Train types in Kalm
Within Kalm, all types of passenger trains running on nationally and regionally managed railway lines, have standardized names and logos. Thus, all private operators have to use these categories. This regulation was introduced in 2006, when KE (Kalmsche Eisenbahnen) finally was split up into the public, state-owned railway infrastructure manager KENetz (Kalmsche Eisenbahnnetz- und Infrastrukturgesellschaft AG) and private KZug (Kalmsche Personenzug- und Servicegesellschaft GmbH), turning the last state-owned operator into a private one.
In the Kalmish railway sector, the approach has been taken to completely open up the market for national and international operators, both for regional and national services, but with strong regalutions in standardization of fares, service names and corporate design of basic information material. Passengers thus have the advantage of private companies competing for the 'best service for a given price', but don't have the problem of overall different pricing systems, service names and information material layout.
Regulations for the usage of the train type logos and respective service qualities are strict, but operators are allowed to use the logos in their own company colors in some cases. Train design (colors, forms etc.) is not part of these regulations. However, a few principles are to be followed, making it easier for passengers to generally distinguish e.g. between regional and long distance services. Also, additional names for the services can be almost freely chosen by the operators. E.g., coastal railway services between Tarott and Salz are called Salzküstenbahn and Salzküstenexpress since 2009.
Railway passenger services on privately and locally managed routes are not subject to these regulations. However, there are many operators on such routes integrating their services into the regulated categories.
List of train types
|Logo||Kalmish name||Inglish translation||Max speed of fastest series used||Network-wide average travel speed||Headway (exceptions not included)||Description||Use of high-speed lines|
|S-Bahn||suburban rapid train||140 km/h||50 km/h||10-30 min||metropolitan areas only, connecting the suburbs to the city centre(s), short distances between stations||no|
|Regionalzug||regional train||160 km/h||70 km/h||30-240 min||intraregional services, stopping at each station except when running parallel to S-Bahn services||no|
|Regional-Express||regional express train||160 km/h||85 km/h||30-120 min||faster intraregional services, stopping only at national, regional, and middle (and some local) centres* and at touristy stations||no|
|Nationalzug||national train||200 km/h||100 km/h||60-240 min||nation crossing services, stopping only at national and regional (and some middle) centres* and at touristy stations||no|
|National-Express||national express train||230 km/h||110 km/h||60-240 min||faster nation crossing services, stopping only at national and regional centres* and at touristy stations||partly|
|Flinker National-Express||speedy national express train||360 km/h||170 km/h||30-240 min||fastest nation crossing services, stopping at national and important regional centres*, some non-stop services||yes|
* hierarchic system of centres in the Republic of Kalm: national (pop > 250,000), regional (pop > 75,000), middle (pop > 25,000), local (pop > 5,000), exceptions not included
There are additional, less regulated categories for night trains, motorail services, touristy trains, and international services.