User:Zhenkang/Sandbox/Kuehong Main Sandbox

From OpenGeofiction Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A draft for the history of Kuehong, plus all stuff related to Kuehong.


History

Notes for history:

  • As unlike RW Vietnam, the Chinese homeland is not (or may not be) near Kuehong at all, (tentatively in Orano, see here), and the earliest plausible date is around the 14th century or so. There can be immigrants from Bai but very few and I doubt it will give much impact on Bai culture.
  • Hence, the pre-Bai era is assumed to be more Buddhist-influenced or more Austronesian leaning, as seen in a number of other Southeast Asian nations. It is assumed there were a few powers in the region (e.g. Orinoco), but this is yet to be confirmed.
  • Nevertheless, the Bai will still come, colonise and place a heavy influence on Kuehong.

Prehistory

The area of what will be today's Kuehong has already been settled since the stone age. According to the Kue legend and archaeological evidence, the predecessor to the modern Kue culture -the Co Xua culture - has flourished from around the 10th century BC, and has a prominent influence in the region. Over time, however, rifts between the various tribes were formed resulting in civil wars which negatively impacted the Co Xua influence, leading to the tribes and the area became subject to the region's then ancient power- the Ruobruom Kingdom - in the 4th century BC. After the kingdom later collapsed due to internal rebellion, the Kue tribes decided on forming an alliance, leading to the formation of the first Kue state, then called Mui, on the Muinon Peninsula in the 2nd century BC. At the same time, the Dehau tribes from what will be today's Cinasia formed another rival state against Kue. For the next few centuries, there is often war between Kue and Dehau.

The ancient capital of So Tai, 500AD.

It was around the 4th century AD, the Kue state, along with the Dehaus, were overwhelmed by the expanding Orinocian Empire. Nevertheless, some of the Kue, against the rule of the Orinocans, allied with the Dehaus and launched a revolution to overthrow the empire's rule. After the successful defeat of the empire, the Kue state transformed into a kingdom under the Noi dynasty, but peace did not last for long between the Dehaus and the Kue. The newly unified kingdom was later divided in the 5th century AD. The 6th century saw the further split of the Kue Kingdom over the rivalries between the various tribes. The Dehaus launched a war against the weakened Kue states, later subduing most of the states in the 6th to 7th century AD. One state, the La Kingdom, however, remained strong and managed to destroy the Dehau-led kingdom in the war of Lim Dat in 685. The La Kingdom later transitioned into the Kue Kingdom soon after.

Kingdom

A portrait of Vua Khon Ngoan.

Under the wise leadership of Vua Khôn Ngoan (Wise King) in the 8th century AD, the Kue kingdom began to flourish and entered its golden age. Proclaiming the start of the Hoài Dynasty, the new king adopted Buddhism as its state religion, giving rise to more Buddhist temples being built. Formal tribal religions were later discouraged and banned together in the later years of his reign. The Kue later allied with the Orinocians and other powers in eastern Uletha, bring it on par with other powers at the time. The Kue culture and language gradually became dominant in the Muinon peninsula.

The Kue kingdom became rather prosperous even after the death of Vua Khon Ngoan. The alliance with the other powers, however, is rather short-lived after his death. Kue has to repeatedly defend itself against Orinocian invasions which only ended when Kue managed to send a team of diplomats to reestablish relations. The Orinocian king agreed to let one of his sons marry the Kue princess. The Hoài Dynasty continued to survive under the overlordship of the Orinocian Empire as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for subsequent centuries due to intermarriages between the Orinocian and the Kue princes and princesses. During the Hoai Dynasty, certain advancements in technology, such as the invention of the world's first metal movable type, reflected the successes of the Hoai.

Buddhist influences can be seen in the Palace of Giac, in then capital Lim Dat.

In the 12th century AD, a rebellion by some Buddhist scholars overthrew the Hoai Dynasty, entering the Giác era. The Giacs adopted Buddhism as the state religion and later expelled or removed former pro-Orinocians aristocrats and military officials. The Orinocians invaded the Giac Kingdom in 1233 but failed once again. Under the Giac, the Kue managed to fully occupy what will be today's Fayaan, previously ignored by the Hoai Dynasty and then occupied by the Orinocians. The Giac saw further trade with other powers which brought back the prosperity of Kue.

Colonisation

Flag of the Bai Territory of Muinon (1577-1923).

The Bai explorers first arrived in Kuehong during their first expedition across the Asperic in 1348. The Vua of Kue welcomed the Bai explorers and has generously given them gifts of spices and gold. The Bai (Suo) Empire and the Kue Kingdom formally signed an alliance in 1412. Over time, however, Kue became overreliant on Bai for trade, and the influx of Bai immigrants seeking prospects on the Muinon peninsula have worsened the limitations of resources on the peninsula then. On Bai's encouragement, the Kue Kingdom launched a mass massacre of the Dehaus in 1445, burning villages and their temples. The Bai immigrants were then encouraged to populate the cleared area. The massacre has fuelled worries of Bai's influence in the region. The remaining Dehaus which survived later regrouped themselves and allied with those against Bai's presence.

In 1543, a group of Dau lords launched a coup against the Giac Dynasty. The coup in 1543 has succeeded in overthrowing the Giac Dynasty, entering the brief Trần Dynasty. The Bai then responded by sending ships to the Muinon Peninsula which saw the defeat of the short-lived Tran Dynasty. By 1577, Bai managed to take control of the Muinon Peninsula through the Treaty of Công Bằng when the Tran forces surrendered, starting Kue's period under Bai colonisation. The intial years of Bai colonisation brought further cultural and scientific advancements, including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivalled elsewhere.

In 1589, Karolian merchants landed on what will be today's Phongthinh and managed to negotiate with Bai to allow Karolia to set up its trading post in the area. Karolia also planned to take over the island of Vang Ngat, but that was rejected by the Bai administering the area at the time. Meanwhile, Castellan and Dutch forces have been laying claims over the poorly-administered Fayaan through expeditions during the 16th century without Bai's awareness. When reports of Castellan forces being sighted on Fayaan cane to light, Bai immediately tried to launch an attack to push them out, which failed largely due to the complex defence systems set up by the colonists and their merchants. Bai then agreed to let Castellan and Dutch take the land, with many Kue and other natives making mass migration to Bai's side.

Ingerish officials and local riflemen.

During the 17th century, the Bai further modernised the land by developing new ports on the peninsula for trade. Bai culture began to dominate in the area, either displacing certain native culture or integrated, as in the case of Kue culture. During the Lin Dynasty at the turn of the 18th century, due to the need of funds, the Bai decided to lease a few ports to its ally Ingerland, which later formed the Ingerish Ardentic Settlements. The Ingerish managed to become the dominant power in the region, later defeating the Castellan forces in Fayaan in 1690 with assistance from their Florescentan allies. After pushing out the Castellan, however, Ingerland wanted to take over the Fayaan region while giving Floresecnta its former ports in the Kuehong region. The Bai, which does not trust Floresecenta, also objected to this arrangement. These disputes were later resolved through the Muinon Treaty in 1712 which allowed Bai retain its control of the rural areas of southern Muinon while Ingerland and Florescenta jointly administer the ports in Fayaan and Ingerland taking control of the rural areas in Fayaan. The set of ports became the Union of Fayaan Colonies. Ingerland retains control of its ports in the Kue region. During Bai's interactions with Ulethan powers, more Ulethans came and settle in the region.

The Karolians later withdrew from Phongthinh in 1742, handing over the port to the Ingerish. Meanwhile, the Dutch KKAM, having not fully driven out but still operating in some of the various Fayaan ports, have been taking advantage of the worsening conditions under the Ingerish-Floresecentan controlled Union of Fayaan Colonies. In the Ingerish-protected (occupied) regions, farmers started forming militias to protect themselves from looting by gangs and corrupted officials. Many militias were financially supported by the KKAM and local KKAM estate holders were often the first to strive for political reforms - historians are still debating if this was an intentional move of KKAM to weaken Ingerish and Florescentan power or not. On July 11th 1757, KKAM announced the Free Port Law (Vrijhaven Wet) which allowed farmers and merchants in all of Munion to sell their goods in KKAM harbours (i.e. Witzandmond) at the 'domestic tax' rate. With KKAM taxes less than half of Ingerish and Florescentan taxes, many farmers all over northern Fayaan (and to a more limited scale also in the south and some other Munion regions) decided to ship their goods through Witzandmond, illegally avoiding the ports dominated by the Ingerish and Florescentans. Floresecnta later abandoned its control over Fayaan, later followed by the Ingerish. The Bai also attempted to retake Fayaan in the 18th century but saw that there is little value in taking control of the area, especially when a famine just broke out in the area.

Phongthinh Central Station built-in 1876.

Differences between the ports and rural areas later became rather apparent, with the ports better developed under the Ulethan rule as compared to the inland areas. Under the Middle Bai Dynasty in Bai, the Bai administration decided to impose stricter restrictions over the Ulethans' control of their ports. Higher taxes were imposed and certain goods were not allowed to be bought and sold in their ports, especially slaves and opium. This was part of Bai's efforts to undermine Ulethan influence in the region. Meanwhile, the Bai agreed to cooperate with the Ingerish on building a regional rail and road network and industrialised certain towns in the rural areas. A plan for a canal along what will be the Cinasian-Kuehong border never materialised. The modernisation programmes drew some support from the previously neglected locals, as such programmes promised better job prospects and economic benefits. However, there was an increase in the number of large-scale famines, and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for the locals. The locals later saw themselves being exploited and hence began to call for independence from colonial rule.

The 19th century saw the Ulethan powers withdrawing from its ports after their leases expired which Bai refuses to renew. The Bai saw that it has problems trying to control the ports left by Uletha, especially social problems like gambling and vices introduced under Ulethan rule, alongside the rise of Kue nationalism which lead to frequent rebellion by the Kue. The incompetent Bai administration decided to allow locals to rule their own regions, resulting in slow legislative reforms being enacted. The various local rulers decided to form various political parties, the most dominant of which is the Muinon National Alliance. While the alliance had much support among the locals, especially the ethnic Kue, the Bai supported the progressive Congress for the Development of Muinon. It was suspected that later local elections for the Muinon autonomous government were rigged in favour of the congress, but this was never proven. Nevertheless, the Alliance began to boycott the elections and refused to cooperate with the Bai. The agitations, mass strikes, demonstrations and consequently support for an independent Muinon further eroded Bai's control over the region.

Independence and Partition

Bai Liberation Soldiers during the brief war.

Shortly after the division of the Bai Empire, with both Bai administrations abandoning its remaining colonies, the Bai Territory of Muinon became officially independent on 2 July 1922 as the Union of Muinon. The Congress for the Development of Muinon (CDM) remained in power with Bai's assistance led by an unpopular Bai politician Wen Zhuxing. Fayaan later briefly joined the union in hopes of a better economy under a larger market. However, soon after, the Kue people revolted against the CDM administration, replaced by the Kue Muinon National Alliance (later Kuehongese National Alliance (KNA)). Under the new administration through the 30s, pro-Kue policies were enacted that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners in the government have sparked unrest in the eastern regions that are Bai-dominated. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo, in opposition to the government after it listed the Bai people in Kuehong to be 'illegal immigrants', barring Bai people from taking part in future elections. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade, leading to an intervention by external forces which quickly mediated the situation. The war ended with the partitioning of the already unstable Muinon Peninsula into today's Cinasia, Kuehong and Fayaan in 1938.

Streets of Lim Dat in the 50s.

The KNA remained in power in West Kuehong. However, the coalition became more divided after the war. With the worsening economic situation, a communist uprising overthrew the KNA administration on 2 March 1942. On the Bai side, known as Bai Kuehong or East Kuehong, the guerillas managed to negotiate with Cinasia to form a separate state provisional government (military junta), granting Bai Kuehong certain autonomy. Nevertheless, it became reliant on foreign corporations and the central government of Cinasia (then supported by the Federal States) for its economy. The Cinasian Republic remained unstable with constant changing leadership without any visible regime change. In 1945, after formally taking charge after a show election, the communists in West Kuehong enacted a series of socialist policies. The policies were successful in garnering the support of the masses in the West, with better healthcare and housing policies than Cinasia. Hence, due to the political instability in Cinasia, many chose to emigrate to the West but soon saw that marginalisation against the Bai community remained, resulting in double defections. Nevertheless, failing to develop the economy, instead of relying mainly on agricultural produce, saw the successes of such policies to be rather short-lived. The years leading up to the 50s saw a rise in border skirmishes at the Line of Control between the communists and the guerillas. The guerillas began a campaign against communism in response to the incursions and defections. It attempted to reform the economy by nationalising the economy but failed, largely due to corruption and threats by foreign corporations to pull out all of its operations which the economy is dependent on. The guerillas later made a controversial defence pact with the Federal States in 1951. In response, the communists then signed a pact with Suria a few months after.

The communists' control over West Kuehong did not last long. Frustration with what was perceived as government mismanagement and tax collection abuses led to riots in several towns in West Kuehong. After months of social unrest, with the failure of the government to address it, a military coup took place in 1954 supported by Cinasia, ousting the communist government from power. Meanwhile, also tired of the lack of political change in Cinasia, the region of East Kuehong, having long identified different from the rest of the Bai settlers in the area, decided to cede itself from Cinasia. In 1953, an uprising in Namthinhvuong took place protesting against Cinasian rule, leading to the overthrowing of the weak and ineffective state government. The Cinasians, then already weakened itself, saw that it has no choice but to ceded Bai Kuehong.

After the secession, the ones leading the secession movement took power in the government, with Nguyen Nhà Thờ, the leader of the secession movement, in power. Under their rule, government reforms were implemented, with a new stable leader undertaking radical reforms aimed at fostering development. However, the government failed to gain widespread support due to its controversial ties with the mafia and reluctance to clamp down on criminals, alongside its over-reliance on the FSA, leading to Nguyen's overthrow in a coup in 1956. Reforms were paralysed, though he led to the reestablishment of democracy in the East. A new administration, the Kue Conservative Party, started its rule over the country after its win in the 1959 elections and began a modernisation programme in the country, including clamping down on the mafia and reforming law enforcement in the country.

Reunification and military rule

The unification monument in Namthinhvuong.

In the later decade of the 50s, the new administrations on both sides decided to push for efforts for reunification, starting a series of secret talks between both sides. For the military in the West, it is to gain stability in the region and legitimacy to its rule and to counter the remaining socialist and communist threats more effectively. Additionally, there were calls by the civilian population in the West for the military to step down for a new civilian government. In the East, the government hopes to gain more control on the undeveloped ports in the West for further trade prospects, after a pull-out by some foreign companies over a controversial policy enacted in 1957 that saw the increase in tariffs on foreign goods. With the communists weakened, the East began to be more willing to engage with the government in the West. Kuehong was reunified on 31 January 1960, after a series of talks and agreements and overwhelming support for the merger, under a transitional government which will lead to the nation's first national elections. The new economic and modernisation policies brought further stability in the region. However, while national sentiments were high, tensions still remained between the Kue and Bai people, resulting in riots in a few cities. In response, a curfew was imposed, with freedom of speech and movement heavily curtailed. The new government formally declared on 9 May 1961 that 'all indigenous groups are equal under the law', and pursued a programme of 'Kuehongese Kuehong' to encourage racial harmony in the region. The programme stressed an acceptance attitude within the multi-racial society, where a race/ethnic accept the racial differences of others in order for all to live together by respecting each other as a citizen in one country.

The lockdown ended in 1962 to pave way for general elections in 1964, resulting in a landslide win for the United Democratic Kuehong Union, a coalition of rightist party led by the Kue Conservative Party. The leftist coalition, however, dismissed the elections as rigged and refused to acknowledge the results, triggering conflict in the region. Despite efforts in mediating the situation, the unrest led to the assassination of the rightist leader by some radicals in March 1967. In light of the assassination, the military took action by staging a coup in August and launched a crackdown against the leftist activists. Even after peace was restored after the crackdown, the military refused to cede power back to the already weakened rightist coalition and banned all political parties and activities. On 13 July 1968, the military formally took power with the swearing-in of the then defence minister Trần Chí Duệ (陈志睿) as the Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress, replacing the vacant posts of the prime minister and president, starting military rule over the country.

The military banked on their broad appeal to the population, by continuing policies promised by the rightist government, which has not been implemented due to the unrest. Due to the policies, the nation recovered economically from the series of political instability beforehand. Massive development took place in the western regions, which saw little development under communist rule. However, the military was criticized for its emphasis on developing large-scale infrastructure projects. Many felt the millions of dollars spent on building new motorways and a rail network wasted, especially since deaths of the villagers were reported to make way for the motorways, with a death toll amounting to around 500; others supported Tran's vision to develop a centre for peace, education, and religion in the heart of the country.

To solidify military rule, the military started the nationalisation of corporations and businesses in the country all under a new trade union indirectly controlled by the military. In 1974, the new constitution was put in place formalising military rule over the country, which also declares all citizens of Kuehong to be part of the military, hence formally turning Kuehong into a stratocracy. A year after, National Service was implemented in light of confrontations with other nations especially in the Sound of Pa and the Belphenian Sea, though many claimed the move is to ensure the military rule involves everyone.

Reforms

Public flats built under military rule in the 70s to 80s.

In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.

The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introducing the two four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.

In 1994, Ly Duc An, despite his promise not to continue for another term, was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in Vang Ngat in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.

21st century

The Neeg rebellion, one of the greatest challenges faced by the military government in the 21st century.

After the 1998 national elections, regarded as 'fair and free', Diep stepped down as chairman to make way for his brother Diep Quang Nhan. Under his tenure, he has to face several crises, such as the Neeg Rebellion in 2001 and further tensions with Belphenia over its military activities in the Belphenian Sea. He also made the controversial decision to dismiss and arrest the then Chief of the Assembly Những Bất Đồng (formerly Chief Counsellor) and 15 other counsellors over 'deep disagreements' in certain policies, especially his decision to embark on numerous mega-projects and his dealings with the rebellion. In response to growing government opposition, Diep's government disbanded several non-governmental organisations (NGOs), considering them 'a threat to national security'. In 2003, however, Diep made the decision to pardon and release the political prisoners on the condition they will not contest in that year's elections. In response, the candidates which supported the pro-democracy movement boycotted the elections, hence the elections were won largely by those supportive of the military. 2003 also saw the first state elections after the decentralisation of power, allowing states to have more autonomy over their own affairs. Diep was then re-elected for another term as chairman. In 2004, the government also made a surprise reduction of national service duration from three years to two and a half years for males and from two and a half years to two years for women. Later that year, the government also legalised of casino gambling, to increase its attractiveness as a tourist destination.

Mass flooding of farms in the aftermath of the typhoon.

In 2009, eastern Kuehong was hit by a severe typhoon, followed by an earthquake. Despite measures put in place to combat the typhoon, there was severe damage to the nation's infrastructure and resulted in deaths estimated from 80,000 to 200,000. The damage from these events resulted in the delays in elections as recovery efforts were made in the low-laying eastern regions which were negatively affected. In 2011, Dipe stepped down and the military committee voted in favour of Vu Yền Lực. The Vu administration took steps to redevelop the damaged areas. Vu, thanks to his efforts to redevelop the damaged areas and social reforms to help the growing elderly population, has gained the support of the majority and was re-elected for another term. In 2018, Vu has floated proposals for further political reforms, including the possibility of a direct election for the Chairman.

Gallery of past military leaders (as heads of state)

Name Portrait Term of office Notes
1 General Trần Chí Duệ Nguyễn Khánh 1964.jpg 1970-1979 First military leader, who brought the whole nation under the military and formalised military rule.
2 Colonel General Vũ Tuấn Hưng Kyaw Zaw.png 1979-1984 Second military leader who brought about reforms, later resigned in a corruption scandal.
3 Captain Trần Tu Tín Đoàn Khuê.jpg 1984-1990 Third leader, the one behind the government reforms, brought further progress in democracy efforts in the country.
4 General Ly Duc An Senior General Min Aung Hlaing 2017 (cropped).jpg 1990-1996 First one to implement four-year term limits for chairman. However, he didn't keep to his promises of reforms and was later overthrown.
5 Lieutenant General Diep Duy Tam Bouasone.jpg 1996-1998 Though served for a relatively short-term, he helped further made progress in the reformation of Kuehong.
6 Major General Diep Quang Nhan Kem Sokha (2013).jpg 1998-2011 Longest serving military head, has overseen further reforms and modernisation in the country.
7 Senior Colonel Vu Yền Lực Yawd Serk.jpg 2011-present Current chairman of the Congress

Ly Duc An

Ly Duc An
李德恩
Lý Duc An
Ly in 1993
Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress
In office
1 September 1990 - 24 February 1996
Predecessor Trần Tu Tín
Successor Diep Duy Tam

Ly Duc An (born 2 February 1933) was a Kuehongese military official and poltician who led Kuehong as the country's first elected Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress from 1990 to 1996. Initiallt hailed as a reformist, support for hims later dropped when he refused to implement further reforms and purged his opponents. He was later overthrown in a coup in 1996 after his controversial re-election in 1994 and later was put under house arrest for abusing his power and his role in the AB massacre in 1993. He still remains under house arrest to this day.

1967 Coup

1967 Kuehongese coup d'etat
Coup67collage.png

Clockwise from top left: Pro-military supporters and troops expressing their support for the coup, a publicity photograph displaying the earliest support for the coup, tanks on the streets of the then capital Namthinhvuong, the corpse of the interim leader Phúc Kinh Gu who was killed in the midst of the coup, confrontation between anti-military protestors and the military.


Date16 August 1967
LocationFlag of Kuehong.png Kuehong (nationwide)
ResultMilitary victory. End of civilian rule in Kuehong.

The 1967 Kuehongese coup d'etat, or often referred to as the 16 August Revolution, was a military coup d'etat in Kuehong in 1967, organised by the Kuehongese military loyal to then Defence Minister and Chief of the Defence Force Tran Chi Due. The coup deposed and killed interim president Phúc Kinh Gu (福京俱) when he failed to deal with the political instability in the country following the assassination of To Chap Tac.

According to declassified documents on the coup, it was meant to be bloodless, but several protestors disrupted the coup and 'things began to spin out of control' after that. The military only said about 500 died in the coup; many estimated from 1000 to 5000. It was one of the bloodiest incidents in Kuehong's history.

Neeg Rebellion

The Neeg Rebellion was an uprising by the Neeg minority group against the Kue and the government's policies. It took place from 23 April to 17 June 2001, and was considered a major threat to Kuehong's military rule in the 21st century.

The movement initially started out as a protest against the demolition of a Neeg church and the exhumation of a nearby cemetery for a project. It further escalated when a team of rogue soldiers and other Kue forced several Neegs out of the church and stormed the church, starting the Neeg liberation movement calling for Trac Khe to be made a special autonomous region, greater representation for Neegs in government instiutions and more laws to protect their rights. The movement spreaded to the countryside and other towns in the state. Several extremists, including the Neeg Liberation Democratic Force, took advantage of the situation and caused widespread destruction in the state.

Talks were held between a group of moderate Neegs and the Kue government. The Diep government has already planned for a decentralisation of power in 2003 and agreed to cancel the project. Nevertheless, as the violence escalated, the central government decided to launch an invasion into the country, known as Operation Clearwhite, on 15 June, arresting many of those involved in the rebellion and quelling the rebellion, forcing many Neegs to flee to Cinasia. The Operation was condemned by the international community.

The rebellion has led to the deaths of around 1370, almost half of whom were alleged to be the terrorists behind the rebellion. Public discussion on the rebellion and the operation was suppressed for the next ten years until the new government in 2011 decided to further investigate the rebellion and has encouraged studies into the rebellion. Since 2003, among the Neegs, 15 June is commemmorated yearly in secret, to remember those who died in the operation.

Politics

Kuehong is a federal parliamentary republic ruled by a military junta. The constitution declares the rule of the military legitimate since 1974 and hence it is a stratocracy, one of the few nations under the system, with the population of Kuehong all considered part of the military under the constitution. It is an executive-led governing system, with the National Security and Stability Committee as the executive branch. The head of state is the Chairman of the Committee, who serves for at most two five-year terms, while the head of government is the Chief of the National Advisory Assembly (Chief of the Assembly), the leader of the federal legislative branch.

There has been a number of reforms in the government since the 80s, which nowadays gives the legislative more power over decisions, including the power to impeach the Chairman. The reforms also saw the gradual introduction of democracy in the country, with citizens being able to vote for the counsellors in the Assembly. However, central power remains in the Committee, which can force a reconsideration of legislation. The committee can propose new bills, issue subordinate legislation, and has authority to dissolve the legislature.

The Chief of the Assembly is nominated by the Committee and elected by the 280 Counsellors. All of the counsellors, in turn, are elected by the people through a national election. Candidates for the Assembly needed to go through a 'screening process' by the Election Committee. All of the counsellors are not affiliated to any political party (since political parties are banned) but normally aligned themselves into two ideological groups: the pro-military camp (the current majority) and the pro-democracy camp. The elections for the Assembly is held every five years (with the exception of 2009, which was delayed until 2011 due to a severe typhoon), the most recent of which was held in 2016. Registered military personnel of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the Assembly and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory, but in recent years this has been debated upon.

The Supreme National's Court of Kuehong, headed by a chief justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Advisory Assembly. The legal system of Kuehong runs parallel with the legal system of the military. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Kuehong is known to have very tough penalties for certain offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. Homosexuality is banned in Kuehong.

Despite the political reforms allowing greater democracy in Kuehong, critics still maintained that the regime remains authoritarian. There still remains on restrictions of speech and transparency of the government, but many acknowledged the improvements in curtailing democracy and the rule of law and justice in Kuehong. For example, in 2016, the Assembly managed to pass certain changes regarding the National Penal Code, changing the policy from mandatory to discretionary capital punishment.

Navbox for political divisions

Template:Navbox Kuehong political divisions

Contour sketches

Kuehong south contours 1.jpg
Kuehong south contours 2.jpg

Names for Kuehong

Franchises in Kuehong

Ethnic groups in Kuehong

List of other minorities:

  • Neeg people (mainly in the Da Ma area, RW Hmong)
  • Ksekr people (mainly in Trac Khe area, RW Khmer Krom)

Personal mapping quick references

For my personal quick references for comparisons with real world cities. (Cities that I planned to develop in the short-term, not in order.)

Vang Ngat

Vang Ngat is meant to be somewhat similar to Penang, Malaysia, and Singapore. Since it has quite an advantage of being close to Uletha, I am thinking of it as an international city and a cultural bridge between Northern Archanta and Uletha.

The Chinese characters Vang Ngat is actually a Chinese translation of an island (Pulau Pangkor) in Malaysia, which I have visited. Similarly, for the capital, O-man, the Chinese characters are actually from a Chinese translation of an island in Singapore (Pulau Ubin).

Bakdep (capital) and Phongthinh

Bakdep is meant to be a rather well-developed and planned city, something along the lines of Naypyidaw, Myanmar. The addition of a nearby port city is an inspiration of Klang, Malaysia, and the relationship between Incheon and Seoul. Bakdep means 'Beautiful North'.

Namthinhvuong

Namthinhvuong means 'prosperous south', though it can be quite far from it given its rampant crime rates and stuff. It is an analogue to Ho Chi Minh City.

other stuff

Vang Ngat

Muinon Peninsula

The Muinon Peninsula (sometimes known as the Fayaan Peninsula) is a peninsula extending from northern Archanta. At its terminus is the northernmost tip of the Archantan continent. The area largely comprises of Cinasia, Fayaan and Kuehong. The peninsula is separated from Uletha by the Belphenian Sea and to its east is the Ardentic Ocean.

Zuchaw (AR906)

The Kingdom of Zuchaw is a country in Northern Archanta, bordering Cinasia to the north and AR909 to the south. It is the homeland of the Neeg people.

Zuchaw was subjected to the Dehau kingdom and later to the Kue Kingdom. The Bai later took over the Zuchaw region but installed a puppet king to rule over the region. Zuchaw later became an independent kingdom after Bai withdrawal in 1922 and has rejected to join the ill-fated Muinon Union. During the rest of the 20th century, it was ruled under an authoritarian monarchy, the Suav Dynasty, under which it modernised rapidly.

Since 2010, after the collapse of the Suav Dynasty, the kingdom has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise. As a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Zuchaw territory.

See also