɔm/
health
dyáhom
/dʒɔː'hom/
well
14 djyr
/dʒɛɾ/
pale
dyer
/dʒer/
white
15 edrala
/ed'rala/
aquamarine
edrala
/ed'rala/
cyan
16 eigyb
/'ejgɛb/
quay
meraigebí
/mɛr'eɪgɛbi:/
quay
17 eináv
/ej'nav/
leisure
enyabó
/ɛɲa'boː/
leisure
18 emē
/e'me:/
sky
mek
/mɛk/
blue
19 ēnia
/'e:nja/
hut
eiane
/ˈeiɳe/
shelter/hut/tent
20 famí
/fami/
turquoise
fomí
/ˈfɒmiː/
turquoise
21 fid
/fid/
way
fídyó
/ˈfiːdʒoː/
way/pass
22 fobin
/'fɔbin/
shop
fábinú
/fɔːbɪnu:/
commercial area
23 four
four
base/camp
fór
/ˈfoːɽ/
base/camp
24 fugū
/fu'gu:/
mouse
fugú
/ˈfʌgu:/
mouse
25 gie
/gje/
police

/gi:/
police
26 isō
/i'sɔ:/
archipelago
isá
/ɪˈʂɔː/
island
27 iwnerw
/jo'neɾo/
plain
yoneró

28 kadia
/'kadja/
institute/agency
kadyas

agency
29 kadẃ
/ka'do/
lagoon
kadú
/kadu:/
lagoon
30 kàe
/kʌ'e/
data
kue
/ˈkʌe/
data
31 kas
/kas/
shield
gasa
/gaʂa/
shield
32 kēbem
/'ke:bem/
harmony
tukebem
/ʈuˈkebem/
harmony
33 kidjo
/'kidʒɔ/
male swan
kidynó
/ˈkɪdʒo:/
swan
34 kukw
/'kuko/
market
akukos
/ˈkukoʂ/
market
35 kūr
/ku:ɾ/
pond
kuré
/ˈkʌɽeː/
pool
36 makle
/'makle/
kernel/nuclear
mekalén

centre
37 noo
/'nɔ.ɔ/
settlement

/ɳɔː/
settlement/homestead
38 ono
/'ɔnɔ/
plaza
anyó
/aɲo:/
place
oco
/oko/
place
39

Orid means blood in Guaiian
ōr
/ɔ:ɹ/
red
orid
/ˈɔɽɪd/
red
ordiç
/oɹdɪç/
red
40 oros
/'ɔɾɔs/
memorial
oros
/ˈoɽoʂ/
marker/memorial
41 pūskel
/'pu:skel/
volcano
'

pūscel
/'puskel/
volcano
42 rada
/'ɾada/
brown
rada
/rada/
brown
43 ramú
/ɾa'mu/
education
ramú
/ra'mu:/
school
44 recēgon
/ɾe'ʃe:gɔn/
hospital
reséregunyé
/rɛʂeːˈrɛgʌɲeː/
hospital
45 rekigí
/ɾeki'gi/
production
rekigi
/rɛkiˈgi/
industry
46 rimā
/ɾi'mɑ:/
beach
orimá

beach
47 rod
/ɾɔd/
lake
irody
/ˈɪɽɔdʒ/
water
rod
/ɾod/
water
48 ronós
/ɾɔ'nɔs/
ridge/spine
ronás

ridge/shin
49 rwu
/ɾow/
childhood

/ro:/
children/descendants
50 saca
/'saʃa/
sister
echasa
/etʃaʂa/
sister
51 sīj
/si:ʒ/
forest
isig
/ɪˈʂɪg/
wood
siç
/sɪç/
tree
52 sonie
/'sɔnje/
lamb
sunyed
/ˈʂʌɲɛd/
lamb
53 tce
/tʃe/
hole
deché
/deˈtʃe:/
hole
54 tcydj
tʃɛdʒ
horse
chedyedy
/ˈtʃɛdʒɛdʒ
horse
55 thos
/θɔs/
opening
tos
/tɔʂ/
gate
tosrine
/tosɹɪnɛ/
cave
56 tis
/tis/
sub-
etis-
/ɛtiʂ/
under/below/sub-
57 tondia
/'tɔndja/
nature
tondya

wild
58 tūf
/tu:f/
fox
túfar
/tu:far/
fox/dog
59 wabe
/'wabe/
tern
urabé

tern, a species of
60 ugero
/u'geɾɔ/
plant
ukeró

tree
61 wból
/o'bɔl/
daughter
ubál

daughter
62 ycok
/'ɛʃɔk/
farm
esuk
/ˈɛʂʌk/
farm
resdūç
/ɹɛsduːç/
land
63 yl
/ɛl/
dock
el
/ɛl/
lake
elc
/ɛlk/
lake