|9, 52.1402, 128.9822|
|Second United Republic of Glaster|
"United, we stand"
Onwards into the storm
|• Regional languages||Wystrian|
|Nationalities||Glastian (80%), Wystrian (11%) Ingerish (9%)|
|• President||Richard Lowecroft|
|• Prime Minister||Claire Hatfield|
|• Foreign Secretary||Elisa Ayelhs|
|• Total||6374.22 km2|
|• Estimate (2012)||1,058,222|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.80|
|Currency||Glastian Kreime (₭) (GLK)|
|Drives on the||Left|
Glaster (prounounced /'glastə/ or /'glæstə/), officially the Second United Republic of Glaster, a parliamentary republic, is a country in Eastern Uletha. Its neighbouring countries include Latania, Agarderia, the unrecognised Socialist Republic of West Glaster, all of which it shares its land borders with, the country Wyster, which it has shared a close history with, and the island of UL52. Its capital is the city of Wyndham, on its eastern coast. Present-day Glaster is the product of a merger between the Ingerish colony of South Glaster and the separate Republic of North Glaster, both of which were historically unified with Wyster up to the 1700s.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Early Period through the Middle Ages
- 2.2 Rise of the Glastian Empire
- 2.3 Fall of the Glastian Empire
- 2.4 The Kingdom of Both Glasters
- 2.5 Ingerish Intervention
- 2.6 Glaster Divided
- 2.7 Modern Glaster
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics of Glaster
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Behind the scenes
Glaster's name is a direct portmanteau of the names of the founding tribes of Glaster: the Klee, lead by Melluth Downing, and the Akeest, which combined to form 'Kleest'. This has been directly inherited into the Wystrian form of Glaster, 'Gleast'. The 'er' sound at the end is suspected to have arose during the 1500s, during the 'Wystrianisation' of Glaster in the Kingdom Of Both Glasters.
Glaster's demonym originally followed the same pattern for Agarderia (Agarderian, Agardirian), having Glastrian for proper nouns and Glastian for other words. This use was eventually phased out in the mid-1800s by Ingerland, although the distinction still remains in Glastian Wystrian.
Early Period through the Middle Ages
Glaster was a loose alliance of local warlords well up to the 5th century AD. After that time, relations drew the alliances closer and closer, until it became an absolute monarchy in the 10th century, in 1043, following the signing of the signing of the Melluth-Downing Pact. This cemented alliances and created the Kingdom of Glaster, which encompassed all of Glaster and most of Agarderia.
Rise of the Glastian Empire
Conquest of Latania
The Kingdom of Glaster was expanded at seven stages, starting in 1207, by the occupation of what is now Latania, which later became known as the 'Wild Marches'. However, the territory at first was not under the direct control of Glaster, because it was taken by private armies and local militias belonging to local lords and barons. It was not until 1301 that the conquered land was brought into the hands of the monarchy through Morden Eakerling, resulting in tension between the King and the nobility. The Glastian presence there gradually subsided in the 1350s, as troops were moved out to fight in the Glastian Civil War. The last recorded presence of Glastian forces there was in 1358.
The Kingom of Glaster later went on to invade eastern Darcodia through Latania in 1300. In 1320, the Glastians managed to advance as far as Wardingbury in Neberly, but were unable to push further, suffering a humiliating defeat just outside Senford. Like Latania, unrest caused by the civil war meant that the Glastian Army withdrew by 1355, and all the conquered provinces were abandoned.
Fall of the Glastian Empire
In 1355, the death of King Wandhef the Elder (Wandhef I) drew the country into a power struggle and a civil war, as no clear successor was chosen. The three participating factions were lead by Wandhef the younger, the King's nephew, Swaran of Mynkhuty (Monksbury), and Pransun Setish, a high-ranking baron in the Glastian Army. Wandhef the Younger was assassinated in 1358, and the following year his army was defeated at the Battle of Melton. In 1362, the faction lead by Swaran crushed Pransun-loyalists at the Isle of Bovier. Pransun was sentenced to exile, but however was killed by a bout of cholera a few weeks later.
Attempted reconquest of Latania
Immediately after the civil war Swaran immediately began an attempted invasion of the Latanian states, but ultimately failed due to a lack of resources and troops following the civil war, and Prasun-loyalist interference during battles. The last campaign to retake Latania by the Kingdom of Glaster was in 1364.
Division and The Slow War
The Kingdom of Glaster experienced a breakoff in 1370, after Tibrin Setish, son of Prasun, declared an independence for North Glaster, laying claim to the entirety of Latania, east Neberly and east Darcodia. In the first few years, the fighting was entirely comprised of small skirmishes with Glaster, but war erupted in 1373. However, battles were few and far between, as both regions had been crippled ever since the First Civil War ended. North Glaster later attempted to invade the Kingdom of Latania, which failed but managed to destabilise it enough for it to collapse.
The Kingdom of North Glaster eventually lost support and was dissolved in 1390. The Kingdom of Glaster remained stable and successful, and enjoyed peace right up to the Ingerish Colonisation.
The Kingdom of Both Glasters
In 1593, Prince Wandhef married Princess Teascynne of Wyster. On the death of King Thehur IV in 1494, Wandhef became King of Glaster. Then, in 1496, Teascynne became the Queen of Wyster. In 1512, an act was passed, creating the Kingdom of Both Glasters, which Wandhef and Teascynne jointly ruled. Wandhef died in 1420, when returning from Neberly, his ship sank in a gale, not far from the coast of Wyster. He and a few of his crew managed to reach shore, but Wandhef succumbed to hypothermia and died soon after. Teascynne died in 1522, leaving their son, Wandhef IV to rule both countries.
The Kingdom of Both Glasters prospered in the 16th and 17th century, with industry like glass making and quarrying supplying it with trade and money. The Kingdom of Both Glasters essentially controlled all trade going through the straights of ___.
In 1773, the Ingerish reached Glaster and agreed to lease the Isle of Reyston, to be used as a trading point. Over time, the Ingerish took over more of southern Glaster, and grew in power. The Kingdom of Both Gasters was concerned about this, and decided that no more land was to be put under Ingerish control. The Ingerish then promptly invaded the Glastian mainland in 1801. The war was costly to both sides, but eventually the Ingerish had seized all of Glaster by 1803, save from Wyndham and the Isle of Bovier, which remained for another 5 years. The Wystrian part of the Kingdom launched several invasions of Glaster, often temporarily re-taking some of its lost territory.
Formation of North and South Glaster
Due to repeated rebellions up north and in the west, and attempted invasions from Wyster, the Ingerish realised that Glaster couldn't be controlled as a full country, so in 1828, Ingerland withdrew from the north and created the new country of North Glaster. North Glaster was banned from any alliance with Wyster or Agarderia, on the threat of war. The Kingdom of Wyster was forced to sign a humiliating treaty at Mealle, which subsequently lead to a revolution and ultimately, its downfall. North Glaster was then subsequently divided into Agarderia and North Glaster in 1833.
Ingerland retained significant influence over North Glaster in the in the years following, with many prominent Ingerish people and companies controlling the country. North Glastian development matched and periodically outpaced the development of South Glaster. The 2 countries co-operated well, and jointly built roads and railways, including the Ellmouth-Tibrin Railway in 1844.
Wystro-Glastrian Island Crisis
The Beaker Islands and the Isle of Mealle did not serve any functional purpose, but the area around was home to good fishing grounds, which was prized by Wyster and sought by Glaster. In April 1921, ultranationalism and tensions boiled over when a scientific group from Glaster announced it had discovered oil off the disputed Beaker Islands. The following week, a group from Wyster also 'discovered' oil at the same locations. In reality, nationalist political figures and businessmen from Glaster had bribed the group to give such results, as a reason to take back the Beaker Islands. As a reaction, the Wystrians had also persuaded their scientists to report similar findings. Both the general public and noninvoled political figures had little clue of the true situation, and so on the 20th of April, the Glastian Navy sent 2 frigates to capture the islands. Glastian marines fortified the island. The Wystrians then reacted by an attempted invasion which was repelled. The failure to retake the islands was one of the factors that lead to civil war later that year, which meant Wyster was unable to reclaim the islands.
Third Civil War
Main article: Third Glastian Civil War
During a severe economic downturn in 1940, extremist groups in Glaster became increasingly common, with the largest being the well organised and powerful Glastian Communist Party. On the 13th of April 1945, they launched a massive offensive, with communist militias seizing many key strategic locations. In January 1946, the poorly prepared North Glastian government was left in control over a tenth of North Glaster. A South-North Glaster coalition managed to take back a significant portion of lost land by the end of 1946, and final communist holdouts were eradicated in 1947, however, socialist influence remains strong until this day. Rumours of a future purge of communists in Glaster started to circulate in 1946, which triggered a crisis as up to half a million people left the country. The reality was the rumour was conducted by the Glastian government to stop communism from regaining a stonghold in Glaster.
Aftermath of the Civil War
In the aftermath of the Civil War, North Glaster began reforms to its government, as stated in the Treaty of Plowford. The communist party was re-introduced, but support was initially low, as communist supporters fled abroad, fearing persecution.
The war had devastated North Glaster. Its workforce, industry and international relations had all been affected by the civil war, and did not recover fully until the 1970s. Meanwhile South Glaster continued to grow, albeit at a slower rate.
In the 60s, Northern Glaster had seen enough of its population return from abroad to be able to elect the first far-left government in 1961. From then onwards, the communists won almost all of the elections and North Glaster had effectively become a socialist country, due to post-war devastation and external pressure, it remained the status quo until reunification.
Initially South Glaster was not very trusting of the new governments, but soon found them to be good allies. Secret plans of reunification were present as far back as 1957, spurred on by Glaster being surrounded by aggressive communist states and nationalism. However, any attempt to reunify Glaster failed, as the South Glastians feared that they could not defend against a communist invasion, and because North Glaster was unenthusiastic about being controlled by the Ingerish.
The constant threat of invasion lead to considerable tension, especially in South Glaster. The reason the Ingerish refused to let Glaster go, instead pouring money into South Glastian defense, was because it couldn't afford to let an important shipping route into the Darcodian Sea fall into communist control. The funding of Glaster was one of the reasons it is such a developed nation today, particularly the southern parts.
In the 1970s, the decline of Ingerish industries and economic recession resulted in funds being cut for South Glaster. This left the south desperate for aid, in which it turned to North Glaster. Neighbouring communist regimes like Agarderia and Latania were also suffering from similar problems, weakening the countries. The position of South Glaster now meant it would be safe to reunify and be self-sufficient without any fear of a communist takeover. There had already been plans for unification since the 1960s, but none had beared fruit, and unification was put off.
In 1979, the secret plans between North and South Glaster were finally put into action. The Republic of North Glaster and South Glaster unanimously declared themselves 1 country on the 16th of June. The Governor of South Glaster, Jacob Black and the President of North Glaster, Sonleca Jetteabi proposed a reformation plan, which would merge the two countries' infrastructure, economy and political system within 1 year. Glaster was fully integrated into 1 country by early 1980.
The City of Reyston, situated on the Isle of Reyston, was the only city in Glaster which had an Ingerish majority. As a result, it was also correctly predicted to be the sole province in Glaster that didn't possess a majority that wanted unification during the plebiscite in August.
Despite this, the new Glastian government preceded with unifying reforms, which angered many conservatives and nationalists. Soon after, disenfranchised groups and former members of the South Glastian Army armed themselves with equipment from the Reyston Army Base, and set up a Reyston Volunteer Army. A standoff ensued as the Reystonians barricaded bridges leading onto the island. At 4pm on the 4th of May 1980 batteries of artillery fire were released, aimed at the Glastian mainland.
The newly-formed Glastian Army responded with a blockade of Reyston, prohibiting any person or vehicle getting on or off the island. After a week, riots ensued on the streets of Reyston and the leader of the Reystonian resistance was killed. The day later, Reyston's blockade was lifted and in the following month, Reyston was granted autonomy by Glaster.
Late 20th century
In the late 20th century, Glaster had a spree of transport improvement, as links between the 2 former countries were re-established. Improvements of living conditions in the former North Glaster were quick due to loans and funds from the EUOIA. Development slowed as North Glastian industry declined, however. Conscription in the army was abolished following the collapse of Agarderian communism in 1986.
Second Agarderian Civil War
In 1998, the failing democratic government in Agarderia erupted into civil war. There were 3 factions, the Agarderian State, which was democratic, Lantanian minority rebels in the north and neo-Agarderian communists, based in Glastian Agarderia. The war is still officially continuing and Glastian Agarderia has broken off, but Agarderia has now obtained a stable and developing government with the help of Glaster, the EUOIA and the AN.
Glaster lies on the edge of the Straits of Wyster to the east, the Glastian straits to the south and just north of the Scythe of Uletha, on the Darcodian Platform. The average elevation is around 59 metres. Glaster's highest point is Mount Lewellery, north of Tibrin, at 1266 metres.
There are few major lakes in Glaster; only Lake Monksbury and Lake Northweald are of significant size occupying the Northbury Imapct Basin. Another lake is Charlesworth Water, a reservoir adjacent to Lake Monksbury. Glaster consists of 4 major watersheds, in increasing area: the Fodan, the TBD, the Taeb and the Elle.
Glaster has continental, semi-oceanic climate. Glaster has 4 seasons of almost equal length. Average temperatures range from -6°C in winter to 18°C in summer. It lies inside the temperate zone. The average yearly temperature is 6.5°C. The average precipitation is around 700mm per year and snow cover occurs from mid-December to early March. Evergreen forest covers the majority of northern Glaster.
Its most northerly point is near the confluence of the Taeb and Cova rivers, at 53.7° N, 129.5° E. Glaster's most westerly point in located outside Blithlim Military Base, at 52° N,127.8° E. The most southerly point is at 51.7° N, 129.2° E, on the Isle of Reyston. The most easterly point is situated on Greater Beaker on the Beaker Islands, at 52.6° N 129.9° E.
Glaster's geological structure is often divided into 3 parts. In the northwest, the Agarderian Plateau formations dominate, composed of sedimentary rocks like shales and sandstones, dated from around 233 mya. Glastian sand from sandstone and lime from the Glastian Limestone have been known to make excellent glassware. The Northbury Impact Crater and releated formations have exposed the underlying basalt basement and and produced and exposed metamorphic rocks. Elsewhere, the geology is generally formed by limestone, chalk and mudstone, from varying periods from 135 to 85 mya.
Glaster is split into 8 provinces, which are the administrative subdivisions of the country, and 1 autonomous region. A region is the largest division, which is then split into 2 or 3 subdivisions called districts. The number is dependent on its population and land area. The Provincial Government is headed by a governor, which is elected by the governed province. The governor represents the region on a national level.
Each district has its own governor which is elected by the people of the district. The districts and provinces come together to form the Glastian Local council, the local government of Glaster.
Politics of Glaster
Glaster is a parliamentary representative democracy. The Glastian Parliament has 80 seats in total, headed by the Prime minister, who serves 4 year term. Each member is voted in by his or her constituency. In total, there are 80 such seats in the Glastian Parliament. Governments are usually a majority, but in recent years some have attempted to rule as a minority government, with varying success.
The parliamentary framework is layed down by the Glastian Constitution from 1979. The parliament influences the governing of the state primarily by determining the income and the expenses of the state (establishing taxes and adopting the budget). At the same time the parliament has the right to present statements, declarations and appeals to the people of Estonia, ratify and denounce international treaties with other states and international organisations and decide on the Governmental loans.
Members of the Glastian Parliament are voted in on a 'first past the post' system every 4 years. The leader of the victorious party becomes the Prime Minister, and a deputy is appointed in the event of a coalition. The President of Glaster is elected by the Parliament. The President of Glaster must be from the victorious party, and is only allowed 1 term. The Prime Minister is allowed 3 terms maximum, as stated in the Glastian Constitution. However, if the Prime Minister wishes to run a third term, there is a joint vote by the Glastian people and the MPs. There have been no Prime Ministers which have stood for more than 2 and a half terms.
As stated in the Glastian Constitution, the Prime Minister appoints the government from their party. This selection has to be approved by the president and by parliament. There are normally 16 ministers, but the prime minister or president can appoint a maximum of 18 and assign a subject for them to govern. These ministers form the cabinet. In wartime, the maximum number is increased to 20.
The cabinet carries out the running of the country, shaping Glaster's internal and external affairs, which are approved by parliament. It organises and co-ordinates work done by government institutions and departments and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power.
There are 2 major parties in Glaster:
- Glaster Democratic-Socialist Party (DSP)
- Liberal Peoples' Party (LPP)
There are also several minor parties in Glaster, including:
- Conservative Party of Glaster (CPG)
- Glaster Nationalists (GLN)
- Glastian Green Party (GGP)
- Wystrian Unionist Party (WUP)
Glaster maintains good foreign relations with its neighbours, the exception being the breakaway Glastian Agarderia State, which is largely unrecognised. Glaster is a member of the Assembly of Nations since 1982, and one of the founding members of the reformed Eastern Ulethan Organisation of Independent Allies, although it has attempted to remain distant from subjects other than free trade and economics.
In the mid to late 20th century, both North and South Glaster had one of the most well equipped armies in the region. Around 10,000 soldiers were in active service at any one time, with an additional 20,000 in reserve. Conscription was mandatory from 1948 to 1986, but was reintroduced as an option in 1998 following the Agarderian Civil War.
Glaster's military capability has declined since its independence, when funding ceased. Glastian military presence is mainly focused on the Agardrian border, where it provides peacekeeping and security from communist insurgents. Glaster has not seen a military operation since 1999, when it aided the Agarderian Government to capture the coastline belonging to the Socialist Republic of Glastian Agarderia. Major active military grounds include Port Bovier on Bovier Island, Blithim Naval and Army Base on the Agarderian Border, Stowlkel Naval Base on Bovier Island and training grounds at Northbury and Fodlan. The Glastian armed forces have always been known as the Kleest-Han. Many governmental and national bodies retain their Wystrian or Glastian name as an official title.
Glaster's economy is in advanced stages. It is primarily a tertiary, relying on services, business and trade. Most of North Glaster has already undergone the last stages of de-industrialisation, which happened in the 1990s. North Glastian industry remains active around Tibrin and Bovier. South Glaster's service economy is fairly developed but has been hampered by slow development in the north. Additionally, the advantageous position by a shipping route increases trade. Its position within the EUOIA has also benefited its economy to a certain degree through free trade deals and funding. Since the late 2000s, Glaster has faced economic decline as its industries have failed to adapt and income has not been sufficient to sustain the level of development that the Ingerish brought to Glaster.
Imports and Exports
Glaster's economy has grown consistently since reunification in 1979. The de-industrialisation in the 1990s slowed progress down significantly, and Glaster's economy was stagnant throughout the early 2000s. However, progress has returned slowly. Currently, Glaster's primary and secondary exports mainly consists of limestone, quicklime, slaked lime, glass and small amounts of steel and coal. the majority of exports are local and generally confined to the Scythe of Uletha and Darcodian Sea.
The domestic market has seen much stagnation in the advent of globalisation. Metal mines in Northbury have almost ceased to function, as Glaster imports cheaper iron and steel from foreign sources. The Bovier Steel Plants have been largely demolished and only a few facilities run in this day. Coal mines only produce sufficient coal for the domestic market. The Glastian fishing industry has grown, however, due to grants and funds from the EUOIA.
The Glastian currency is the Kreime (₭) is the national currency. The use of the Kreime has been traced back to the times of the Glastian Empire. While there have been several Glastian currencies over the years, they have all held the name 'Kreime'. The current Kreime was brought into circulation in 1980 after the Glastian unification in 1979, nullifying the North Glastian Kreime and the South Glastian Kreime. The Kreime is printed in 10₭, 20₭, 50₭ and 100₭ notes. The sub-denomination is the Sraim. 100 Sraim is equal to 1₭. Coins are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 Sraim. There are also 1₭ and 2₭ Kreime coins. Up to 1989 they were issued in note form but the devaluation of the currency meant 1₭ and 2₭ notes were phased out of circulation.
Glaster has a relatively modest air sector, as most transportation was formerly undertaken by boat or by rail. Glaster has 2 major airports: Wyndham International Airport and Ellmouth and Reyston International Airport. Both carry regional flights to east and southern Uletha. Glaster has one airline, the state-owned Glastian Airways. It typically runs short and regional flights, but has started expanding outwards during the 21st century.
Roads in Glaster
Glaster has 2 major road classifications: S-roads (grade separated roads), and R roads (routes). In total, there are 9 S-roads in Glaster.
Main S-roads have single number classifications. In order to class as a main S-road, the route has to be more than 30km long, consistently have more than 6 lanes and have at least 9 out of 10 of its junctions grade separated. The numbers are designated in the order in which they are built. There are currently 3 main S-roads. These are the S1 Fledneration Street, S2 Harbour Street and S3 Northbury Way.
Standard S-roads total at 6. There is not a set entrance criteria but they generally retain a 4-lane consistency and majority grade separated junctions. They also need to have at least 1 end connected to another S-road The Glastian classification of motorways does not comply with standard road classifications; only relative to the roads found inside Glaster. S-roads are named according to the main S-road they branch off, with numbers increasing the newer they are. This means all S-roads begin with either the numbers 1,2 or 3. If an S-road is joined to 2 main S-roads, which there are currently none of, the numbering originates from the end where the road first started construction from.
There are numerous R-roads in Glaster, of varying condition. Most main roads that aren't S-roads have an R-road designation. They are numbered the same way as S-roads, but numbers can go up to 3 digits, the roads becoming smaller and less used as the number of digits progresses.
Railways in Glaster
All but 2 lines in Glaster are owned and operated by the government-owned Glastrail. The only other company is West Glaster Railways, operating from Halton and Port Clover. There is 1 main line in Glaster: the Reyston-Ellmouth-Wyndham-(Bovier Branch)-Tibrin Line. excluding the line beyond Bovier, that is the only line in Glaster that has undergone electrification. Diesel train services cover the majority of major towns and cities. Due to strong government funding in the years of separation, North Glaster have better rail coverage than South Glaster, whose railways gradually closed from the 1960s onwards.
Towns like Harcourt and Elem lost their railway connections during this era. The majority of branch lines covering the southwestern end of Glaster lost their railway connections. The only surviving branch lines in South Glaster are the remnants of the line to Harcourt and Elem, being cut short at Plowford and the line from Stewhampton to Brunting. The Glastian railway network is self-contained and has no access to any other countries. Any rolling stock deliveries are made at either Port Bovier or Ellmouth.
Glastian internet penetration is around 51% and has been rising slowly for the recent decades. Areas of highest penetration are usually towns and cities, most of which have access to 2G and 3G networks. Wyndham and Reyston have began to implement 4G coverage. Network infrastructure is regulated, built and maintained by several companies that ultimately are controlled by the Glastian government. Internet and phone service providers are under a near monopoly by the Glastian provider Frontal. However, recently there has been a shift towards multinational companies. The Glastian government maintains Glastian online integrity. Glaster uses the .gs TLD domain.
The Glastian Postal Service, a department of the Glastian State, runs the postal network within Glaster.
Christicsm is the largest religion in Glaster. What native faiths the Glastian population had was gradually displaced by Darcodian Christism that was brought to Glaster during the Imperial Era. This itself was displaced by Ingerish Christism when the Ingerish took control of Glaster in the 19th century. Various fascist and socialist movements secularised Glaster in the 20th century. The end result is modern Glaster. Glaster has a sizable portion of religious believers, but ultimately religion has little interference or power in Glastian society.
Behind the scenes
- Glaster was already an existing country on paper before it was brought to OGF. It was allegedly located in the Indian Ocean.
- It was enemies with another fictional country, Growana, as well as Australia.
- The Isle of Bovier was an industrial area on both OGF and paper Glaster. However, the OGF Isle is much larger than the paper one.
- Glaster's capital city, Wyndham, is named after Wyndham Road in Ellemouth, which was named after the author John Wyndham.
- Wyndham's in-OGF etymology comes from Wandhelm, which means Wandhef's City, a reference to King Wandhef I. However, Wandhef is derived from the character Gandalf.
- The town Decton comes from Dec (prefix for the number 10) and the word 'ten' itself.
- Tibrin is a reference to the original country of Tibrin, UL70, owned by Theriversticks.
- Tibrin's in-universe name stems from the River Taeb, which runs through the city.
- Monksbury and Northweald and their respective lakes both existed on paper Glaster.
- Paper Monksbury was the base of Monksbury, near Katsnelson in north Commonia.
- Northweald was named after North Weald in Essex, UK.
- The town of Stewhampton is also found on paper Glaster
- The name of Ellemouth stems from 'the mouth of the River Elle', which was named after the French word for 'she'.
- The Estuary of the river had already been drawn by the previous occupant. It was previously called the Kriliwake River.
- This formed the basis that the River Elle was named the Kriliwake River before the Ingerish occupation.
- The Kriliwake Bridge connecting Reyston and Stewhampton still retains its original name.
- When mapping first commenced, the River Elle estuary, the Isle of Reyston, the Kriliwake Bridge, most of the S2 Harbour Street and the port facilities had already been drawn out by the previous occupant.
- Those features have undergone relatively little alteration.
- The southern section of Glaster used to be named 'South Artyle'. The boundary of this province was a straight line from what is now Holdwell to north of Port Clover.