Difference between revisions of "Antarephian languages"

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***[[Canillian]]
 
***[[Canillian]]
 
***[[Holmic]]
 
***[[Holmic]]
***[[Pokhdeulian]]
+
***[[Bordelian]]
 
**[[Taranrian]]
 
**[[Taranrian]]
 
*[[Jolantian]]
 
*[[Jolantian]]
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  | polygon =  
 
  | polygon =  
 
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 +
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<!-- El Burdeo -->
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| polygon =
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 +
  
 
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:'''NY''': used in Ohemian to represent /ɲ/.
 
:'''NY''': used in Ohemian to represent /ɲ/.
 
:'''NJ''': used in Ohesian and Taranrian to represent /ɲ/.
 
:'''NJ''': used in Ohesian and Taranrian to represent /ɲ/.
:'''NN''': used in Holmic to represent /ɲ/.
+
:'''NN''': used in Holmic and Bordelian to represent /ɲ/.
 
:'''N͠G''': used in Canillan to represent /ŋ/.
 
:'''N͠G''': used in Canillan to represent /ŋ/.
 
:'''LL''': used in Lyrian after a vowel to represent /ʎ/ and /i/, and in Holmic to represent /l/.
 
:'''LL''': used in Lyrian after a vowel to represent /ʎ/ and /i/, and in Holmic to represent /l/.
:'''GU''': used in Lyrian before ''E'', ''I'', ''J'', ''LL'' and ''Ə'' to represent /ɡ/ and before ''A'' and ''O'' to represent /w/, and used in Canillan to represent /w/.
+
:'''GU''': used in Lyrian before ''E'', ''I'', ''J'', ''LL'' and ''Ə'' to represent /ɡ/ and before ''A'' and ''O'' to represent /w/.
 
:'''GÜ''': used in Lyrian before ''E'', ''I'', ''J'', ''LL'' and ''Ə'' to represent /w/.
 
:'''GÜ''': used in Lyrian before ''E'', ''I'', ''J'', ''LL'' and ''Ə'' to represent /w/.
 
:'''GO''': used in Canillan to represent /w/.
 
:'''GO''': used in Canillan to represent /w/.
 
:'''TT''': used in Holmic between vowels to represent /t/.
 
:'''TT''': used in Holmic between vowels to represent /t/.
 +
:'''CS''': used in Holmic and Bordelian /ɟ͡ʝ/.
  
 
===Diacritics===
 
===Diacritics===
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====Vowels====
 
====Vowels====
 
:'''Å''': used in Canillan to represent /ə/.
 
:'''Å''': used in Canillan to represent /ə/.
 +
:'''Ą''': used in Bordelian to represent /ə/.
 
:'''Ö''': used in Ohesian to represent /ə/.
 
:'''Ö''': used in Ohesian to represent /ə/.
 
:'''Ü''': used in Lyrian to represent /ji/ and /ij/.
 
:'''Ü''': used in Lyrian to represent /ji/ and /ij/.
 +
 +
====Stress====
 +
Alhozaima languages are characterized for having stress marks. Canillan uses
 +
apostrophes at the end of words, while Holmic and Bordelian use grave accents to mark stressed vowels following some rules.
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Stressed vowels in Alhozaima languages
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
! IPA || /a/ || /ə/ || /ɛ/ ~ /e/ || /i/ || /o/ || /u/
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
| Holmic || À à || !! colspan="1" style="background:#dcdcdc;" |  || È è || Ì ì / Ỳ ỳ || Ò ò || Ù ù / Ẁ ẁ
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
| Bordelian || À à || Ą̀ ą̀ || È è || !! colspan="1" style="background:#dcdcdc;" |  || Ò ò || !! colspan="1" style="background:#dcdcdc;" | 
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
| Canillan || A' a' || Å' å' || E' e' || I' i' || O' o' || U' u'
 +
|}
 +
 +
====Gemination and aspiration====
 +
Bordelian is the only Antarephian language that marks gemination (an articulation of a consonant for a longer period of time) and aspiration. It's marked with a hachek placed in the previous letter to the aspiration or gemination. Even if those two phenomenes are linguistically different, they are not interchangeabe in speaking, so depending of the place in the word the same letter with a hachek will be pronounced in a different way.
 +
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+ Geminated and aspirated letters in Bordelian
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
| Ǎ ǎ || B̌ b̌ || Č č || Ď ď || Ě ě || F̌ f̌ || Ǧ ǧ || Ǐ ǐ || Ǩ ǩ || Ľ ľ
 +
|- style="text-align:center;"
 +
| M̌ m̌|| Ň ň|| Ǒ ǒ || P̌ p̌ || Ř ř || Š š || Ť ť || Ǔ ǔ || W̌ w̌ || Y̌ y̌
 +
|}
  
 
===Other characters===
 
===Other characters===
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{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
! Ingerish !! Castellanese !! Holmic !! Canillian !! Pokhdeulian !! Taranrian !! Ohemian!! Lyrian !! Budrian !! Ohesian !! Cifontian !! Ostafariuan
+
! Ingerish !! Castellanese !! Holmic !! Canillian !! Bordelian !! Taranrian !! Ohemian!! Lyrian !! Budrian !! Ohesian !! Cifontian !! Ostafariuan
 
|-
 
|-
 
| village || pueblo || ragal || rågal || rakal || raatal || sədia || sədja || sedia ||  södia || sedia ||  
 
| village || pueblo || ragal || rågal || rakal || raatal || sədia || sədja || sedia ||  södia || sedia ||  
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| bay || bahía || talaya || telayå || delaya || teptelau || galt || nuǵali || nujhalt ||  ǵalt || tgali ||  
 
| bay || bahía || talaya || telayå || delaya || teptelau || galt || nuǵali || nujhalt ||  ǵalt || tgali ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| pool || piscina || sipal || piztsinå || bis'ssina || sxipal || nimamet || nimamed || nimamed ||  nimaimed || pizina ||  
+
| pool || piscina || sipal || piztsinå || bǐssina || sxipal || nimamet || nimamed || nimamed ||  nimaimed || pizina ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| lake || lago || donga || tån͠gkå || brelaw || bralau || dnga || dnqa || denqa ||  dönka || dnka ||  
 
| lake || lago || donga || tån͠gkå || brelaw || bralau || dnga || dnqa || denqa ||  dönka || dnka ||  
 
|-
 
|-
| cliff || acantilado || faletya || falessya || fålezia || faet || felezhia || fəleźja || feleźia ||  föleźia || feletzia ||  
+
| cliff || acantilado || faletya || fålezia || falessya || faet || felezhia || fəleźja || feleźia ||  föleźia || feletzia ||  
 
|}
 
|}
  
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| Canillan ||| ''An͠gtarefia kån͠gpege' iko kontinente. Evisar G̊olmir fålipege' tora' tånu.''
 
| Canillan ||| ''An͠gtarefia kån͠gpege' iko kontinente. Evisar G̊olmir fålipege' tora' tånu.''
 
|-
 
|-
| Pokhdeulian ||| ''Antarefya kumkè igo kontinente. Ibissar Ǒlmòr felikè tor ton.''
+
| Bordelian ||| ''Antarefya kumkè igo kontinente. Ibissar Ǒlmòr felikè tor ton.''
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Taranrian ||| ''Aanterefa xape ie koncinenci. V'teptlau Holmolo falipe to xa.''
 
| Taranrian ||| ''Aanterefa xape ie koncinenci. V'teptlau Holmolo falipe to xa.''

Revision as of 19:41, 13 January 2021

Antarephian
RegionAntarephia
Native speakersTBD (as of 2020)
Language familyThe primary native language family in Antarephia
  • Antarephian
Writing systemRomantian script

The Antarephian languages are a large language family native to northern Antarephia. It comprises most of the native languages of Antarephia. The Antarephian family is divided into several branches, the largest of which is the Jolantian group.

Classification

Geographic distribution

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Writting system

Digraphs

CH: used in Ohemian, Budrian and Canillan to represent /tʃ/.
CX: used in Taranrian to represent /tʃ/.
TX: used in Cifontian to represent /tʃ/.
SH: used in Ohemian and Budrian to represent /ʃ/.
SX: used in Taranrian to represent /ʃ/.
GH: used in Ohemian to represent /x/.
GG: used in Holmic to represent /x/.
TG: used in Cifontian to represent /x/.
JH: used in Budrian to represent /x/.
ZH: used in Ohemian to represent /ʒ/.
TZ: used in Cifontian to represent /ʒ/.
ZX: used in Taranrian to represent /ʒ/.
DX: used in Taranrian to represent /j/.
TS: used in Canillan to represent /z/.
NY: used in Ohemian to represent /ɲ/.
NJ: used in Ohesian and Taranrian to represent /ɲ/.
NN: used in Holmic and Bordelian to represent /ɲ/.
N͠G: used in Canillan to represent /ŋ/.
LL: used in Lyrian after a vowel to represent /ʎ/ and /i/, and in Holmic to represent /l/.
GU: used in Lyrian before E, I, J, LL and Ə to represent /ɡ/ and before A and O to represent /w/.
: used in Lyrian before E, I, J, LL and Ə to represent /w/.
GO: used in Canillan to represent /w/.
TT: used in Holmic between vowels to represent /t/.
CS: used in Holmic and Bordelian /ɟ͡ʝ/.

Diacritics

Consonants

Ć: used in Ohesian and Lyrian to represent /tʃ/.
Ś: used in Ohesian and Lyrian to represent /ʃ/.
Ǵ: used in Ohesian and Lyrian to represent /x/.
: used in Canillan to represent /x/.
Ń: used in Lyrian and Budrian to represent /ɲ/.
Ñ: used in Cifontian and Canillan to represent /ɲ/.
Ź: used in Ohesian, Lyrian and Budrian to represent /ʒ/.
T': used in Holmic at the end of a word to represent /s/.

Vowels

Å: used in Canillan to represent /ə/.
Ą: used in Bordelian to represent /ə/.
Ö: used in Ohesian to represent /ə/.
Ü: used in Lyrian to represent /ji/ and /ij/.

Stress

Alhozaima languages are characterized for having stress marks. Canillan uses apostrophes at the end of words, while Holmic and Bordelian use grave accents to mark stressed vowels following some rules.

Stressed vowels in Alhozaima languages
IPA /a/ /ə/ /ɛ/ ~ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
Holmic À à È è Ì ì / Ỳ ỳ Ò ò Ù ù / Ẁ ẁ
Bordelian À à Ą̀ ą̀ È è Ò ò
Canillan A' a' Å' å' E' e' I' i' O' o' U' u'

Gemination and aspiration

Bordelian is the only Antarephian language that marks gemination (an articulation of a consonant for a longer period of time) and aspiration. It's marked with a hachek placed in the previous letter to the aspiration or gemination. Even if those two phenomenes are linguistically different, they are not interchangeabe in speaking, so depending of the place in the word the same letter with a hachek will be pronounced in a different way.

Geminated and aspirated letters in Bordelian
Ǎ ǎ B̌ b̌ Č č Ď ď Ě ě F̌ f̌ Ǧ ǧ Ǐ ǐ Ǩ ǩ Ľ ľ
M̌ m̌ Ň ň Ǒ ǒ P̌ p̌ Ř ř Š š Ť ť Ǔ ǔ W̌ w̌ Y̌ y̌

Other characters

Ə: used in Ohemian and Lyrian to represent /ə/.

Vocabulary comparison

The table below provides a vocabulary comparison that illustrates a number of examples of similar common words in the languages of the Antarephian family.

Ingerish Castellanese Holmic Canillian Bordelian Taranrian Ohemian Lyrian Budrian Ohesian Cifontian Ostafariuan
village pueblo ragal rågal rakal raatal sədia sədja sedia södia sedia
road carretera kàdic katiz kadiss triixe kadizh qadiź kadiź kadiź kaditz
mountain montaña teggeda teg̊eta těeda taka yabalon jabalon jabalon jabalun iabalon
beach playa morce morche morce morsxa morche morće morche morć mortx
garden jardín tarusna tarosnå tarusna trozu təruzhna təruźn tarushna taruśna terutzn
fort fuerte mòrot' måro moross detiklopi morozh məroź meroź möroź merotz
river río waro goåro waru piro gavor guabr gaber gaber uaro
mouth of a river desembocadura elorniyo elorñi' alorniy pirolau stirnap lornü elorni ölorni lorñ
bay bahía talaya telayå delaya teptelau galt nuǵali nujhalt ǵalt tgali
pool piscina sipal piztsinå bǐssina sxipal nimamet nimamed nimamed nimaimed pizina
lake lago donga tån͠gkå brelaw bralau dnga dnqa denqa dönka dnka
cliff acantilado faletya fålezia falessya faet felezhia fəleźja feleźia föleźia feletzia

Samples

Lexical and grammatical similarities among the Antarephian languages are apparent from the following example having the same meaning in all of them:

Ingerish: Antarefia is a continent. Holmic Islands are located in it.

Holmic Antarefya kunbegè igo-koncinenci. Ebìtar Ggolmor felibegè tor-danu.
Canillan An͠gtarefia kån͠gpege' iko kontinente. Evisar G̊olmir fålipege' tora' tånu.
Bordelian Antarefya kumkè igo kontinente. Ibissar Ǒlmòr felikè tor ton.
Taranrian Aanterefa xape ie koncinenci. V'teptlau Holmolo falipe to xa.
Ohemian Antarefia kambus prostonetay. Netərje Gholmorje halibus tar zor.
Lyrian Antarefja qəmbas qontinentajər. Netərvandautja Ǵolmüa ǵalivas tag izar.
Budrian Antarefia qembus qontinentaje. Neterie Jholmiie jhalivus dajh sor.
Ohesian Antarefia kömpaś kontinentayər. Netörja Ǵolmija hölivaś tög izor.
Cifontian Antarefia kenpas kontinente. Neterbandaudiar Tgolmik falibas izoratzt.
Ostafariuan