Difference between revisions of "Aden"
|Line 265:||Line 265:|
Revision as of 15:18, 11 June 2021
|8, 19.725, 51.358|
|Republic of Aden|
Jumhuriyet Aden - جمهورية عدِن
"Ahadoun Ahad - أحدٌ أحد"
One God, One God
In The Name of God - باسم الله
|Largest city||Aden Mdin|
|• National languages||Adenian Mazanic, Mazanic|
|• Regional languages||Allynian, Asani, Masayi|
|Government||Imani Presidential Republic|
|• President||Adnan Mohamad|
|• Vice-President||Hussain Saïd|
|• Total||77841 km2|
30054 sq mi
|• Estimate (2021)||21,230,600|
|• Census (2019)||20,527,430|
|• Total||1.07 Billion|
|• Per capita||52,223$|
|• Total||930 Millions|
|• Per capita||45,305$|
|Drives on the||right|
The Republic of Aden (جمهورية عدِن, Joumhouriyet Aden), commonly referred as Aden is a country in south West Uletha. It is bordered by Mazan from the northern east, UL02g from the northern west, Alliria from the east, Arion from the south, and The Sea from the west. The capital city is Aden Mdin (also spelled ^Aden Mdin), which is a coastal city located in the coastal center of the country.
The Rich Lands of Aden close to the main cities of Mazan contributed to its rich history which shaped a cultural identity of ethnic diversity. Aden is of 77,823 km2 which includes Mediterranean mountains and coasts and a savannah inlands. The earliest evidence of civilization in Aden dates back more than three thousands years which is why most of its history is found. Aden was home to the Asanians, an old civilizations that took place on the mountains of Aden. The Masayas are an Allirian tribe that was and still is located in the mountains. In the same era, Mazanians came to Aden and declared it as part of their empire which was the main reason of the Imanization of Aden. Most of the Asanians have had close relationships with the Mazanians which contributed into making the New Aden. Few kept the cultural aspect of the Asanians that stayed in the mountains while the territories next to the sea became more and more civilized and educated. The Allyunian savannah was acquired into the territory of Aden in the 20th century. These tribes known as The Allynians enriched Aden's cultural diversity. Aden is one of the most important countries in the Imani world, it is known one of the centers for Traditional Imanis in the world. The economy is enriched by the religious tourism that is mainly due to the important Imani Universities in Aden in addition to its rich Imani history.
- 1 Ethymology
- 2 History
- 2.1 Antiquity
- 2.2 Asan Sultanate (589-898)
- 2.3 The Alezar Rule (898-1495)
- 2.4 Union of The Emirates (1495-1775)
- 2.5 The Arion Rule (1775-1783)
- 2.6 The Sultanate of Aden (1783-1865)
- 2.7 The Harari Emirate and The Rajabi Dynasty (1865-1935)
- 2.8 Formation of the Republic of Aden (1936-1953)
- 2.9 Modern-Era Aden (1953-present)
- 3 Geography
- 4 Anthem
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Law
- 7 Politics
- 8 Economy
- 9 Transportation and Infrastructures
- 10 Culture
- 11 Education
- 12 Health
The word Aden is based on the Aden Bay in which the capital Aden Mdin is centered now. Aden Mdin used to be called Aden before acquiring the name Aden for the country, thus, the addition of Mdin which means city to the name of the city. Aden is derived from Aden. it is not certain on the origin of the name. A theory suggests that the name is based on the "The ^Aden Paradise" in the Imani religion, thus, the Hararis named the city "Aden" as a place in which someone works to go in the afterlife to The Paradise of ^Aden. The name was not named to consider the area as a paradise but a way to paradise. Another theory considers that ^Aden is derived from ^Adnan, the central grandfather of the Mazanics. This theory considers that the Mazanics named Aden the city in memory of their grandfather. Both theories are considered as valid in modern-era Aden, as Aden is considered as a religious country from one side, and that accepts the Mazanics as one of their ancestors.
Asan Sultanate (589-898)
The first known rule in Aden is the Asan Sultanate. The Sultanate is based on an agreement known as the Agreement of Surviving. It was made by the different Asanian families living in Mount-Asan which included the unification of their forces and the establishment of a Sultanate that is centered in Asan. It was agreed on verbally in 589 because of the illiteracy of the Asanians back then. in 656, Sultan Sam The Great was the first Sultan to adhere to Iman This move led to a wide conversion to Iman in Asan though many Asanians kept some of their traditions that weren't fully coherent with Iman. It is suggested that by 657, 90% of Asanians became Muslims.
In 682, a small Sultanate was established in Nadal called the "Nadal Sultanate" by Al Nadaly. Al Nadaly is known as a national hero in Nadal. In 2 years, Al Nadaly formed a strong religious population on the coastline of Nadal and made Nadal an economic center in Southern Ghetoria. Asanians felt that their importance next to the Nadal Sultanate is diminishing in relation to trade and farming which led them to poison Al Nadaly. His Grand Vizier Joubri took charge while being backed by the Asanians. This led to a revolution of the Nadalians in 685 that ended the Nadal Sultanate. Assanians were already planning an invasion of Nadal. The Asan Sultanate was based only on Mount-Asan until the expansion that happened in 695 that included Nadal, the West, and the area known today as Harar.
Years between 670 and 720 were known as the grand immigration years. After Asanians adhered to Iman, Mazanic were welcomed in the area. The Mazanic language started to be used widely since Asanians were illiterate and found the Mazanic language as an important way for them to be civilized. The immigration led to the habitation of coastal areas in nowadays Aden. This trend has stopped after the plague hit Mount-Asan in 720. It is determined that the plague killed more than half the Asanians at the time. The plague was the main reason of the delay of the Mazanic conquest of Aden. It also scared the Mazanic which stopped the immigration. The plague mostly affected the Asanians and did not affect the Mazanics greatly, causes are still unknown till today, some studies suggest that the Mazanics had great techniques of socially distancing themselves from anyone that had the plague which stopped its spread.
The Alezar Rule (898-1495)
Union of The Emirates (1495-1775)
In 1495, after a decade of negotiations between the Mazanics and The Asanians, a treaty was signed between both parties that concluded the semi-independence of Asan from the Sultanate of Alezar, making it a sovereign entity under Mazanic Influence which resulted in the formation of the Emirate of Asan on 28th of march 1495. By 1512, Masayas became in majority Imanis, thus, they signed a similar deal with the Sultanate forming the Emirate of Masaya on the 13th of April 1512. On 15 march 1565, both rulers of the Emirates met in Ousayn to sign a deal on the formation of a union known as The United Emirates of Asan.
The Arion Rule (1775-1783)
Arion established a coastal town on nowadays Harbel Mdin where old Imani settlements already existed. This area was known as the center of the war between both parties which is the reason why it was named as Harbel Mdin. On the 18th of July 1778, Arion launched a genocide on the Imanis of Harbel Mdin which led to the war of Harbel Mdin in 1779. The War is still known until today as one of the deadliest wars Aden has ever experienced. Later on, a peace treaty between both parties was signed on the 13th of may in 1779 to division of the cities into two parts, the Imani part governed by the Hararis and a Hellanesian part governed by Arion. Hellanesians are still to be found in Aden and especially in Harbel Mdin which they consider as their capital in the area.
The Sultanate of Aden (1783-1865)
from Aden Mdin, agreement was made on the establishment of a Sultanate centered in Aden named the Sultanate of Aden on the basis of the treaty that happened on the 14th of february in 1784. The Capital was chosen as Aden for it being on the center of the coastline and for it to be different than all the older capitals to avoid any superiority based on ethnicity and history.
The Harari Emirate and The Rajabi Dynasty (1865-1935)
The Hararis were the main group that did not accept that change because of it being against the rulings of Iman. However, the Hararis did not take part of the revolution, they started to meet secretly to plan on regaining independence all over the country. Most of their trials failed until the Harari war of independence that started in 1876 that started freeing areas one by one, the first city to gain independence was Nadal in 1876. Hararis kept on trying until they were able to form the Harari Emirates in the Harar and Nadal area. in 1905, a battle took place in Aden Mdin which led to the liberation of the city and moved the dynasty's capital to Asan. by 1906, the Nydal, Baytoruh, and ^Abdar areas were fully liberated. The most deadly war of the era was the Ousayn War that started on the 24th of February in 1913. The war kept on going until Ousayn and Mount-Ousayn were liberated on the 12th of August 1918. A war launched in 1925 which was the start of the end of the Rashidi Dynasty.
By 1925, the Turquese rebelled against the dynasty in which a three years long war kept on going and led to a lot of deaths between the Turquese people. Conflicts rose between the Turquese that wanted to be part of the Harari Emirates and the close villages that wanted to stay part of the Rashidi dynasty. The Conflict was major because of the close distance between the settlements of the Turquese and the Asanians. in 1928, a civil war between both parties that ended in 1932 by the exchange of citizens between towns of the Asanian villages which led to the segregation that is still present between the Turquese and the Asanians.
Formation of the Republic of Aden (1936-1953)
Modern-Era Aden (1953-present)
The Accords were to be effective by 1953 after 9 years of the treaty. No strict border passing will be formed on the borders with Mazan. by 1949, different rulers of different areas in Aden and the rulers of Allynian tribes and the Mazanic Sultan met in Aden Mdin in what was known as The Treaty of The Capital in which a referendum was made on the constitution that specifies the rights of all the parties in addition to adding the territory of the Allyn savannah officially to Aden with Allynians getting special treatments and budgets in Aden. The treaty was signed on the 16th of February in 1950. This day is known as the Aden National Holiday. The referendum was fully endorsed on the 7th of may in 1953 on which The New Republic of Aden was officially formed.
Aden experienced great improvement in its infrastructure during the last decade in addition to a great economic growth which is mainly because of the government that is based on full transparency. By 2020, Aden is one of the most advanced countries in the world and the most advanced country in the Imani world. It holds great relationships with different parts of the world and is considered as the capital of the Imani world. Despite Aden having a small size compared to other major nations, its unity with Mazan, it is considered a major force in the new world .
Aden is located in the southern west of West Uletha, on the shore of the Sea, extending for about 70 thounsands sq kilometers. The capital city, Aden Mdin is at the center of the country from the shore, it was initially a small settlement next to the River of Aden but it naturally expanded after the formation of the republic across Aden Bay known historically as The Golden Bay.
Aden is divided into four distinct physiographic regions: the coastal plain, the Aden mountains, the Alyyian Savannah and the Islands of South Ghetoria
The coastal plain which is rich with lands that are suitable to be used as farms, different chain of interior mountains including high peaks. However, The Coast gets very narrow in the Harar and Nydal area. The Mountain of Ousayn included the highest peaks in Aden, with the peak of Masaya (3545 m) as the highest. The Mountain of Asan is known as the heart of Aden because of it's central location in the country and the importance of its territory in older times. Its heighest peak is the peak of Asan (3242 m) followed by the peak of the Turquese (2174 m). The Baynal Rayn peak (1765 m) is considered as an important peak because it is very close to the coast.
The Allyn Savannah is in the north of Aden behind. Mount Allyn is a rocky mountain found in the desert next to the city of Allyn, it peaks at 950 meters.
The inland coastal plain includes the coastal area excluding the islands coasts and Maytam's coast. it is 1290km long and includes the capital and major cities.
Aden has 59 islands and more than 800 islets (44 mapped in OGF). All of them lay in the the Aden-Arion bay. The biggest island (partially part of Aden) is the Inrak Island. Their are 4889.629 Km2 (6.28%). Most of the Islands are settled by Adenians and Hellanesians. There are more than 1,400,000 person living on the Islands of Aden Bay (73% Adenians, 23% Hellanesians, 14% Others).The Biggest city on Islands is Nydal (280,000 person) followed by Inrak (185,000). Inrak is the largest and most populous island and it is split between Aden and Arion. It is 157km away from the closest inland point in Nydal.
The Aden islands are traditionally grouped into the following clusters: the Inrak Islands which are the most far from the coast, Maytam Islands which are disputed with Arion and are bordered by Arion Islands, and the Nydal Islands close to Nydal.
The climate of Aden is primarily Mediterranean, featuring mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers on the Coast and the mountains. This climate occurs at all coastal locations, including the Islands and the Land of Nadal. The Asan mountain range strongly affects the climate of the country. Topographical variation creates local modifications of the basic climatic pattern. The inner-area's climate is Savannah climate with a special touch of Mediterranean. Fall is a transitional season with a lowering of temperature and little rain; spring occurs when the winter rains cause the vegetation to revive.
In the Aden Mountains the high increase in altitude produces extremely cold winters with more precipitation and snow. The summers have a wider daily range of temperatures and less humidity. In the winter, frosts are frequent and snows heavy; in fact, snow covers the highest peaks for much of the winter. In the summer, temperatures may rise as high as 31 Celsius during the day, but they fall far lower at night. Inhabitants of the coastal cities, as well as visitors, seek refuge from the oppressive humidity of the coast by spending much of the summer in the mountains, where numerous summer resorts are located.
The Allyn Valley have considerably less precipitation and humidity and a wider variation in daily and yearly temperatures.
In Aden many rivers flow, which are important in the term of length. There are 21 permanent rivers in Aden (6 in Inrak island and 1 in the Maytam exclave) which are the main source of drinkable water for Aden. Many small rivers meet with other major ones which makes them prominent in the area.
The National Anthem of Aden (Mazanic: نشيد عدِن الوطني, Nashid ^Aden Al-Watani) was written and composed by Omar Ibn Mohammad in 1803. It was formally known as the Anthem of The Caliphate (Mazanic: نشيد الخلافة, Nashidoul Khilafa). It was adopted on the 16th of February 1953 during the treaty of the capital.
When Omar Ibn Muhammad wrote the anthem during the Caliphate, the Caliphate back them loved it and asked for all mosques to read it after every single prayer, this led to the anthem being memorized by most of the population. The Anthem had a special place in the nation, Adenians used to recite it in their weddings, their funerals and whenever they are happy.
In 1953, during the treaty of the capital, The anthem was adopted as the national anthem because of its special place for the citizens of Aden.
|The National Anthem|
|Mazanic||Adenian Mazanic||Ingherish Translation|
In the name of God
96.01% of the Mazanic citizens are Imani. Minorities can be found mostly in Allyn (327,336 non-Imanis), AlShamali (76,510 non-Imanis), and Khubayb(68,203 non-Imanis). Estimates of the Irfan population of Imanis in Mazan range between 60% and 75%. Important religious figures have shaped the population inclduing Ahmad Al Rifai (From Tabah), Imam Mohamad Nadaly (From Arsam), and Sultan Al Harari (From Harar in Aden).
Imanis are given priority and importance in Mazan which is mainly because of the intensive history of Iman in the country. Religious Studies is considered as a great source of pride in the country which increase the religiosity level of the population.
Aden's ethnic composition is heterogenous. According to the constitution, Aden is composed of 6 main ethnicities: Mazanics (including Adenian and non-Adenian Mazanics), Asanians, Allynians, Masayas, Hellanesians and Turquese. 70.35% of Adenians are Mazanics.
Historically, Asanians used to live in the area of Mount-Asan while Masayas used to live in Mount-Masaya. Hellanesian used to be found on the islands. On the other hand, Mazanics used to live on the coast and on the Western inland area of Baytrouh and Ashhad. Even though scientifically Mazanics and Asanians ethnicity is close, historical cultural factors kept them separated.
The biggest city is the capital Aden Mdin with 3,800,000 residents in the city border. It is followed by Allyn (1,610,000) and Baytrouh (670,000).
|Governorate Name||in Arabic (محافظة)||Postal
|Governorate Capital||Area (km2)||Population||Pop.
|Baynal Rayn||بين الرين||BRN||Baynal Rayn||2,779||2,150,000||773.66|
|Harbel Mdin||حرب المدين||HRM||Harbel Mdin||4,162||850,200||204.28|
|Coast of Nadal||ساحل ندال||CND||Nadal||1,092||685,000||627.29|
|Land of Nadal||سهل ندال||LND||Wassina||4,681||215,000||45.93|
Agriculture and livestock
Oil and Gas
Transportation and Infrastructures
Urban mass transit
The cities with a subway system are: