|6, 60.180, 47.802|
|Kingdom of Tircambry|
"Unedig am byth"
and largest city
|National languages||Cambric (Cambraeg)|
|• King||King Rhodri IV|
|• High Chancellor||Trefor ap Wyn Tangwen|
|• Chancellor for Foreign Affairs||Yr Arglwydd Alwyn-Olwina|
|Legislature||Parliament of Tircambry (Senedd Tircambry)|
|• Upper house||Assembly of Lords (Cynulliad Arglwyddi)|
|• Lower house||Assembly of Delegates (Cynulliad Dirprwyon)|
|• Total||143,340 km2|
55,344 sq mi
|• Census (2012)||5,694,813|
|Currency||Darnar (ð) of 100 ceiniogau (TCD)|
|Drives on the||left|
The Kingdom of Tircambry (Cambric Teyrnas Tircambry) is a democratic constitutional monarchy located in northwestern Uletha. The country occupies all of the Kledbarth Peninsula except the north-eastern portion. Tircambry has land borders to the north-east with Rheim Maark and Thomern and to the east and south with UL141. Across from its northern and western coastline lies Norðurland and in the south Ionadàlba, Wesmandy and Vinnmark lie across Morcanol Bay and the Firth of Hetzer.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 4 Politics and Government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Transport
- 8 Culture
The name Tircambry is a concatenation of the two words Tir Cambry, meaning "Land of the Cambry". Cambry is descended from the ancient Caeltig word cambrogi, meaning fellow countrymen, used to distinguish an group of ancient Brethanic tribes from their neighbours.
Tircambry is situated on the eastern shore of the Vinn Sea. The country occupies the west, south and middle of the Kledbarth Peninsula, and includes hilly lowlands to the south and west and a more mountainous region to the east, mainly in the province of Tirmynydd (Mountain Land). The lowlands are more heavily populated, and are agriculturally rich, while the uplands provide much of Tircambry's coal and mineral resources, and in recent times have become home to winter ski resorts.
Tircambry has a humid continental climate, with moderately cold winters and warm, but rarely hot, summers. Average temperatures in the west and south are higher than inland, partly because of the effect of the Vinn Sea and partly because much of the eastern part of the country is at a higher latitude.
Tircambry is divided into four provinces (Cambric singular: talaith, plural: taleithiau), each of which was once a separate kingdom, and one free territory (diriogaeth rhydd). Each province is divided into a number of cantrefi (singular: cantref).
Provinces (taleithiau) & Free Territory
|Ynyspur (Free Territory)||Sant Petrin||124,588|
Human beings were living in what is now Tircambry in the Stone Age (c.4000 BCE). There is no clear evidence of subsequent major migrations into the area, so it is probable that these earliest inhabitants are the direct ancestors of modern Tircambrans. There were various tribes, who together constituted the Brethanic group of Caeltig peoples. The ancients knew the area as Brethania, but little is recorded of its early history.
The Ancient Era
It is unclear who ruled the Cambry. Legend refers to several kings, probably from two or three different tribes, but it is possible that few had much real control of over the whole nation. In the absence of tribal kings, tribal areas split into many smaller lordships, each usually little more than a town or fortified settlement and its immediately surrounding countryside and villages. The lordships, or alliances of lordships, were still often at war with each other, and both boundaries and dynasties were subject to frequent change. The sparse historical records and legends make no reference to a King or Overlord of the Cambry after the late 8th century, so it seems that by 800 whatever unity there was had disintegrated.
It was during the later Ancient Era that the island of Ynys Baenodd (now Ynyspur) was conquered and settled by the Cambry, but the details of this event are unknown.
The Middle Era
By the early 12th century a few lords began to dominate their regions and some were acknowledged by their neighbours as High Lord (Arglwydd Uchel), to which the lesser lords owed allegiance. This trend continued over the next two hundred years. By the early 1200s High Lords in the west (i.e. everywhere except Tirmynydd) were taking full control over their client lordships and re-designating their territories with the imported titles of county (sir) or duchy (dugiaeth) and themselves as earl (iarl) or duke (dug). By 1250 all of the western Cambric lands except the island of Ynyspur were counties or duchies.
It was during this period that the Cambric lands were subject to intensive attacks from Norðmanni raiders, including attempts to settle on the western and southern coasts. It was partly in order to mount a more effective defence that lords were willing to submit themselves to the authority of the new dukes and counts.
The Cambry were helped in their defence against the Norðmanni by the arrival of Ingerish-speaking Knight Venturers, who quickly became known as "West men" or Wesmen (in contrast to the Norðmanni or "North men"). The Knight Venturers were officially a religious military order but in reality it was a multi-national private army of adventurers. In a long conflict, the combined Cambry and Wesmen forces succeeded in ousting the Norðmanni by 1225, but the Wesmen then proved reluctant to leave the areas where they had set up bases. After a brief and brutal war between the former allies, the Cambry were triumphant and the Wesmen were all killed or expelled.
By 1290 Arawn ap Hwyel, Duke of Farianydd Mawr, was referring to himself as King (Brenin), the first recorded use of the title amongst the Cambry; and in 1295 he renamed his territories the Kingdom of Cadwynwg (named after his wife, Cadwyn). Others followed : Rhysiog became a kingdom in 1298, Deillwion (north-west) by 1302, Morionys in 1306 and finally Tirmynydd in 1320. However, Morionys and Cadwynwg conquered and divided Deillwion in 1316, so there were never more than four Cambric kings at the same time.
Even after the consolidation into four kingdoms, the Middle Era remained one of sporadic wars and relatively little social or technological development. The Cambrican Church exercised an increasingly strong role throughout Tircambry, acquiring a great deal of influence over kings and minor rulers and gaining vast swathes of land, partly by royal grant and partly from the bequests of wealthy noblemen and others who were hoping for special prayers to ensure their places in heaven. Church influence was strongest in Cadwynwg, especially after 1394 when Patriarch Meirion I moved the Patriarchial Court from the island of Ynyspur to Trefeirion on the Cadwynwg mainland. For a time, almost a third of Cadwynwg was in the hands of the Church and royal authority in those areas was limited.
From the reign of Patriarch Meirion III (1442-56) the Church became ever more militant in imposing obedience on its followers, and in three of the four kingdoms it gained, and readily used, the right to torture and punish those whom it deemed to be "recalcitrant towards the faith" or full-blown heretics. Recalcitrants were often mutilated or placed in harsh servitude; convicted heretics were executed, usually by being burned at the stake. In the fourth kingdom, Rhysiog, the kings refused to hand such sweeping powers to the Church but did allow cases of recalcitrance and heresy to be tried and punished by the civil authorities at the request of bishops. The frequency of cases and severity of punishments were significantly lower in Rhysiog than in the other realms. Civil resistance to clerical power began to grow in the late 16th century, especially in reaction to the particularly cruel reign of Patriarch Bwlch II (1573-1590). Religious prosecutions in Rhysiog almost ceased after 1605, and bishops elsewhere were pressurized into adopting a more leniant stance.
During the Middle Period Cadwynwg was generally the most influential of the Cambric realms, but opposition to Patriarchal excesses began to reflect on its home country from the late 1500s, and many people in the other realms began to look away from Cadwynwg for political and cultural inspiration. Three events fuelled this change:
In 1591 Ffodor ap Caerwyn, Bishop of Llynbach in Morionys, gathered a meeting of clergy (known to history as the "Synod of Llynbach") to discuss what he described as "grave misinterpretations of doctrine" regarding the nature of faith and the power of the Patriarch. This was the first stirrings of a movement which would lead to the rise of Puritism and schism in the Church over the next 150 years. Attempts by the Patriarchs to silence this debate had the opposite effect, hardening opposition to the patriarchy.Aberffenwy in Rhysiog in search of a new homeland in Tarephia, with the blessing and sponsorship of King Morys I. The following year they landed and established their settlement of Cambru Newydd (New Cambria), in what is now the province of Cambria in Vodeo. Further settlers arrived over the following years, but in 1616 the area was conquered by the Ingerish, putting an end to the Cambry's first overseas colonial venture.
In 1612 King Ifor IV of Cadwynwg died without leaving an undisputed heir. In order to avoid civil war, the various claimants were pursuaded to entrust the government to the Patriarch, who would appoint a commission to fully investigate and rule upon the succession. The Patriarch became ruler of Cadwynwg as "Custodian of the Crown". The work of his Commission for the Succession dragged on inconclusively for years while the Patriarch worked behind the scenes to undermine or destroy all the candidates. The Commission's meetings became more infrequent with each passing year (none was held after 1623) and by 1625 all the candidates had been "subdued", leaving the Patriarchs in permanent control of the kingdom.
Just at the time when the Patriarch was consolidating his control of Cadwynwg, an event elsewhere was destined to move power in another direction : in 1636 the future King Llewelyn IV of Morionys married Princess Bronwen, daughter of the King of Rhysiog. When her brother died the following year Bronwen became heiress to the Rhysiog throne, and succeeded her father as Queen in 1641. Although the couple's two kingdoms remained legally separate, there was a commonality of policy, making Morionys and Rhysiog a de facto single power, rivalling the dominance of Cadwynwg. The union of the two realms was formalized by Llewelyn and Bronwen's son, King Hywel III, in 1671. The fourth kingdom, Tirmynydd, tried to steer a path between the two major powers.
The century ended with a portent of things to come when, in 1694, Patriarch Eiddoel IX declared that the 11th-12th century Consolidation into Kingdoms was “incomplete” and that all the Cambric lands should be united into a single "Holy Kingdom" (under Patriarchal rule, of course!). The rulers of Morionys-Rhysiog and Tirmynydd rejected the suggestion outright, but the idea of unification's time had come.
The Wars of Unification
Eiddoel IX and his successors used diplomatic and political pressure to pursue their goal of a unified, Patriarch-ruled Tircambry, but continued to meet strong resistence from the other two nations. In 1708 Eiddoel began a policy of not confirming the appointments of bishops who opposed unification (who were also invariable Puritist in their beliefs). The Church's response in Morionys-Rhysiog and Tirmynydd was to make the appointments anyway, asserting the Puritist principal that Patriarchal consent is automatic when a decisions are approved by a majority of bishops.
In 1716 Eiddoel IX's successor, Patriarch Iago VII, declared the Puritist bishops and the kings who supported them to be heretics and launched a war against Morionys-Rhysiog and Tirmynydd, successfully overrunning the latter. Morionys-Rhysiog forces withstood the attacks and succeeded in liberating Tirmynydd in 1719, after which there followed a uneasy twelve-year truce.
The final Patriarchal attempt to force unification (1745-47) was less well-prepared. After some initial successes, Cadwynwgan troops were defeated in several battles and, in late 1746, The Morionys-Rhysiog and Tirmynyddian armies invaded Cadwynwg itself, reaching and taking the capital, Trefeirion, in June 1747. In September, Patriarch Eiddoel was exiled to the island of Ynyspur and the victors began negotiating a final settlement with Cadwynwg's secular leaders.
As talks dragged on into the middle of 1748 a concensus developed that unification was the best way forward for the Cambric peoples, but not under Patriarchal rule. The proposal for a united Cambric realm under King Llewelyn VI of Morionys-Rhysiog gained ground, eventually being resisted only by Ortholics and by King Madoc VII of Tirmynydd. The latter problem was solved by a coup d'état in Tirmynydd, which deposed the king and offered the crown to Llewelyn.
Among the concessions made to placate the defeated side was a decision not to deprive the Patriarch of all political power. The island of Ynyspur (birthplace of Cambric Christicism) was separated from Cadwynwg and became a Free Territory under the protection and sovereignty of Tircambry, but ruled internally by the Patriarch. Some saw this as an act of magnanimity by the King; others saw it as an ignominious exile. The Patriarchal Palace in Trefeirion on the mainland would eventually beome a museum.
The Modern Era
The road to democracy
Development of accountable government
The intellectual climate of the Cambric lands began to enter a new age decades before unification, as a result of increased foreign trade and contact, and the declining power of the patriarchate (outside Cadwynwg), among other things. This heralded a new period of discovery, invention and ideas which was to become known as the "Age of Illumination" (Oed Goleuo).
Among the outcomes of the Oed Goleuo was a new belief that the rights and dignity of human beings was as important as obedience to the Church. The philosopher Aled ab Aled published a seminal work in 1730, called The Dignity of Men (Ar Urddas Dynion), which played a major part in shaping intellectual thought at the time of Unification.
One of the consequences of the Illuminist movement was that the new Parliament of Tircambry (Senedd Tircambry) became assertive in demanding greater control of government than previous assemblies had enjoyed. Within years of unification, the King found himself unable to appoint ministers who did not enjoy the support of Parliament, and by the early 19th century day-to-day control of government was largely in the hands of the High Chancellor (Prif Ganghellor) and his Cabinet (officially "The Executive Committee of the Royal Council" - Bwyllgor Gweithredol y Cyngor Brenhinol).
Extension of the franchise
The parliamentary franchise was still very limited, however, but pressure to expand it became irrestibale during the 19th century. In 1869 the right to vote was extended to all male landed property owners, regardless of the value of the land, and in 1883 this was extended to unmarried or widowed female property owners too. The non-landing owning majority of the population remained un-enfranchised, but in 1896 a group of liberal-minded landowners in Rhysiog formed the "Popular Ownership Initiative", in which they sold off tiny parcels of land (typically one square metre) to ordinary workers for nominal sums, thus entitling them to vote, because there was no lower limit to the size of land owned in order to qualify. In 1897 the High Court ruled that the practice did not entitle the "parcel-owners" (as they became known) to vote, but the POI continued selling, and expanded throughout Tircambry in the hope that the judgement would be reversed on appeal. Much to everone's surprise, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the POI just weeks before the 1898 Parliamentary election, when it was too late for Parliament to reverse the judgement by legislation.
The POI campaign almost doubled the size of the electorate in 1898, which resulted in several Socialists being returned to the Assembly of Delegates (Cynulliad Dirprwyon) for the first time, mainly from Rhysiog. The government of High Chancellor Rhys ap Owain Gruffudd attempted to ban parcel-voting, but gave up in the face of massive social unrest. This wasn't enough to satisfy the majority of ordinary people who remained unable to vote because they had not been able to buy any land parcels. In 1900 Parliament extended the vote to all heads of households, with no property qualification, and in 1914 it was extended to all adults over 21 (the age was lowered to 18 in 1956). Today, many descendants of the original parcel-voters still proudly retain their certificates of land ownership.
The Assembly of Lords
The structure of the Parliament of Tircambry was based on that of the Parliament of Morionys-Rhysiog, which in turn was modelled on the former Parliament of Rhysiog. As well as the elected Assembly of Delegates there was an Assembly of Lords (Cynulliad Arglwyddi). In 1750, the Lords consisted of the First Prince (Prif Tywysog), heir to the throne, the archbishops and bishops of both denominations, the dukes and earls of the various duchies and counties, and non-territorial lords. Each rank of title carried a different number of votes - First Prince 4, archbishops and dukes 3, bishops and earls 2, and other lordships 1 - and a person holding more than one title could exercise the votes of each title (the highest number of votes ever cast by one lord was 11 - two dukedoms (6), an earldom (2) and three lordships).
Until 1921 dukes and earls exercised certain powers and responsibilities over their territories, but in that year the duchies and counties were abolished and replaced by the current system of cantrefs, with elected councils and executives. Shortly afterwards, the Cantref Councils began to argue that since they were now responsible for local administration, they should be represented in the Assembly of Lords in place of the now-powerless dukes and earls. In 1928 two earls (who had no interest in attending Parliament) appointed Lord Deputies nominated by the Councils to attend on their behalf. There were pre-18th century precedents for the use of lord deputies, and the Supreme Court ruled that it was still a valid practice. Pressure on the other territorial lords grew until, in 1936, they conceded as a group their their seats should go to council-nominated deputies. However, most of them remained in the Assembly as well by virtue of non-territorial titles which they also held.
After unification in 1748 each of the four former kingdoms retained their own identity, including some differences in law, customs and practices, but all were governed directly from Caerarthen. During the twentieth century resentment grew at the extent to which Morionys's and Rhysiog's interests dominated government policy over those of Cadwynwg and Tirmynydd, and new nationalist and federalist movements emerged, threatening the unity of the kingdom. After the General Election of 1962, the new Social Democratic government set about addressing nationalist concerns. Painstaking negotiations took place over the next two years, chaired by Commissioner of State Elwyn ap Geraint Angharad, and in 1964 agreement was reached on a federal structure in which each of the four historic kingdoms became a province (talaith) with considerable autonomy over certain areas of administration. Each province has a Provincial Council (Cyngor Taleithiol) with a Committee of Ministers headed by a Chief Minister (Prif Weinidog). Provincial legislative authority is vested in a unicameral Provincial Assembly (Cynulliad Taleithiol), elected every four years.
Tircambry maintained friendly relations with Wesmandy throughout most of the modern era, so that when Wesmandy was attacked by Vinnmark in December 1934, the Tircambran government quickly offered its support to the Wesmans, sending an army task force to assist them, and threatening Vinnmark with a naval blockade. Vinnmark capitulated and began its withdrawal from Wesmandy 20 days after invading, on 3rd January 1935.
Politics and Government
The head of state is the king (Brenin Tircambry), who usually acts only on the advice on his ministers individually (particularly the High Chancellor). The High Chancellor and other ministers are answerable to Parliament, especially the elected Assembly of Delegates.
Tircambry became a federal nation in 1965 when certain powers were delegated to provincial assemblies and governments in the four former kingdoms. The constitutional practices in the provinces are much the same as those of the federal government, although there are notable differences such as the absence of a second chamber in the Provincial Assemblies.
The Crown of Tircambry is hereditary and vested in the descendants of King Llewelyn I. Until 1986 the system of inheritance was male-preference cognatic primogeniture, in which the sons of a king or heir took precedence over co-lateral members of the family, and brothers came before sisters. In 1986 the system was changed to absolute primogeniture, in which brothers and sisters are equal. As a result of this change, the second-in-line to the throne today is Princess Megan, daughter of First Prince Iestyn, and not her younger brother Prince Llewelyn, who would have come first under the old system.
The King (or Queen regnant) is the head of state from whom all authority nominally flows, and whose assent is required for all laws and most senior appointments. In reality, the monarch's role is usually a formality because he almost always acts on the "advice" of the High Chancellor or other ministers (or on the advice of First Ministers and other provincial ministers for provincial decisions). The only time when he may act on his own initiative is when there is no government entitled to give advice, e.g. when the choice of government after an election is not clear, or when an existing government loses the support of its Assembly but tries to remain in office. Such situations are very rare : even when an election does not return a clear winner, the politicians usually negotiation a coalition without royal involvement.
When the federal structure was adopted in 1965 each province was given a Governor, who performed the same constitutional role in the province that the monarch performs federally. However, in 1986 (at the same time as the change in the succession law) the office of governor was abolished, leaving the monarch in a direct relationship with provincial governments as well as the federal government.
Although he keeps himself informed of political events, and meets with politicians regularly, much of the King's time - and that of his family - is spent in ceremonial activities, both political (e.g. receiving the credentials of foreign diplomats) and social (attending special events across the country, supporting worthy causes and activities).
The King is officially "Guardian of the (Primatist) Faith", a title inherited from the monarchy of Cadwynwg, but there are no real duties attached to this office. Both the main cymunpurs run their own affairs.
The King's full title is "Rhodri the Fourth, by the Grace of God King of Tircambry, Sovereign of the lands of Morionys, Cadwynwg, Rhysiog and Tirmynydd and of the Free Territory of Ynyspur, Guardian of the Faith" (Rhodri y Pedwerydd, drwy Ras Duw Brenin Tircambry, Sofran y pedwar diroedd Morionys, Cadwynwg, Rhysiog a Tirmynydd ac o'r Diriogaeth Rydd Ynyspur, Gwarcheidwad y Ffydd).
Cabinet and Royal Council
The full Royal Council is a large body which meets as a formality only on the accession of a new monarch. It consists of all past and present federal and provincial ministers, senior judges, bishops and others appointed as an honour on the advice of the High Chancellor.
Royal Councillors are entitled to use the prefix Yr Enwog (abbr. Yr En.) - "The Eminent" - before their names.
Cabinet (Executive Committee of the Royal Council)
Since the late eighteenth century, an Executive Committee (Pwyllgor Gwaith), commonly called the Cabinet, has conducted Council business and been the de facto government (along with junior ministers not in the Cabinet).
The Cabinet is headed by the High Chancellor (Ganghellor Uchel) who is nominally appointed by the King but must be the person able to command the support of the Assembly of Delegates, i.e. the leader of the majority party or coalition. The High Chancellor nominates the other members of the Cabinet, who are then appointed by the King. Most other Cabinet members hold the office of Chancellor of State (Ganghellor Gwladol), but there is also a Chief Treasurer (Prif Trysorydd), Justiciar-General (Ustus-Cyffredinol) and Commissioner of State (Comisiynydd Gwladol).
The Cabinet as at August 2015 is as follows:
|High Chancellor||Yr En. Trefor ap Wyn Tangwen, DS|
|Chief Treasurer||Yr En. Tomos ap Tomos Elen, DS|
|Justiciar-General||Yr En. Syr Cadwaladr ap Gerallt Addfwyn, DS|
|Chancellor for Culture and Media||Yr En. Iona ferch Aidan Glesni, DS|
|Chancellor for the Environment and Fisheries||Yr En. Bwlch ap Steffan Tegan, DS|
|Chancellor for Trade and Enterprise||Yr En. Delwen ferch Ninian Branwen, DS|
|Chancellor for Defence||Yr En. Dilys ferch Cynog Luned, DS|
|Chancellor for Foreign Affairs||Yr En. Yr Arglwydd Alwyn-Olwina|
|Chancellor for Home Affairs||Yr En. Gwri ap Baeddan Myfanawy, DS|
|Chancellor for Public Administration||Yr En. Gwilym Guðfinnsson, DS|
|Chancellor for Transport||Yr En. Gwenyth ferch Hopcyn Brangwy, DS|
|Commissioner for Social Policy||Yr En. Delwyn ap Meredudd Rhoslyn, DS|
|Commissioner in the Assembly of Lords||Yr En. Yr Arglwydd-Dirprwy Caradoc ap Madog Ariana|
The Parliament of Tircambry (Senedd Tircambry) is modelled on the pre-unification Parliament of Rhysiog, and consists of the King (whose role is almost entirely ceremonial), the Assembly of Lords (Cynulliad Arglwyddi) and the Assembly of Delegates (Cynulliad Dirprwyon).
Parliament is the supreme legislature in Tircambry, responsible for all federal lawmaking and for holding the government to account. In theory, it can also legislate in matters which have been delegated to the provinces, although it has never done so without the provinces' agreement.
Assembly of Lords
The modern Assembly of Lords consists of a mixture of hereditary, religious and appointed lords of the realm. The number of votes which each member can cast depends on his or her rank. In theory, the Assembly has equal power with the Assembly of Delegates, but in 1959 it was informally agreed, in the Prhys Memorandum, that the Lords would not act in a way which would prevent a government from being able to function or pass its major legislation. This agreement was honoured until 2012, when the Lords rejected the government's Electoral Reform Bill, resulting in the collapse of the ruling coalition and an early General Election.
Assembly of Delegates
The Assembly of Delegates consists of 260 members, entitled "Delegate to Parliament" (Dirprwyo i'r Senedd - DS), each one representing a single constituency and elected by the first-past-the-post electoral system. The normal term of office of an Assembly (and of Parliament as a whole) is four years, but it can end early if a government loses the Assembly's support and no other party or coalition is able to replace it. In the last half century an early election has occurred three times - in 1972, 1984 and 2012.
The Assembly is chaired by a President (Lywydd) or, in her absence, one of two Vice-Presidents (Is-Lywyddion). The current President is Yr En. Mairead ferch Dyfri Mai, DS, who was first elected to the chair in 2010.
The last election took place in November 2012. The Unionist Party won an outright majority despite coming second in the popular vote. This, and the fact that the Green Party won no seats despite gaining 6.6% of the vote, has further fuelled the electoral reform debate which brought down the previous government.
The Unionist Party lost its majority in the Assembly after two bye-elections in April 2015 (and lost a further seat in June), but it retains power as a minority government, usually winning votes by negotiation with the Cadwynwg Nationalists.
Parties in the Assembly of Delegates
|2012 Election||June 2015|
|Party||% of vote||Seats||Seats|
Political parties (as opposed to short-term alliances) began to emerge in the eighteenth century - especially after Unification - and the concept of party-based government was well established by the mid 1800s. At this time there were only two parties of any real significance, but others were to emerge as the result of the growth of the labour movement and enfranchisement of workers, and the growth of nationalism in some of the provinces.
There is no official or legal role for parties in the Tircambran political system, but nevertheless they play a profoundly important role in determining who shall lead the country and deciding on policy.
The most significant parties currently operating are:
Unionist Party (Plaid Unoliaethol) : right-wing, traditionalist, business-orientated, preferring strong central government over strong provinces. Over the past century the Unionists have been in power at the federal level about twice as much as other parties. It is particularly strong in Cadwynwg.
Social Democratic Party (Blaid Ddemocrataidd Gymdeithasol) : Left-of-centre, socially liberal, supports the "social market", federalist. Since the mid-twentieth century the BDG has led all non-Unionist governments, sometimes in coalition with the Socialists (and with the Liberals in the 1940s).
Socialist Party (Plaid Sosialaidd) : Left-wing, favours provincial ownership of industry and province-run services. Its main power base is in the industrial centres of Tirmynydd.
Green Party (Plaid Werdd) : Socially liberal, politically left-wing, concerned with environmental issues and social justice. Despite receiving over 6% of the national vote it had no delegates in the present Parliament after the 2012 General Election, but won a seat from the Social Democrats in a bye-election in 2014.
Cadwynwg National Party (Plaid Genedlaethol Cadwynyg) : Favours Cadwynwg independence. Economically right-wing and religously and socially conservative.
Tirmynydd National Party (Plaid Genedlaethol Tirmynydd) : Left-wing; campaigns for the establishment of an independent socialist republic in Tirmynydd. No federal delegates at present.
The other great party of the nineteenth and early twentieth century - the Liberal Party (Blaid Ryddfrydol) was eclipsed by the Social Democrats in the 1940s and 50s, eventually receiving such negligable support that it disbanded in 1967. Most of its remaining members joined the Social Democrats.
- See also: Religion in Tircambry
|- Other Christic||1|
The majority of modern Tircambrians are non-religious, and the only significant religion is Christicism, which exists in two main denominations: Puritist (Purdebiaeth') and Ortholic (Ortholig).
Although its followers have been a minority of the population since the last quarter of the twentieth century, Christicism, as represented by the two Cambrican Churches, remains the official state religion. Bishops (Esgobion (singular Esgob) - senior clergy) occupy seats in the Assembly of Lords and preside at state ceremonies such as memorial services, royal weddings and the King's coronation. The state remains neutral over the division between Puritism and Ortholicism, although it is usually Puritists who preside at state events.
There has been de facto freedom of belief in Tircambry since the early nineteenth century, but this is not guaranteed by any law.
Tircambry has a well-developed modern transport system. Responsibility for transport is shared between the national and provincial governments. The national government is responsible for air and national rail travel, for motorways and for setting or coordinating standards in other areas (e.g. vehicle registration and safety). Provincial governments are responsible for all non-motorway roads, the regulation or operation of public transport (except air and national rail) and the administration of vehicle and driver registration, enforcement of vehicle safety standards and traffic regulations, and other matters.
There are X classes of public road in Tircambry:
Motorway (Draffordd), run by the national government and designated by the letter "D" followed by a number.
Primary road (Priffordd), designated as "P(number)" and sub-divided into trunk roads and other primary roads.
Secondary road (Ffordd Eilaidd), designated as "E(number).
Unclassified road (Ffordd Ddi-ddosbarth), which are minor urban and rural roads.
Vehicle registration and safety
All motor vehicles over three years old must pass an annual Vehicle Safety Test (Prawf Diogelwch Cerbydau - PDC). The tests are organized and administered by provincial governments but must meet a minimum national standard (in practice, all provincial tests exceed the national standard).
Driver qualifications and registration
Driver testing and registration is run by provincial governments but must conform to national standards. Driving licences have a standard format, and once qualified a person may drive anywhere in Tircambry.
- See also Tircambry Railways
The first railways in Tircambry were built in the 1840s to transport coal and metal ores from the mines of Tirmynydd. The first purpose-built passenger railway opened in 1852 connecting the capital, Caerarthen, with the port town of Abercanelli, and later onwards to the resort towns of the Ceirwtir coast.
The railways were nationalized in 1964 when the majority of existing private rail companies were facing financial difficulties, largely because of the advent of the motor car as an alternative form of popular transport.
Cinema, Performing Arts and Media
Visual Arts and Architecture
Festivals and Holidays
- See also: Ice hockey in Tircambry
A wide variety of sports are played in Tircambry, but the most popular team games are ice hockey, football and cricket.