Third Glastian Civil War

From OpenGeofiction Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Glastian Civil War
Part of the Communist Spring
Glastian Civil War pictures.png

Clockwise from top left: A North Glastian tank being inspected the day before war begins, a disguised South Glastian tank during Operation Monolith, Glastian Communists manning a checkpoint in Monksbury, Glastian Communists collect weapons from a defeated North Glastian platoon in Wyndham


DateMay 8th 1945 – October 20th 1947
LocationGlaster
[1]
ResultGlastian military victory
  • Glastian communist sympathisers retreat to Agarderia and Latania.
  • Glaster re-introduces a far-left socialist party.
  • Glaster breaks all ties with Commonia
Territorial changesGlastian Communists lose all their holdings. Socialist Republic of West Glaster formed out of Agarderia
ActionMilitary Coup resulted in 2 factions in the Glastian government.
Belligerents
North Glaster.png North Glaster
Glaster old flag.png South Glaster
Commonian Old Flag.pngCommonia
Hall Government Flag.pngAgarderia

Supported by
Ingerland-flag.png Ingerland
Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction
Agarderian communist first flag.pngSocialist Agarderia

Supported by
Reserved country.png Latania (Economic)
Commanders and leaders
North Glaster.pngRobert Deccan
North Glaster.pngGenting Fledneration
Glaster old flag.pngGregory Hilton
Commonian Old Flag.pngLduth dul Henste
Glaster communists.pngWinby Swalleth
Glaster communists.pngHabrin Arbermaton
Glaster communists.pngTheodore Dajeck (executed)
Agarderian communist first flag.pngDundar Hett
Strength
North Glaster:
25,000 soldiers
South Glaster:
20,000 soldiers
Commonia
10,000 soldiers
Communist regulars
30,000 soldiers
Agarderia:
20,000 soldiers
Communist Partisans
1000 soldiers
Casualties and losses
Military casualties: Unknown, estimated 10,000Military casualties: Over 17,000
Notes
Around 21,000 civilians killed
Achtung.svg Starting from February 2018, Glaster has been subject to redevelopment and a complete structural overhaul. Geographical, historical and economic information on the map no longer correlates with content of this page, and this page will not be updated until the mapping process is completed.

The Glastian Civil War, widely known in Glaster as The Communist War or just 'The War', took place from 1945 to 1947 and was fought between the Republicans, who were loyal to the democratic, centrist North Glastian Republic, and the Communists, a popular group formed after a military coup, led by Winby Swalleth. The existing government won the war at a great cost, and was left as a socialist leaning government for much of the 20th century, up to unification in 1979.

The war began after a military coup by a group of generals of the Glastian Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of Grand Marshal Winby Swalleth, against the Glastian government, at the time under the leadership of President Genting Fledneration. The coup was supported by 2nd corps of the 1st North Glastian Army, and all but 1 corps of the 2nd North Glastian Army. Foreign support came directly from from Latania, in the case of weaponry, and other Communist countries, in the case of finance. Rebelling units in important cities such as Tibrin, Bovier and Monksbury captured their objectives in record time, and those cities, crucial to industry and weapon making, remained under their control for the majority of the war. Glaster was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Communists and the Republican government now fought for control of the country.

The war became notable for the political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that were committed. Massacres occurred on both sides, the most notable being the Bovier massacre during the last weeks of the siege. An estimated 5000 civilians were killed by artillery and bombs in the crossfire as the North Glastian Army moved in to take the city. A smaller but significant number of killings took place over the course of July 1946, where approximately 3000 inhabitants of Wyndham and the surrounding area were killed for 'supporting the Republicans'. Immediately after the war during the unrest around Wyndham thousands more were killed, though the figures remain uncertain.

Background

After a humiliating war against Wyster and several severe economic downturns in the 1930s, from which North Glaster failed to recover, the people began to doubt the ability of the government to lead Glaster. The hatred of the then Facist Wyster and the jealousy that South Glaster, formerly an equal to North Glaster, was doing better than it, meant the popularity of socialism was on the rise. Several political parties were formed from this, which eventually all merged into the Glaster Communist Party.

Despite being popular, the party failed to win any elections, much to the frustration of the populace. Rumours of the planned military coup eventually filtered up to the highest sector of government, which alerted President Robert Deccan. In November, he decided to sack all suspected politicians military officers suspected of holding communist beliefs and hold them in prison.He then decided to ban the party altogether later that month.

In reality, the majority of the people persecuted were innocent, and some loyalists even turned to the communist side after they were freed from prison. Furthermore, the purge failed to uncover key conspirators, like then Secretary Habrin Abermaton or 'Mr X', Grand Marshal Winby Swalleth. The purge was followed by huge discontent and riots across the whole of North Glaster. The purge turned out to be a fatal mistake, as the political and military structure was vastly weakened by the promotion of less capable and less experienced figures to fill the gaps.

North Glaster's neighbours had already sensed the tension within the country, and South Glaster began mobilising its army immediately in December. In April of 1945, a communist guerrilla movement was officially started in North Glaster. The movement was met with varying success, disrupting communications and destroying roads and railways.

Military Coup

A military coup under Grand Marshal Winby Swalleth was announced in May 8th 1945. The coup had been secretly planned in advance by the North Glastian High Command, and relied on the already existent resentment of the North Glastian Republic and the communist sentiment that was held mainly in northern North Glaster. By May 10th, 5 out of the 8 corps of the North Glastian Army had decided to participate in the military coup. The Glastian Air Force was divided more evenly, with a half and half split. The Glastian Navy, based on the Isle of Bovier, remained loyal to the Republic.

The War

Initial assaults

As of May 17th, the Communist Glastian forces had managed to seize the lands in and around Bovier Island, Monksbury, Northweald and Tibrin. The slow and poor preparation of the Government forces and communication issues meant an assault on the mainland was a swift victory, and the Government army saw humiliating defeats unparalleled in Glastian history. By January 1946, the North Glastian government controlled less than 10% of land in the country. However, the Glastian forces managed to successfully capture the majority of the Isle of Bovier and managed to lay siege to Bovier City by February 1946.

The balance of military power initially favoured the Republicans, as they had the most well-defended areas and had kept most of Glaster's newest tanks and planes. However, major industrial regions around Tibrin were controlled by the revolutionaries, and the area around Bovier was unusable due to the heavy fighting taking place there. As a result, North Glaster found itself more and more deprived of resources as the war progressed.

Assassination of Robert Deccan

On the eve of the 12th of August, Robert Deccan was found dead, shot in the head, at the Presidential Residence outside of Wyndham. After the body was discovered, a rogue communist shell landed and set the building alight. The investigation was unable to continue due to intense fighting around the area. A week later a Gastian communist, Deaklain Gellerig, was detained in Decton. He was detained in Wyndham Prison, but broke out and vanished following the Communist taking of Wyndham. The Presidential Residence was destroyed by Commonian artillery fire in September 1946 and the case remains unsolved to this day.

Agarderian and Glastian Communist records were destroyed shortly before Socialist Agarderia collapsed in 1986 meaning any record of the fled suspect has been destroyed. The assassination of Robert Deccan remains unsolved to this day. Various alternative theories have been put forward, usually involving Agarderia, Genting Fledneration and Commonia.

Deadlock around Wyndham

By the end of 1945, the exceptional speed of the North Glastian Army had slowed. The area around Wyndham was extremely well protected, both naturally and militarily. As a result, in November, December and January the war turned into a war of attrition, but however small gains were slowly made by Communist Glaster during the course of the fighting.

Both sides lost large amounts of equipment and men during this stage of the war, but the Communist Army could replace anything lost, having control over large industrial regions around Bovier and Tibrin. The North Glastian Army never fully recovered from losses in 1945 until after the war had ended. Had South Glastian intervention never occurred, historians agree that North Glaster would have definitely fallen by the beginning of 1946.

Expansion on Agarideria

In December 1945, Marshall Swalleth, seeing the imminent fall of North Glaster, decided to invade Agarderia to assist the Agarderian Communist and Latanian forces fighting there, in accordance to the agreement the three countries had signed the previous month. The invasion force managed to secure a large strip of land roughly parallel to the Glastian border, running from Latania, to the sea. While initial advances were repelled, the Karamskan invasion lead to Commonian troops withdrawing from Agarderia, with war ending later in February 1946 with an Agarderian surrender. The Communist Army of Glaster held the land there on the behalf of the Agarderians as an occupying force.

Attack on South Glaster

Communist action against South Glastian forces first came in January 1946, when the Communist forces crossed Turton Line Zero, the border. They attacked from positions west of Decton, advancing as far as Decton First Line B. South Glastian forces set up the elaborate disguisal plan, Operation Monolith. The plan was successful into fooling the Glastian Communists into thinking that most of South Glaster's tanks and armour had been destroyed. In fact, there was little damage done, and old Commonian tanks had been blown up during the battle to deceive them. Commonian troops were eventually repelled with minimal losses.

The second attack from the Communist forces came a day later near Plowford line Zero. Aiming to secure a decisive victory against the Glasto-Commonian coalition, they attacked with all their might. 2/3rds of all of Communist Glaster's available tanks were put into the South Glastain front. Falsified evidence planted on to North Glastian corpses lead the Communist forces to take a route through the Plow Valley right into a minefield, which inflicted heavy losses on their infantry. Artillery bombardment and the subsequent outflanking attack virtually destroyed all of the invasion force. The loss of armoured vehicles and troops weighed heavily upon the Communists, and reduced their capability of launching any major offensives. The South Glastian Campaign was a major loss for the Communist forces and a major turning point in the war, for from then on, Commonian and South Glastian troops would drive the Communists back and eventually lead to their downfall.

South Glaster's intervention

A cluster of Bovier residents, late 1946 during the Siege of Bovier

The South Glastians invaded Communist-occupied North Glastian territory in February 1946 as a response to the previous Communist attacks. The revolutionary forces were immediately pushed back at a rate never previously seen in the war. The area of Wyndham was especially guarded and was not freed of Communist forces until the Second Battle of Wyndham. In May 1946, focusing their resources, the Communist forces managed to reach Wyndham. Their assault rapidly broke down and Wyndham was re-taken in August the same year. The First Battle in Wyndham was the last major offensive for the communists, and from then on the communist forces seldom won any engagement, and were slowly pushed back.

Drawing to a close

Communist soldiers fighting around Tibrin, February 1947.

By early 1947, it was evident that the communists were fighting a losing war in Glaster. With the help of propaganda and hearsay, the Glastian government created a rumour of a planned purge of communist sympathisers in Glaster, resulting in an estimated 500,000 people leaving the country. Initially the refugee wave targeted Latania, but after the Commonian Spring Offensive, the land bordering Latania was returned under government control, resulting in a majority fleeing to the relatively stable province of Glastian Agarderia.

In March 1947, it was discovered that the 3 major commanders of the Glastian Communist Fraction were escaping to Agarderia. Hence, the Glastian government planned to intercept and detain them. Known collectively as Operation Gemstone, they captured Theodore Dajeck and Winby Swalleth, with Habrin Abermaton escaping to Glastian Agarderia where central operations had been relocated after the fall of Tibrin. Theodore Dajek was publicly hung in Wyndham on the 20th of March. With the help of Communist partisans, Winby Swalleth managed to reach the border, only to be discovered by the Government forces. On the return to Wyndham, a unit of Communist soldiers ambushed the troops and a firefight ensued. It was during the firefight that Swalleth was killed and his body burnt along with the armoured prison car he was in. Reports vary of the cause of his death, from a stray bullet to him being executed by the commanding lieutenant of the division.

End of fighting

The war ended 2 months later, with the communists driven from Glaster. An agreement with the remaining communists was reached to reintroduce their party into the Glastian Parliament. The Latanian-Agarderian alliance declared that if any military action was taken against them from Glaster, they would declare war and invade Glaster. Thus international Glastian communism remained steady and strong. The large part of Communist forces and sympathisers had already left the country, and support for the communist party was initially relatively low.

Wyndham Riots

After Genting Fledneration's victory speech on October 22nd, Glastian nationalists assembled on streets and riots ensued in Wyndham. 3 days of civil unrest and street fighting followed.

Day 1

At around 7am in the morining, approximately 200 Glastian nationalists halted a POW train containing communist soldiers, hoping to start a fight and kill them. It turned out that the expected 200 communists numbered closer to 400. They broke out of the train and a massive fistfight ensued between the opposing sides. The 2 sides armed themselves with confiscated weapons from a nearby depot, and the professional communist soldiers quickly drove back the less experienced nationalist force.

Intending to surrender to the government forces, the Communist troops headed for the nearest Glastian Army base. Interpreting this movement as a potential communist attack, Glastian soldiers were instructed to surround and eliminate the communist threat. In total, 453 people were killed, consisting of 359 communists, 77 nationalists and 17 Glastian soldiers.

By midday civilians were taking to the streets and half a dozen different riots had broken out through Wyndham. Anyone suspected of even 'looking Communist' were shot, beaten or hanged by crowds of people. The Glastian army was mostly located in the north of Glaster, attempting to expel the remaining pockets of communist forces from Glaster. As a result, the riots on the first day went largely unregulated. The Glastian government was forced to relocate to Stowkel once again, fearing another revolution.

Day 2

By the morning of the second day, independent factions of rioters had come together to form 4 main organisations fighting against each other. Using confiscated weapons from the Battle of Wyndham, the sides partook in open fighting on the streets of Wyndham. By now, the Glastian Army was beginning to assemble. 2 sides of the rebellion met at Ironfort Square, which began a fight. The Glastian Army, some of which had joined the rioters, had no appropriate gear at their disposal. When the crowds turned on them, the army opened fire upon the crowd. In total, 400 people were killed that day. From then on, it became known as the Ironfort Massacre.

The Glastian Army was short on numbers and could not control all the rioters at once. Fearing another disaster like Ironfort, the Glastian Army withdrew and uncontrolled fighting began again.

Day 3

Commonian reinforcements arrived all through the night. By day, they relieved the Glastian Army which was guarding the city perimeter. The Commonian army simply marched into Wyndham and shot dead any 'protesters' they could see. At the end of the day, an estimated 1000 people had been killed by the Commonian Army, while them themselves only suffered 16 casualties. The Glastian government expressed outrage at the events that unfolded. Genting Fledneration gave Commonian troops 1 month to fully leave Glaster and cut all military ties with the country.

Commonian Coup

The Commonians reacted to this news by announcing a military coup, headed by Commonian General Haval Leds. Leds declared a new Glastian Republic, similar to the Hall Government of Agarderia. Joining the coup were several thousand Commonian troops and an unknown number of the Glastian far-right.

Fearing the civil war would resume, Genting Fledneration ordered artillery stationed around Wyndham and the Isle of Bovier to bombard areas of Commonian resistance. After 2 days of sustained fire, Leds was hit and killed by a shell. It was later reported that not a single person 'survived in the regions that were bombarded, be they Communist, Commonian or Republican'. Violence in Glaster by fascist and communist factions continued for weeks until the Commonians were forcibly deported after relations were broken. The casualty rates for this period have not been universally agreed upon as it occurred after the Civil War was officially over.

Aftermath

The war was the final blow to an already weakened North Glaster, which meant living standards dropped and ultimately never caught up with South Glaster. The fighting left North Glaster's population and industry crippled, from which it had partially recovered from by the 1960s. This economic deprivation slowly lead to the restored Glastian Communist Party gaining power. Cities like Bovier, Wyndham and Tibrin that had suffered immense damage had to be rebuilt from nothing. Post-war recovery took a huge toll on Glaster.

Legacy

Following the war, Glaster was left depopulated, with many people fleeing to Glastian Agarderia, fearing an anti-communist purge. Some of the communists from the GCP after the war tried to expand its influence of communism to Archanta and Uletha with little success. There was a small growth in population in the late 1950s, when many of the Glastian refugees decided to move back to North Glaster, seeing that no purge took place. This managed to boost communist support to such an extent that from 1960 onwards, the GCP won almost all elections held. The GCP was dissolved after unification in 1979, and most party members switched support to the Democratic Socialist Party. Both communist and nationalist sentiment remains high to this day, and is frequently a source of tension between Glastian citizens.

In popular culture

Sometimes I wonder what force has forsaken us
To sit under the shattered sky,
on top of this cursed Earth.

—Closure, by Patrick Steathen, Source

Memories of the war and its effects are present in the minds of many North Glastians. This has caused significant political tension between Glaster's population, and socialist support is still high among Glastians.

Several notable books, poems and films have been made about the civil war. Of these include:

  • The Blood-Soaked Rags of Bovier, a poem by Edwin Mearston, 1977.
  • Closure, a poem about the final days of the war, by Patrick Steathen, 1948
  • Red Rising, a science fiction-horror novel about Commonian weapons testing. It is set in Agarderia and Glaster, during their respective civil wars. Written in 2004 by Ian Trysull, it has since been adapted into a film.

List of major battles and engagements

1945
Name Start Finish Belligerents Notes
Victorious party (if applicable) Defeated party (if applicable)
Battle of Monksbury May 8th May 17th Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction North Glaster.png North Glaster
Battle of Northweald May 8th May 17th Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction North Glaster.png North Glaster
Battle of Tullering May 28th May 30th Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction North Glaster.png North Glaster
Battle of Polbak Hill May 28th May 30th North Glaster.png North Glaster Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction First decisive victory for the Glastian government
Battle of the Fodlan June 16th July 28th Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction North Glaster.png North Glaster Took place around Fodlan valley and Blithim Naval Base.
Battle of Holdwell November 1st November 20th North Glaster.png North Glaster Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction Beginnings of the Battle of Wyndham and a communist slowdown.
First Battle of Wyndham November 20st January 2nd North Glaster.png North Glaster Glaster communists.png Glaster Communist Faction Failed communist offensive to take Wyndham

See also

Wars and Conflicts