|6, 35.228, 61.677|
|Republic of Castellan|
República de Castellán
|Official languages||Castellanese (Castellanés)|
|• Regional languages||Aljamic, Astur-Legonese, Auvernese, Catanese, Galecian, Garonese, Iskera, Satro-Romance|
|Ethnic Groups||Castellanese 89.9%, Others 10.1%|
|Government||Federal Constitutional Republic|
|• President||Eduardo Campos|
|• Prime Minister||José Luis Del Valle|
|• Chancellor of Congress||Francisco Javier Díaz|
|• Chief Justice||María Navas|
|• Upper house||Senate (Senado)|
|• Lower house||Congress (Congreso)|
|• Total||301,082 km2|
116,248 sq mi
|• Estimate (2014)||68.350.240|
|• Total||$2.334 trillion|
|• Per capita||$34,152|
|HDI (2014)|| 0.812|
|Currency||Castellanese Peso Peso Castellanés (CPE)|
|Drives on the||right|
Castellan (English pronunciation: [kæstɛjæn]; Castellanese: Castellán) or Republic of Castellan is a federal constitutional republic in southern Uletha. Castellan is bordered to the east by the Celesto Republic and Takora, to the north by Mazan, to the west by Sathria, to the southwest by Jirki and Valosia, and to the south by the Sea of Mojaca. Its capital city is Maguériz located on the Central Plateau of Castellan. Castellan has an area of 301,082 km² (116,248 mi²) and the population of Castellan reaches 68 million people.
Modern humans first arrived in Plateau of Castellan, next to the Doiro river, around 30,000 years ago. Doiranese, Suebicians, Iskerans and Bandals cultures along with ancient Eganian settlements developed on the Castellanese territory, thus they participated in a cultural, economic and political exchange. Around 200 AD, the Kingdom of Casteran was founded uniting all Doiranese peoples. This kingdom was influenced by the trade routes coming from the northwest Uletha adopting the Romantian as the language of the kingdom. In 500 AD, the Kingdom of Casteran was conquered by Mazanic people. Castellan emerged as a unified country in the 14th century, following the marriage of the ortholic monarchs (Maria I of Taredo and Fernando II of Garonia) and the completion of the centuries-long reconquest of Castellan from the Mazanic kingdom in 1395. In the early modern period, Castellan became one of history's first global colonial empires, leaving a vast cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over TBD million Castellanese speakers, making Castellanese language the world's second most spoken first language.
Castellan is a democracy organised in the form of parliamentary government under a constitutional republic. It is a member of the Assembly of Nations (AN), Southern Uletha Economic Cooperation Council (SUECC), Oceanic Treaty Organization (OTO), Commonwealth of Castilophone Countries and other international organisations.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Religion
- 8 Culture
- 9 Transportation
Castellán (named in the first documents in old Castellanese as Castella) means, according to its etymology, land of castles. The term would come from ancient Hellanesian language Kástero, wich means fort. The Hellenesian people named this territory as Kásteran. The native peoples, who inhabited Kásteran (Doiraneses, Suebicians, Iruneses and Bandals), were influenced by Hellanesian peoples and assimilated the Hellanesian language. Doiranese, Suebician and Bandalic aristocratic classes reached an agreement to merge the various kingdoms into one and thus founded the Kingdom of Casteran, the word Casteran had Romantian influences also.
- See also Timeline of History of Castellan
Doira was the prehistoric name of Castellán, lands of Doiro River. In this region of Uletha was populated by several Mojacanian peoples as: Doiraneses, Suebicians, Iruneses and Bandals. Around 3th century AD, the Kingdom of Casteran was founded uniting several peoples: Doiraneses, Suebicians and Bandals. This kingdom was influenced by the Sathrian Empire and peoples of northwestern of Uletha, adopting the language and the religion. In 6th century, the Kingdom of Casteran was conquered by Mazanic invaders. In Middle Era, in a process that took centuries, the small Ortholic kingdoms in the south and west gradually regained control of the Castellanese territory. The last Mazanic kingdom fell in 1395 by Azud The Conqueror (Gonzalo De La Cruz). During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Kingdom of Castellán began its expansion to other continents. A global empire began which saw Castellán become the strongest kingdom in Uletha, the leading world power for a time.
Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Sathrian Empire invasions of Castellán led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Castellán suffered a devastating civil war and came under the rule of an authoritarian government, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a democratic republic.
Modern humans first arrived in Castellan, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago. The best known artifacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Valtarter Caves of Galecia, in northwest of Castellan. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that Castellan acted as one of several major refugia from which northwestern Uletha was repopulated following the end of the last ice age. Some tribes migrated from the Egyt Mountains to the south, the valleys of the great rivers like Doiro, Guadalavir and Guadalfaro were the main destinations.
During the 10th century BC, Castellan was populated by several Mojacanian peoples as: Doiraneses, Suebicians, Iskerans and Bandals.
Also Hellanesian people came from west and established settlements in west and south of Castellan. Hellanessian had great influence on Doira with the introduction the use of iron, of the pottery, the production of olive oil and wine. They were also responsible for the first forms of Doirans writing, had great religious influence and accelerated urban development.
Kingdom of Casteran
In the 1st century BC (138-136 BC), the New Ionean Empire conquered the west of Castellan and came Doiro's valley and Sea of Mojaca. The Ionean Empire founded cities as Taredium (Taredo), Terracunis (Terracuna). For four centuries the Ionean Empire occupied and established relations with the native peoples who inhabited Casteran (modern Castellan). Local leaders were admitted into the Ionean aristocratic class. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use, big infrastructures were built to interconnect the most important towns.
The Doiranese, Suebician and Bandalic aristocratic classes reached an agreement to merge the various kingdoms into one and thus founded the Kingdom of Casteran in 308 AD, its capital was Taredium. The culture of the Kingdom of Casteran were gradually Romantianised at differing rates in different parts of Casteran. In the 4th century, the Romantian culture came through the Southern Trade Route that ran between Northwest and Southeast Uletha through the modern Castellan. The Christic religion was also introduced and displaced the old religions that dominated this territory.
In 503 AD the Kingdom of Casteran was conquered by largely Mazanic armies from North. This conquest dismembered the kingdom into small Christic kingdoms and marked the end of the Kingdom of Casteran. The conquest ended in 518 AD, the Auvernese king, Dagobert II, conquered Terracuna from Mazanic armies.
The Middle Era was the period from the 11th to 17th centuries. Kingdom of Casteran was conquered (503-518 AD) by largely Mazanic armies from North. Only a small area in the Egyt Mountains, in the west, and other small area in the mouth of Doiro River (in the present Catania) managed to resist the initial invasion. Under Sunic Law of Mazanic peoples, the Christic and Hebralic people were given the subordinate status of Dhimmah (historical term referring to non-Sunic citizens of an Sunic state). This status permitted Christic and Hebralic people to practice their religions, but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Sunic.
Over time, large Mazanic populations became established, especially in the North, in the Central Plateau of Castellan between the Egyt Montains in the west, until the Aljauto River in the east, until the mouth of Doiro River. Cárduva, the capital of the caliphate since Mu'awiya I, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in southern Uletha. Mojacanian trade and cultural exchange flourished. Mazanic imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Mazan. Sunic and Hebralic scholars played an important part in reviving and expanding classical Eganian learning in south-western Uletha. The Christic cultures of Castellan interacted with Sunic and Hebralic cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture. Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Kingdom of Casteran times remained largely intact as Mazanic leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture.
The Christic kingdoms was founded, the Kingdom of Astura in 507 AD, the Kingdom of Auvernia in 512 AD and the Kingdom of Guevarra in 518 AD. In 520 AD, the Marca Condal was founded integrated by Comtat de Catània and Condado de Garonia.
In the 11th century, the Mazanic holdings fractured into rival Tawai kingdoms, allowing the small Chistic kingdoms the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories. The Reconquest was the centuries-long period in which Christic rule was re-established over Castellan. The Reconquest is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Aurique won by Don Euricus in 1066 and was concurrent with the period of Mazanic rule on Castellan. The Christic Army is integrated by native locals and people from north-west of Uletha, due to the Purgatio Nortia or the Nortian Clearances that were displaced and deported during the Inaran Nations reign of Pretany.
In 1074, Lión city was conquered by Astur kings on Mazanic army, and in 1087 the Kingdom of Galecia was founded. In 1093, the Astur king, Alonso I, moved the capital of the kingdom of Astura to Lión, thus founded the Kingdom of Lion. Lión was the strongest Christic kingdom for several centuries. In 1179 the first modern parliamentary season in Uletha were hold in Lión (Cortes of Lión). The Kingdom of Taredo, formed from Legonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period.
Mazanic armies had also moved south of Castellan but they were defeated by Garonese and Catanese forces at the Battle of Zagariza (Garonia), in 1071. Later, Garonese and Catanese forces established Christc counties on the southern of Castellan. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Garonia and Catania. For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Mazanic and Christic controlled areas of Castellan was along the Doiro valley.
The break-up of Al-Wandali (Mazanic territory in Castellan) into the competing tawai kingdoms helped the long embattled Christic kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Maguériz in 1187 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christic kingdoms. Following a great Mazanic resurgence in the 13th century, the great Sunic strongholds in the south fell to Christic Castellan (Cárduva in 1226 and Sérvila in 1232) leaving only the Sunic enclave of Jariya as a tributary state in the north-east.
The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Garonia, centred in south west of Castellan, expand its reach across islands in the Sea of Mojaca. Around this time the universities of Numanza and Taredo were established. In 1374, the crowns of the Christic kingdoms of Taredo and Garonia were united by the marriage of Maria I of Taredo and Fernando II of Garonia. In 1395, the combined forces of Taredo and Garonia, commanded by Azud The Conqueror (Gonzalo De La Cruz), captured the Emirate of Jariya, ending the last remnant of Mazanic rule in Castellan. The Treaty of Algizán guaranteed religious tolerance toward Sunic, and although the toleration was only partial, it was not until the beginning of the 17th century, following the Revolt of Guajares, that Sunic were finally expelled.
In 1374, the crowns of the Christic kingdoms of Taredo and Garonia were united by the marriage of Maria I of Taredo and Fernando II of Garonia. In 1385, the combined forces of Kingdom of Taredo and the Uri people (Native Takoran) start revolts in the major cities of the modern Takora which was conquered by Mazan. In 1395, the combined forces of Taredo and Garonia, commanded by Azud The Conqueror (Gonzalo De La Cruz), captured the Emirate of Elvira, ending the last remnant of Mazanic rule in Castellan. In 1396, the war in Takora finished expelling Mazanic forces.
In 1420 Viscliths are expelled from Castellán for religious heresy. The Viscliths are invited to settle on the sparsely populated borderlands between Schwaldia and Kalm by King Richard III of Schwaldia, and join the proto-florescentian already settled there.
Castellan is bordered to the east by the Celesto Republic and Takora, to the north by Mazan, to the west by Sathria, to the southwest by Jirki and Valosia, and to the south by the Sea of Mojaca (Castellanese: Mar Mojacáneo). Castellan consists of the Central Plateau in the midwest of the country. In the northwest are the Egyt Mountains (Castellanese: Montes Egíteos) bordering with Sathria, these contain Castellan's highest point, and in the west are the Averdic Mountains (Castellanese: Montes Avérdicos) bordering with Jirki, Sathria and Valosia, both contain lush forests. The midle east is formed by several mountain ranges and valleys, including desert areas in the southeast like Desierto de Alama, where there is a shortage of rain.
The major rivers of the country like Doiro River, Guadalavir River and Guadalfaro River form large depressions and deltas.
Castellan's climate ranges from arid or semiarid in the southeast, to continental climate in most of inside the country and mountain climate in the northwest, to Mediterranean climate along the coast.
Castellán is a federal, parliamentary and democratic republic. The Castellanese political system operates under a framework laid out in the Constitution of 1975 (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
As a result, Castellan is now composed of 19 regions. Each region has its own Regional Statute and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Nevertheless, the Constitution explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Castellanese nation. The Constitution also specifies that Castellan has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.
The President, Eduardo Campos (22 May 2014–present), is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Asamblea Federal, an institution consisting of the members of the Congress and the Senate.
The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers of Castellán presided over by the Prime Minister, José Luis Del Valle (14 September 2014-present), nominated and appointed by the Congress following legislative elections.
Provinces and municipalities
With the advent of democracy in 1974, after the May Revolution in 1973 against the dictatorial military regime established by Federico Corleón, Castellán reprises diplomatic relations with countries the castilophone countries like Ardisphere, Tárrases, Latina and Balam-Utz, but also with neighboring countries such as Celesto Republic, Mazan, Takora, Jirki and Sathria.
As a member of OTO (Oceanic Treaty Organization) since 1979, Castellán has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities.
In 19?? Castellán enter the Southern Uletha Economic Cooperation Council (SUECC).
Castellan is openly multilingual, and the Constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Castellaneses and the peoples of Castellan in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".
Castellanese (castellanés) is the official language of the entire country, the constitution also establishes that the other languages will also be official in their respective regions in accordance to their Statutes, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Castellán represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."
The other official languages of Castellán, co-official with Castellanese are:
- Aljamic is spoken in North of Aljamia.
- Astur-Lionese is spoken in the Regions of Astura and Lion.
- Ocetanic is spoken in Ocetania.
- Catanase is spoken in the Regions of Ocetania, Catania, Edetania (Edetanese), Garonia and Marioles Islands.
- Galecian is spoken in Galecia.
- Garonese is spoken in Garonia.
- Iskera is spoken in Iskadi and Guevarra.
- Satro-Romance is spoken in Velsaquia.
Main article: Football in Castellan
While varieties of football had been played in Castellan as far back as Kingdom of Doirum times, sport in Castellan has been dominated by football since the early 20th century. Deportivo Maguériz and FC Barnia are two of the most successful football clubs in Uletha.
The Federación Castellanesa de Fútbol (FCF) is the national governing body, and it organises two Cup competitions (the Castellanese Cup, and the Supercup of Castellan), and the Castellán national football team.
Basketball, tennis, cycling, handball, futsal, motorcycling are also important due to the presence of Castellanese champions in all these disciplines.
Public holidays and festivals
Main article: National roads in Castellan
There are approximately X kilometres (X mi) of serviceable roadway in Castellán. The National road network of Castellan is composed motorways, national roads, regional roads and local roads. The network aims to connect Maguériz with the major cities and border limits, also the different regions between them.