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Mapping 4000+ meter peaks (for now), volcanoes and later on mesas and buttes.

Then map glaciers, rock, alpine vegetation. Rework forests to conform to altitude. In progress.

Add contour lines in order to better map roads and alpine facilities.

Pin-Mountain-6000.png Mountain over 6000m Pin-Mountain-5000.png Mountain over 5000m Pin-Mountain-4500.png Mountain over 4500m Pin-Mountain.png Mountain over 4000m Pin-Volcano.png Volcanoes (active and dormant/extinct)

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The Western Sierras originate in far northwest Sierra, with various mesas found in the Northwest Desert the highest formations before the mountain zone. The range continues east and south, with peaks reaching altitudes of over 5000m in the northern sections. The Eastern Sierras begin in north central Sierra, and are marked by peaks of over 6000m. All of Sierra's volcanoes are found in the eastern Sierras. Both the western and eastern ranges converge in central Sierra, and then the western peaks continue southward while the eastern peaks continue towards the southeast.

The snow line in the Sierran mountains varies considerably depending on the latitude and altitude of mountains. At the northwestern high peaks (here and here) (about 31.5 to 32 degrees south), the tree line hovers around 4700 and 5100m. In central Sierra (around and below 33 degrees south), the snow line drops to about 4400 to 4800m. The outlier Goblin Peak, the southernmost 4000er (peak above 4000m), has some permanent snow at around 4950m, though has increasingly become minimal and looks like powdered sugar.

In the winter months (May to October), permanent and temporary snow can be found at much lower altitudes. In cities and towns like Harding, Kaitenas, La Rue, and Burris (central/eastern Sierra), snow can remain on the ground at altitudes of over 3500m, though usually closer to 3800m. In northwestern and north-central Sierra, snow remains just below and above the 4000m mark, blanketing towns like Burris-Braxton, Clinton, Huntington and others.

Glaciers can be found on peaks above 5000m in northern Sierra, but at altitudes of close to 5400 or 5600m. Olson Mountain's glacier is the one found at the lowest altitude, but it is retreating at a fairly fast pace. Most peaks in this area over 5700 or 5800m are not experiencing such retreating glaciers, though they are certainly at risk. In central and eastern Sierra, most peaks above 5000m have sme amount of glacier areas. Mount McInnes was known for a fairly large glaciated area, but following its 1882 and 1960 eruptions, and occasional volcanic activity, much of the glacier has melted away.

Tree line should vary from around 3800-4000m, though some areas may have higher tree lines

Panaco and Tinaca are two mountains in Zusi County, Sierra. They are fairly prominent (5012 and 4797 masl, respectively), and in were said to represent a male and female couple. The two peaks are visually quite similar, though Panaco peak is ove 200m higher.

Mount Arghenna is a volcano in Estancia County, Sierra. It has an altitude of 5613m above sea level. Mount Arghenna is considered extinct. According to Sakuas lore, Arghenna erupted several centuries ago (before the 1870s), and a lot of the structure of the volcano and nearby peaks collapsed.

Kibsy, also known as El Fumador, is an active complex volcano in Cusatia County, Sierra. At an altitude of 5965m above sea level, it is the highest volcano in the Federal States. The name Kibsy comes from an old Timona word for "breath" or "breathing". Early theories as to the name were though to perhaps come from a pre-contact eruption. Despite this, it was considered to be dormant. In August of 1948 fumaroles were first detected coming out of the volcano, and had heavily increased in 1958 to make it highly visible within a large radius. The volcano was heavily monitored during and after the Mount McInnes eruption in 1960, though the pumaroles were no longer as heavy after 1962. The pumaroles persist to this day. Through its remoteness and large inaccessibility, Kibsy is only visited by serious climbers.

Mount McInnes is an active stratovolcano in Estancia County, Sierra. Mount McInnes has an altitude of 5005 meters above sea level. Mount McInnes is a fairly prominent peak (about 600m taller than other peaks within a 10km radius), and quite visible from the cities of Guerrero and Caldwell. Mount McInnes is famed for its 1960 eruption, which was the longest-lasting in the state's (country?) recorded history. Mount McInnes was a lava dome. It was known to the Kwiskona peoples. It was first recorded by the Castellanese in 1779, and again in 1841 when it erupted; lava flows were noted, damaging some high farmland and ash was spread to the south of the volcano.

The High Mountain Society, set up in 1889, was the first to seriously study the volcano, of interest after an eruption in April 1882 which sent plumes and clouds of ash over 40km north east, covering Guerrero and Caldwell in ash. McInnes was studied by geologists and volcanologists from the University of Sierra (1929, 1953) and University of Astrantia (1959).

Mount McInnes began releasing plumes in the mid-1950s after more than half a century of supposed inactivity, leading many to worry about a potential eruption. Several small earthquakes in January 1960 (about 16) led to calls to evacuate Guerrero and Caldwell, amid fears of potential explosion. Eventually the earthquakes subsided, and residents returned at the end of the month. Fumarolic activity was noted in April 1960, and again residents were warned to prepare to evacuate. In June more volcanic tremors were noted and on 16 June the governor passed an order to evacuate, with the Sierra National Guard called in, though a handful of people chose to remain. Well over 30 or 40 earthquakes were being detected per hour after the 16th, until vulcanian explosions began on the evening of 19 June, releasing gases and ash into the atmosphere. At 4:12 a.m. on 21 April the volcano exploded, sending an ash cloud over 9 kilometers above sea level and leading to lava begun spilling from the volcano, which flowed west from the volcano's crater. Four people died directly from the explosion, located at a farm near the volcano.

The ash cloud was carried by the wind in a west-southwest direction; by the end of 21 April the ash cloud was over Dennison, precipitating and covering much of the city. Within the next day Millburn City and Warrensville in Tauhon had ash hovering or precipitating, and the ash cloud extended to over 1200km away in western Yuris. Air traffic was heavily disrupted, and significant interference with agriculture and livestock were noted.

Mount McInnes had a significant glacier, but