Witzandmond is the capital and greatest city of the Noordkaap state of Fayaan. The city (as an administrative division) had 673900 inhabitants in 2018, while its metropolitan area had XXXXXX inhabitants.
Witzandmond spreads out over the coastal flatlands and the valleys of the Witzandrivier and its tributaries. The old city centre is dominated by a 315m high hill (Valkenrots) that is a continuation of a ridge separating the Witzandrivier valley from the coast.
A small Bai fortress and settlement have been present at the Valkenrots since at least 900 CE, although archaeological evidence points to the earlier occupation, with probably a small Kuehong fortress from a few hundred years older.
Dutch settlement of the area started around 1500CE, and Witzandmond appears on an Ingerish map from 1532. It remains unclear whether there was still Bai occupation around 1500CE and if Dutch colonists met any resistance. During the first years of colonisation, the City of Noordkaap was much more important then Witzandmond. A combination of fertile soils for agriculture in the river valleys and the good harbour conditions made Witzandmond grow faster, and by 1580 it is mentioned to be the most important colonial town and harbour of northern Munion. In 1625 Witzandmond became the official capital of the Noordkaap colony. Witzandmond has been the seat of the Dutch-speaking colonial company Koloniale Kompagnie van Archanta Minor (KKAM) during most of the colonial period.
History of the city districts
City Centre and Harbour
Colonists build out the former Bai fortress on top of the Valkenrots to become one of the mightiest fortresses of Archanta. Until today, it has never been taken by force by foreign troops. A settlement city grew at the foot of this fortress and was walled around 1590. The original city wall pattern can still be observed in the cities street pattern. Subsequent city walls were built in 1645, 1656 and 1703, expanding the walled city northward. Originally the city had two harbours: a small but easily defendable harbour along the Witzandmondrivier near the current [Basiliek]. This harbour silted up during the late 1600s. A landing site on the beach served as a harbour for the larger vessels from the mid-1500s. Most probably the beach-harbour was first located near the contemporary [Vrijheidspark] but it moved northwards when the beach silted up due to harbour activities and waste disposal. During much of the 1600s to early 1800s the harbour was located at the current Havenpark and [Havenkwartier], extending westward. New harbour infrastructure and modernisation occurred during the 1800s, building quays more seaward. Construction of the [contemporary docks] started in the 1940s with last addition as recent as the 1990s. Plans exist to build a new harbour west of the current one, with tide-free docks.
With the growing importance of the city also more and more neighbourhoods were erected outside the city walls. Slums raised in thee marshy area northeast of the city in the mid-1600s. These were demolished in 1657 when the Staten Generaal and Governors palaces were build along with the large [park].
Since the 1940s Witzandmond has been famous for its busy traffic and traffic jams. This is mainly due to the geography of the city that lacks space to build proper ring roads, leading large amounts of traffic through the city centre. After the creation of a ringroad highway in 1985, traffic problems have decreased, and contemporary upgrades to public transportation and cycling highways have further eased the transportation crisis of the city. Car GPS data show that Witzandmond has now less (normalized) time lost in traffic jams than Fayaan City and Santa Cruz de la Selva.
The main coastal highway A1 goes through the city centre, and serves harbour traffic, residential and rush hour traffic, but also much of passing through the traffic from/to the northern cities. Large parts of the highway have been turned into a motorway, often with expensive complexes of tunnels and bridges at the major intersections (see [here] for instance). But between the big [roundabout] serving the harbour and [Herendries] such modernisations are limited to some tunnels and bridges at major intersections as there is a lack of space to create a motorway.
Traffic in the valley has for a long time been dramatic as the main road between Groot Strand and Achtkant crosses many residential neighbourhoods. Works on a new ring road following the valleys started in 1968. Between 1968 and 1972 the section Noorderoo and Oudmeers was finished. These works needed the demolishment of several industrial neighbourhoods and were a major city renewal project. In 1977 the section Oudmeers to St-Martens Hooie opened, followed by the section to Engelgem in 1979 and to Eikenkamp in 1984. Southward this highway has been extended to Gagelkamp (1990) and St Robert (2002). A new tunnel will extend the road to the southeast in 2021.
The first major road crossing the central ridge was constructed between 1951 and 1955 between Oosterhede and Achtkant ([map]), and was later on modernized. In 1985 the highway connecting Eikenkamp (and the ringroad) and St-Amandus op Wier was finished, providing the first dense-traffic connection over the ridge.
In the 1920s two small airstrips were localized at Hede and Noorderoo. The Hede airstrip became a proper airfield (Witzandmond West Luchthaven) in 1931, but was abandoned in 1941 when further allotments were created here. The Noorderoo airport became a major airport in the 1930s and 1940s, and was for a long time the second airport of Fayaan. To coop with the increasing air traffic and noise pollution, a new airport was constructed west of the city from 1973 to 1979. When the new Witzandmond international airport opened on 1st August 1979, the Noorderoo airport was abandoned. Today, the Witzandmond International airport is the third airport of Fayaan for goods traffic, and the second for passengers. It is one of the worlds most modern airports and is connected to the city centre by train and busses. The airport also features an industrial area where services to airlines are located.
Fayaan National Railway serves a train network to the south, connecting WItzandmond with the other big cities of Fayaan. This same network doubles as a suburban network for the coastal suburbs. Three service types connect to the central station: national and regional survices, and the two WZM suburb services.
|National services||Regional Services||WZM Suburb Express||WZM Suburb Local|
|Witzandmond Centraal||Witzandmond Centraal||Witzandmond Centraal||Witzandmond Centraal|
|St Amandus op Wier|
|Witzandmond Luchthaven||Witzandmond Luchthaven||Witzandmond Luchthaven|