Difference between revisions of "Fayaan"
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This results in different climatic zones:<br>
This results in different climatic zones:<br>
the '''eastern lowlands''' have hot and humid summers (monsoon season), with occasional hurricanes. Autumn and spring are mild and much drier. Winter is a real dry season in the south but wetter in the north as more westerlies pass.<br>
the '''eastern highlands''' have a comparable climate to the eastern lowlands, but their higher altitude results in generally drier weather during monsoon season.<br>
the '''western coastal lowlands''' have warm summers, with occasional rain but lacking monsoon weather. Winters are mild (and sometimes cold in the north) with more rain from westerly storms.<br>
'''the central mountains''' have a highly variable climate, with each valley taking advantage of its specific topography. Both winter (especially in the west) and summer (except for the west) can be very wet.<br>
===Nature and biodiversity===
===Nature and biodiversity===
Revision as of 04:26, 9 June 2021
|7, 31.1, 161.5|
|Unie van de Kolonies Onder Fayaan |
Unión de las Colonias de Fayaan
Union of the Colonies of Fayaan
"Alleen Kolonisten zullen overleven"
Only Colonists will survive
|Official languages||Dutch |
|• National languages||Babelic|
|• Regional languages||Ouisx|
|Fayaaner (50%) |
|Nationalities||Fayaan (80%) |
Refugee Status (7%)
|Government||Confederation of Member States|
|Legislature||Staten Generaal van de Union |
State General of the Union
Estados General del Union
|Currency||Fayaan Franc (FF)|
|Drives on the||Right|
Fayaan, officially the Union of the Fayaan Colonies (Lentian: Unie van de Kolonies Onder Fayaan, Castellanese: Unión de las Colonias de Fayaan) is a federation in the northeastern Archanta. Located on the northern part of the Muinon Peninsula, it shares a land border to Kuehong at the south. While governed by a president elected by the parliament (Staten Generaal), much power resides among the different member states, although those states do not have the right to secession.
One of the well-developed countries in the region, the economy is centred on international trade, with key exports of high tech and military tech industries, agro-pharmaceutical, agriculture and engineering. Fayaan draws a fair number of tourists due to its national parks and nature reserves of the mountains, colonial architecture, Bai temples and various beaches.
The northern region of the Muinon Peninsula was nominally part of the Kue kingdom, but due to the mountainous terrain, it was largely unadministered. During the Bai colonisation, parts of the region were leased to Ulethan powers such as the Lentians, Ingerish, Castellan and Floresecntan, leading to the establishment of various colonies that will merge into Fayaan. While notorious for limited civil rights and ethnic segregation laws, reforms have been made as Fayaan progressed into the 21st century.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 History
- 3.1 Pre-Colonial period
- 3.2 Bai Colony
- 3.3 Ulethan settlements (1500-1755)
- 3.4 Liberation movement and unification (1755-1789)
- 3.5 Involvement in the Munion Civil War 1931-1938
- 3.6 Second Republic (military rule) 1938-1968
- 3.7 Third Republic 1969-
- 4 Society and culture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Population and Demography
- 7 Government and politics
- 8 Communication and transport
- 9 See also
The name Fayaan is derived from the Fayaan settler family, who settled in the 16th century in Noordkaap. The family name went extinct in 1709. Fayaan was first called Confederate Union of North Munion but it was renamed Union of the Colonies of Fayaan in 1806.
Fayaan is located at the most northeastern top of Archanta, between 29.5 and 33° N.
Fayaan is dominated by a north-south mountain belt, the Fayaan Mountains, which shapes the country. This results in a rather uniform generalized topography:
- Western coastal lowlands: dominated by big rivers and hilly areas
- the Fayaan Mountains: with a generally North-South direction, they form the spine of the country. Their height varies greatly, with most 'mountains' being mere hills in the north and higher mountains in the centre. In the south, they split into two parallel belts
- the Eastern Highlands: a plateau like region, located just east of the mountains. Much of the plateau is situated between 800 and 1500 m asl. To its west lies an escarpment (Grote Klif), at some places very visible at others difficult to see int he landscape.
- the Eastern Coastal Lowlands: east of the escarpment, often a small coastal fringe
The Fayaan Mountains constitutes of several mountain ranges. From south to north:
- A number of ranges surround the El Triumfo area:
- St Baafsbergen and Sierra Triumfo make up the Southwestern peninsula. The northern part is often referred to as Sierra Argentina.
- The Sierra Oscura, Zuidbergen or Southern Range divide the Klaarbron area from eastern El Triumfo, and are a continuation of the Sierra Triumfo.
- The Sierra Matiz is the Southeastern continuation of the Sierra Oscura and devides El Triumfo from Hoogop.
Like most countries at this latitude, the climate of Fayaan is strongly affected by the position of the high-pressure areas. But its location along the ocean also means a strong maritime influence: westerlies in the winter, southeasterlies in summer. Summer climate is dominated by oceanic high-pressure cells, resulting in warm/hot weather, generally dry in the West and humid in the (south)east. Winds are variable and often weak but tend to be northeasterly or southwesterly. Thunderstorms related to the ICTS reach southern Fayaan and bring moist to the east coast and eastern highlands. With rising ocean temperature in the Ardentic Ocean, also hurricanes occur, especially from May to September. Most make landfall south of Fayaan, and have weakened considerably over land, bringing especially a lot of precipitation to the mountains. Winter climate is dominated by continental high-pressure cells, bringing mild to warm weather. These high-pressure cells are regularly broken by westerly storms in the Belphenian Sea. These bring wet weather, especially to the western lowlands and the western mountains.
This results in different climatic zones:
- the eastern lowlands have hot and humid summers (monsoon season), with occasional hurricanes. Autumn and spring are mild and much drier. Winter is a real dry season in the south but wetter in the north as more westerlies pass.
- the eastern highlands have a comparable climate to the eastern lowlands, but their higher altitude results in generally drier weather during monsoon season.
- the western coastal lowlands have warm summers, with occasional rain but lacking monsoon weather. Winters are mild (and sometimes cold in the north) with more rain from westerly storms.
- the central mountains have a highly variable climate, with each valley taking advantage of its specific topography. Both winter (especially in the west) and summer (except for the west) can be very wet.
Nature and biodiversity
Although Fayaan has a history as a farming colony, large parts of the original vegetation have been preserved. The central mountain belts have kept their subtropical rainforests in different regions. But large parts have been altered by logging and forest plantations. The eastern highlands (and lowlands) remain relatively unimpacted, and the original savannah vegetation still prevails. The western parts of Fayaan have lost large parts of their original vegetation, although important coastal wetlands are still renown for their biodiversity.
Natural Vegetation types
The natural vegetation types of Fayaan are defined by the climate zones, topography and geology. The main vegetation types are: - eastern monsoon forests: the dominant vegetation of the eastern lowlands; mainly deciduous thorn trees and palm trees - eastern bushveld (or Munion monsoon scrub vegetation): a Munion endemic vegetation type, typical for the drier parts of the eastern lowlands (mainly South Fayaan) - eastern Savanna: dominating the wetter parts of the eastern highlands and locally also in the eastern lowlands - eastern grasslands: dominating the drier and higher parts of the eastern highlands - central subtropical rainforest: dominating the central mountain zone; there is a high variety in composition, and often a subdivision is made between eastern and western slopes, but there there is also (and often even higher) variability between valleys depending on precipitation patterns - western subtropical forest: forests of the western lowlands; for large part evergreen trees with also some deciduous trees; - western coastal shrubs (also called Fayaan Boschveld): a Munion endemic vegetation type of coastal shrublands and heathland
National and State Parks
Fayaan has a well working system of preservation regulation, which is well enforced. A three-level system of protected areas is established:
- nature reserves: the highest level of protection with very limited human activities (including recreation) allowed
- national and state parks: protected areas where human activities are strongly regulated (and limited to soft activities like recreation, forest management, ...) are allowed; the difference between both lies only in ownership
- landscape parks: areas that protect a combination of natural and cultural landscapes. Human activities and especially new developments are strongly regulated, but economic activities (including residential areas) are allowed.
- bird reserves and bird refuges: lands with an other main function (often agriculture) were birdlife is protected. Often bird breeding or wintering grounds.
Land ownership and protected area management can be with the government (federal, state or municipality) or private.
Fayaan is one of the megadiverse countries in biodiversity. It is renown for its high diversity in insects, plants and birds, while it also features many large mammal species. Being located at the extreme north of the Munion Penninsula in a particular geographic setting, it features many species that occur only in Munion or even only in Fayaan.
With 1627 bird species observed (2019) it ranks as one of the highest globally. It features 103 endemic species, and an additional 126 Munion endemics. With new genetic studies, it is expected that many splits will occur resulting in even more endemic species. For birdlife, the western and eastern slopes of the central mountains are most diverse, with many subtropical rainforest species. Fayaan is located on several bird migration routes: the eastern Uletha-Archanta route and the route connecting northern OR with Archanta.
Ulethan settlements (1500-1755)
First colonization 1500-1610
The Dutch explorer Erik Meulenaers with his vessel 'Eenhoorn' first mapped the western Fayaan coasts around 1473. The colonization of Fayaan started as a private initiative of wealthy Dutch merchants around 1500 CE. Few written resources detail the early colonization of Fayaan, but it is generally accepted that the city of Noordkaap was founded first, in 1489 (oral tradition) or 1492 (based on inscriptions on a wooden beam in the church). Unlike many other regions, colonization was not organized by Ulethan states, but was a venture of different private companies.
Economic crisis and religious conflicts drove groups of colonists from Dutch and Castellan origin to the western coasts of Fayaan, especially between 1540 and 1600. Colonial settlements met little resistance from the impoverished indigenous population or the Bai. At first, most colonial settlements were small independent towns, often ruled by local merchants or religious leaders, but soon they organized themselves in smaller colonies.
The Castellan state claimed several of the colonies, but the remote location of Fayaan meant that the colonies got very limited interest and hardly any troops were stationed. In practice, some powerful private companies, around 1570 all merged in the Sociedad Colonial de la Selva (SCS), governed the colonies. As for the Dutch colonies, the Dutch state never showed any interest and the colonies were governed by private venture companies, of which Koloniale Kompagnie van Archanta Minor (KKAM) was the most important. Although formally Fayaan was a part of the Bai empire, the Bai had little interest in defending this territory and they took a typical wait and see attitude and started to dominate trade with the new Ulethan colonists. The indigenous population on the other hand (Kue, Ouisx, Corxich and Huny) were actively persecuted by the earliest colonists and were often forced to work unpaid on large plantations (although officially slavery was never allowed in most colonies).
Golden age of colonialism (1610-1700)
By the early 1600s, most colonies had become well governed semi-independent states. Large plantations and agricultural estates, governed by the merchant companies or in some cases by abbeys produced valuable t subtropical food that was exported to Uletha and Bai. Also timber trade flourished. Several cities developed as major port towns from where export was organized: especially Witzandmond, Huysburg, Santa Cruz de la Selva and Ciudad Yldago. Meanwhile those port towns became also major trade centers between the Bai and Ulethan states. All those activities brought wealth to the Fayaan cities, and many monumental buildings were constructed in the cities. During the colonial period the societies developed in a very strict hierarchical way. Most colonies were governed by a governor, and merchant guilds and agriculture estate owners controlled them. Ulethan colonists often worked for a low wage at the plantations, while the indigenous people were actively persecuted. The Noordkaap colony was the first to develop a democracy, with the erection of its Staten Generaal (parliament) in 1630. More colonies would follow, but suffrage was based on taxes and only richer merchants and plantation owners had real political power.
Ingerish Period 1690-1765
The rich independent colonies of Fayaan attracted attention from the Ulethan states. The castellan state attempted to gain control of Santa Cruz several times in the 1600s, but the rich merchants managed to keep an independent position by involving other countries.
By the 1680s also Ingerland attempted to gain control of Fayaan. In 1686 they send a small fleet to defend Ingerish trades from pirates in the Fayaan waters, but in practice, they tried to control trade to the colonial cities. Frustrated by different Ingerish actions, the colony of Santa Cruz raised a fleet and attacked the Ingerish in spring 1689. Ingerland reacted by sending a larger fleet. In the Sea Battle of Selva (July 4th 1690), the Ingerish defeated the fleet of Selva, and the city was captured. Ingerish troops occupied most of the colonies between 1690 and 1691. To ease tensions with the Castellan, the colonies were formally incorporated as protectorates. Only the Noordkaap colony could maintain its independency, thanks to a strong militia force.
During the Ingerish period the governors with an iron hand. A combination of appropriations and high taxes lead to an increasing impoverishment of Fayaan, and much wealth flowed to Ingerland.
Liberation movement and unification (1755-1789)
Under the initiative of Noordkaap, a liberation movement started around 1755. The merchant company of the Noordkaap colony, KKAM, had already taken advantage of the increasing impoverishment in the other colonies to acquire much land and support plantation owners. From this position, they had an increasing social and political voice and rallied for independence from Ingerland. This independence movement started in the Dutch-speaking colonies. The KKAM supported the organization of the militia, who organized local rebelions from 1755 on (Independence War 1755-1765). These rebellions started in Citroenkust, but by 1765 the Ingerish had lost control on a large part of the Dutch Speaking territories. The treaty of Huysburg (1765) gave independence to the Dutch colonies, which became independent states. In practice, they remained under influence of the Noordkaap colony.
While the Ingerish hoped they could remain n charge of the remaining (Castillan) colonies, also here a rebellion broke out in 1766. resulting in an Ingerish retreat in 1789. Fayaan (and especially the parts which became independent in 1789) was left behind impoverished and in chaos.
Noordkaaps political influence increased over the next years, and Noordkaap de facto ruled it's neighbouring colonies. Colonial militia were set up and with the help of Noordkaap they took control of most of the Fayaan territory. Under influence of the liberal movement, the Dutch-speaking colonies formed a confederate state in 1801: the Confederate Union of North Munion, which changed name to Union of the Colonies of Fayaan in 1806. This confederation had special trade relationships with the Bai and several Ulethan states and started to flourish economically. In 1823 the mainly Castellan and Ingerish speaking Santa Cruz Colony joined the confederation, ending a period of chaos and rule by local militia. During these early 1800s, pirates and local militia ruled the remaining colonies. Fayaan troops intervened more and more, occupying increasing parts of these territories, and the remaining colonies joined the confederation in 1831.
First Republic 1801-1924
The early days of the First Republic were characterized by economic growth and territorial expansion towards the east, at cost of the indigenous populations. The eastern territory was divided into three states that formally joined Fayaan in 1861: Hoogland, Gloriosa and Struiskust.
To strengthen the national feelings, the new capital Fayaan City was founded in 1868 at the Bay of Hope (Hoopsbaai). Although today the image often exist of Fayaan City being founded in some pristine setting, the Bay of Hope was actually by 1868 already heavily urbanized with the towns of St-Jans-Hoop and St-Denijs-Hope (both Lentian speaking) and the adjoining Bai City (Bai speaking) in the north; the towns of New-Willhead (now President City), Oxmarsh (both Ingerish Speaking) and La Carolina (Castelanese Speaking) around the Fayaan Deep. Most of the current area of the city was historically part of the Ingerish Colony and the residence of the Ingerish Governor. Founded as a multi-ethnic city, it evolved over the next decades to a mainly Lentian and Ingerish speaking city. Fayaan City soon became the economic motor of the country, and took over the leading role of Noorkaap's Witzandmond.
A combination of high government expenditures and related tax increases, international low food prices and tensions with neighbouring countries resulted in an economic crisis and impoverishment of Fayaan during the last decades of the First Republic. The last decades of the First Republic were politically unstable, and only a few presidents could finish their 5-year term. After the assassination of the socialist president Hannes de Garcia Leenman, Marius Fillen from the Freedom Party became president after the very contested 1923 elections. It is generally accepted that he was elected through large scale voting fraud. On June 2nd 1926, Fillen was murdered allegedly by communist insurgents. Vice-president Erik Panhoudt took power. With the support of the military, he started an anti-communist campaign. Meanwhile in Cinasia the Kue started a rebellion, with political support from Fayaan leftist parties (the Munion Civil War). When Cenasia asked Fayaan for help in 1928, president Panhoudt refused out of fear of a Fayaan Civil War. Panhoudt was re-elected in the 1927 elections, which were considered relatively fair.
Involvement in the Munion Civil War 1931-1938
The 1931 election process ended in chaos, with massive street protests by both leftist and nationalists. In Fayaan City and Huysburg large-scale riots broke out on July 2nd, the day before election day. On election day many polling stations were occupied by nationalist groups, preventing free elections in an estimated 53% of the stations. On July 4th, with only 26% of cast votes counted, the military-lead election commitee pronounced Jan-Frans Ghyslinck of the Freedom Party as the winner. Ghyslinck is considered to have been a puppet rule of the Fayaan military. During his 7 year rule, he took many pro-military decisions. In 1935 he declared martial law and canceled the elections. Ghyselinck remained president until he voluntary handed over power to the military in 1938.
After the 1931 leftist groups were suppressed by the military, and many young Fayaan leftists left the country. About 250 000 (often highly educated) Fayaan citizens took refuge in other countries, mostly the Federal States of Archanta. Another estimated 50 000 volunteered to fight for the Kue Freestate forces in the Munion War. Often untrained and unexperienced, with little knowledge of the Munion terrain, many of those died in action or became missing. It is estimated that about 10 000 survived, and most of them assimilated in the Kuehong society.
In January 1932, Fayaan border troops reported an incursion of Kue militias crossing the Vang Ngat Strait. The troops claimed an act of self-defence and attacked the ships. The Fayaan military then used this incident to invade Kuehong. However, the claims were dubious, as the Kue militias did not have a base in Vang Ngat. The Fayaan military did not even show the bodies of those captured. after this incident, the Fayaan military organized many raids in Kuehong territory to protect Ulethan settlers and trying to establish more Ulethan/Fayaan plantations. Facing heavy resistance from Kuehong militia, these attempts were not successful and protecting Fayaan plantations in Kuehong came at a high cost. By 1934 the Munion Civil War also expanded to southern Fayaan, especially the El Triumfo state. Kue militia members raided many agriculture settlements, while Fayaan troops occupied several cities in northern Kuehong with the help of the Bai. Fayaan actively helped the Bai and Cinasian troops in northern Munion and used the cities as spearheads to destroy many Kue agricultural villages. At the same time most of the Fayaan plantations in Kuehong had to be deserted because of the repeated attacks by Kuehong. Fayaan Military forces were known for their cruel treatment of the Kue, and many human rights violations have been recorded.
The number of Kue casualties of Fayaan troops in northern Munion is generally estimated to be 70-80 000, of which about 30 000 civil casualties. On the other hand about 9500 Fayaan citizens were killed in several Kue actions in Fayaan. Also 15 000 Ulethan and Fayaan citizens died in northern Kuehong, during Kue attacks on the Fayaan plantations and existing Ulethan settlements, and in the capture of the coastal towns by Kuehong forces. The Fayaan military claimed 22 000 casualties at their side, but historians estimate the real number to be close to 40 000. There was also an important exodus of Kue out of Fayaan: of the circa 158 000 Kue living in Fayaan in 1930, only 38 000 still lived there in 1940, decreasing to less than 10 000 by 1950. On the other hand, about 30 000 Ulethan/Fayaan settlers were evacuated from mostly remote villages in today's Kuehong by the Fayaan military, including 2800 Bai farmers. Most refugees were resettled in the El Triumfo member state. They still form a tight and closed society today.
During a spring offensive in 1937 the Kuehong could recapture many coastal cities and the Fayaan military retreated largely to the north. Fayaan still occupied some spearheads along the Kuehong side of the Vang Ngat Strait, including parts of the city of O-Man. A summer 1937 offensive of the Kuehong in El Triumfo failed, and Fayaan troops were able to push back the Kuehong from El Triumfo and recapture most of that state, which was partially in Kuehong hands since 1934. Fayaan public opinion, also on the nationalist side, was tired of a resource-consuming war, especially as the economic situation of Fayaan deteriorated further. Secret peace talks started in late 1937, and in January 1938 Fayaan troops retreated from O-Man. In 1938 the Munion Civil War faded out, mainly because of the many casualties with Cinasian troops. Fayaan took this opportunity to retreat from the war without offending the Bai, and in April 1938 the Fayaan military retreated behind the 1931 borders, followed by the signing of a formal peace treaty on May 8th.
Second Republic (military rule) 1938-1968
President Jimenez 1938-1955
With Fayaan troops massively retreating after the Munion Civil war in 1938, president Ghyslinck took a step back on May 11th 1938, probably under threat of the military. That same day the military command in chief appointed Juan Jimenez as new president. Jimenez was a veteran and war hero of the Munion War, and was especially famous for regaining control of the El Triumfo state after a very violent campaign in late 1937. His presidency was contested by more moderate forces in the military, but by September 1938 he had consolidated power and removed most opposition. His authoritarian rule limited civil rights and especially the rights of minorities. Political enemies ended up in prison and opposition was virtually non-existent. It is estimated that between 100 000 and 500 000 people were imprisoned for political (or racial) reasons, of which 30-40 000 didn't survive. On the international political level, Fayaan remained close ties with the Bai.
The military junta's economic policy favoured foreign investments. The junta was backed by the wealthy and well educated Fayaan exodus, who invested large amounts in the modernisation of Fayaans industry. Large state expenditures in road, railroad and harbour infrastructure lead to high foreign debt but resulted in booming industries and export of mining goods and agricultural produce. Port cities like Fayaan City, Santa Cruz and Witzandmond became major transport and export hubs. In the early 1940s an agriculture modernization plan was started, focussing on agricultural research and improvement of yields. The government claims a doubling of agriculture yield between 1942 and 1952, even if the agriculture area decreased with almost 20%. In the late 1940s, Jimenez started also a large educational program focussing on industries. Engineering programs were set up to modernize the industry. Engineering students were exempt from conscription.
Even if there was a harsh political suppression, Juan Jimenez was a relatively popular leader in the 1950s. He died on a stroke on 3/1/1955.
President Verbanck 1955-1960
Jiminez was succeeded by General Johan Verbanck, a hero of the Munion War and a political hardliner. Being a hardliner, he faced opposition within the military government. Several of his political opponents disappeared, most notably General Alfonso Marka, the number three of the Jimenez administration. Political and racial supression had eased in the later years of Jimenez, but again increased during Verbancks raign. Verbanck closed the border with Que Huong, and international trade relations cooled down. Large investments were made in the coal mines of Citroenkust. He continued the agriculture modernization program, and the growing of fruits (especially citrus, but also tropical fruits) was promoted. Fayaan became a major fruit exporter to Uletha.
A hurricane hit Fayaan hard on August 17-18 1959, damaging a lot of infrastructure and crop yields. This resulted in famine and social unrest in 1960, culminating in a general strike on September 6-8th 1960. Even though the military knocked down this strike, social tensions were high. On October 1st 1960 (Oktobercoup) a group of young officers, backed by a few hundred soldiers, attempted a coup in Fayaan city. They soon took control of public broadcasting and key strategic points in the city, and President Verbanck fled the capital for the south. He died in unclear conditions at the Que Huong border on October 4th. Until today it remains unclear why - as a strong Que Huong opponent - he fled to the southern border and who ambushed bis convoy.
After a few days, the military rule took back all of the strategic points in Fayaan city, and by October 12th all putschists were captured or killed. Until today, it has been suggested that more centre-winged elements from the military rule had orchestrated the coup to get rid of Verbanck.
President Everaert 1960-1968
After regaining power, the military rule appointed General Wannes Everaert as the new president on October 16th 1960. Everaert had most of his education and military training in Ingerland during the Munion Period. Under his rule, the international policies of Fayaan shifted towards pro-Ulethan and especially pro-Ingerish, but still maintaining good trade relations with the Bai. The discovery of (limited) oil reserves along the West Coast in 1963 gave an important boost to the economy. From 1962, Fayaan increasingly focuses on the export of processed products (such as cars) instead of raw materials (such as iron or coal). The educational efforts of Jimenez were continued, leading to a larger share of the population working in the tertiary sector. Economically Fayaan thrived under Everaert, and state dept considerably decreased, while trade relations with many nations were strengthened.
Politically Everaert eased the oppression of his opposition. Between 1961 and 1967 all forced labour camps were closed. In 1966 the 'racial equality' passed, which meant (at least on paper) an end of centuries of racial inequality, but few indigenous and Que Huong ethnics were left. Even with decreasing political oppression, the momentum for a democratic transition increased. The Democratic Party was illegally founded in 1966. This opposition mainly grew within the increasing high deducted population, and university campuses were seen as the centre of the opposition. Encouraged by international unrest, several student protests were organized during the summer of 1968, but they had little effect and Everaert remained in a strong position thanks to the thriving economy. Some opponents also used violence, and a dozen bomb attacks were committed all over the country, killing in total 104 militaries and 67 civilians. A general strike of students and workers paralyzed the country for three days in August 1968.
When universities reopened, the dust started to settle in September 1968. But on September 20th 1968, the military rule announced unexpectedly free elections. These were organized in December of the same year.
A large northerly storm hit Fayaan on February 7 and 8 1962, flooding different coastal areas. Especially Citroenkust was hit hard, and most of it's capital Taurburg was destroyed, causing at least 6700 dead and missing.
Third Republic 1969-
On September 20th 1968 the military rule announced unexpectedly free elections, which were held in December of the same year. When the democratic government took power on January 1st 1969, the Third Fayaan Republic started. The third republic has been a period of relative political stability.
1970s and early 1980s
With the sudden transition to democracy, the newly formed Democratic Party won the elections, and Koen-Jan Boers became the first elected president since 1924. As a former opposition leader, he was very popular, but the Democratic Party lacked the capacity for sound governance. Former military junta leader Wannes Everaert, now in charge of the Nationalist Party, won the next elections and thanks to a coalition with the Liberal Party he could form a government. Over the next decade, the power moved between the Nationalist and Democratic Parties. The former military junta, now forming the core of the Nationalist Party, remained surprisingly popular thanks to its nationalist discourse and large state intervention in the economy. Christiaan Verbanck, grandson of the former military junta president Johan Verbanck, lead the country from 1980 to 1988.
Even with the relative political instability, Fayaan thrived economically in the 1970s and 1980s. Subsequent governments invested in infrastructure. A growing well-educated population, with often Ingerish as first or second language, and wages much lower than in Uletha, meant that also the tertiary sector could grow a lot. Many Ulethan multinationals placed offices in the large cities of Fayaan, especially from the banking and insurance sector, and in the manufacturing sector.
Economic crisis 1986-1994
Even with the strong growth of the Fayaan economy in the 1970s, it kept a large dependence on international trade and remained vulnerable to changes in the international market. Increasing wages and international competition further weakened the Fayaan economy. The large Oudbosch mining company had seen a decrease of 39% of its coal production between 1980 and 1986, mainly due to outdated infrastructure, and Fayaan became a net coal importer in 1985. This finally led to a stock exchange crash on August 15th 1986, with the Fayaan City stock losing 73% of its value and the Noordkaap Beurs losing 62% (both over about 2 weeks). The crash itself was the result of news that recently discovered gas reservoirs in Citroenkust were too expensive for exploitation (the same reservoirs were finally exploited from 1997 on).
The economic crisis led to widespread bankruptcy and unemployment. In the first months the government didn't intervene but from February 1987 large government interventions were used to save the economy. When in march 1987 both Oudbosch Mining company and Estella Cars (two major industrial employers) were on the edge of bankruptcy, they were nationalized in a single holding with 51% government ownership. By 1990 the government started large scale programs aiming at the enforcement of technology industry. Meanwhile also the food processing industry, metallurgy and car production were modernized using government interventions. In 1993 the governments started a large ICT plan, where software developers were encouraged and a high speed internet infrastructure was constructed.
Society and culture
Fayaan culture is a mix of Ulethan Colonial and Bai cultural elements, with some influences of Kuehong and indigenous culture. Most cities have a very Ulethan look and feel, but feature Bai neighbourhoods with a traditional Bai architecture and cultural elements. In contrast, rural areas have still a very colonial look and feel, with often large farmhouses in colonial style and very basic housing for the labourers. Bai are largely absent from rural areas. Indigenous people and their culture have been suppressed for a long time, and few cultural elements remain.
Since the military rule sport has been promoted as
Fayaan is a well-developed country, with an economy based on international trade and transport activities; high tech and military tech industries; agro-pharmaceuticals and fruit production and export (including wine); ICT services; and sustainability engineering services. Despite the remote location, it attracts fair numbers of tourists, who are attracted to its national parks and nature reserves, colonial architecture, Bai temples and endless beaches.
Population and Demography
Ethnicity was officially recorded for each citizen during the first republic and the military rule. It hasn't been recorded by the government since 1973. Since then, ethnicity statistics are based on the census reports, where people indicate the ethnicity they identify themselves with. The largest part of the population identifies itself as Fayaan ethnicity, which are descendants of Ulethan colonists.
|State||Population (2019)||Fayaan %||Bai %||Que %||Ouisx/Corxich %||Huny %||Other %|
Fayaan has three official languages which are used by all public authorities: Dutch, Ingerish, Castellan and Babelic. TThese languages are used for all public services at the federal level, and states can choose to offer public services in one or more of those languages. All recognized schools (except the 'indigenous immersion schools') and universities teach their classes in one or two of those languages (again following state regulations), while the languages which are thought as second or third language are obligatory also from this list.
Kuehongese is recognized as foreign minority languages, and limited public services are provided in this language. Schools can provide an optional teaching package in Kuehongese of at most 8 hours per week. Special city districts with a large presence of people speaking Kuehongese offer more extensive services (including schools and medical services) in Kuehongese, but these are planned to phase out by 2025 for most districts, and 2035 for a few others. Other districts have already phased out Kuehongese in 2015.
There are three recognized indigenous languages: Ouisx, Corxich and Huny. Those languages have protected status within specifically recognized municipalities. In those municipalities, local public services are provided in them, and they are used in schools for half of the classes (with another official language for the other half). Limited federal public services (such as voting information) are provided in those languages in the recognized municipalities only.
The language of each resident and citizen is recorded through the yearly tax declaration forms.
|State||Population (2019)||Official||Dutch %||Ingerish %||Castellan %||Babelic %||Kuehongese %||Ouisx||Corxich||Huny||Other %|
|St Baafsland||25410||Dutch, Babelic||80.5||6.3||-||12.9||0.3||-||-||-||0|
Government and politics
Fayaan is a federal parliamentary democracy, consisting of XX Member States. The 1969 constitution based on the 1801 Confederate Constitution is the legal foundation of the modern state. Although Fayaan considers itself to be a confederation, political scientists consider it to be a federation as the rights of Member States are limited by the constitution. According to that constitution, Member States may not unilaterally decide to leave the union. The constitution outlines basic and political rights and divides the powers between the Union (confederation) and the states and it defines federal jurisdiction and authority. Fayaan is organised as a democracy at the federation and member states level.
Citizenship is granted at birth, and only citizens have voting rights. Citizenship is based on the citizenship of parents (requiring one parent to be a citizen), and can not be gained through marriage. Historically citizenship was only granted to people of Fayaaner (Ulethan) and Bai ethnicity, but the 1978 reforms also granted full citizenship to indigenous tribes. Kuehong ethnics were not granted citizenship in 1978 as they are considerate to be Kuehong citizens (even those without a Kuehong citizenship).
Fayaan applies a citizenship-based segregation system, which limits the rights of non-citizens. This system has been internationally criticized. Non-citizens have no freedom of residence (they may not choose where to live), are only allowed to work at selected industries, and lack several basic civil rights. Non-citizens have a much lower minimum wage and social protection is limited, making them a cheap workforce. Most non-citizens are forced to live in refugee camps and are only allowed to work in selected nearby industries. They are not allowed to use general public facilities such as public schools, healthcare or public transport. Non-citizens can obtain a non-citizen resident status through an integration exam and after proving they have considerable financial means, but procedures are complicated and processing times are deliberate long. Most or all Kuehong living in Fayaan since before the Military Rule (1938) have such a non-citizen resident status. People with such status have considerably more rights (such as freedom of residence) but have no voting rights.
Lis of members states
|State Name||Admission date||Capital||State languages||Assembly Name||Head of State|
|Hallond||11/07/1801||Hallond||Dutch||Kolonieraad (colonial council)||Raadshoofd (head of the council)|
|St Baafsland||11/07/1801||Rotsenburg||Dutch||Staten Parlement (State Parliament)||Staatspresident (State President)|
|Bloemenkust||11/07/1801||Argentia||Dutch, Florescentian||Staten Parlement (State Parliament)||Minister President|
|Klaarbron||11/07/1806||Klaarbron||Dutch, Babelic||Volksraad (People's Council)||Goeverneur (Governor)|
|Santa Cruz||11/7/1823||Santa Cruz de la Selva||Castellan, Ingerish, Dutch||Corte||Gobernador|
|Yldago||15/11/1831||Ciudad Yldago||Castellan, Ingerish||Congreso||Presidente|
|El Triumfo||12/12/1831||El Triumfo||Castellan, Ingerish||Congreso||Presidente|
|Villa Ronda||12/12/1831||Villa Ronda||Castellan, Ingerish, Dutch||Asamblea Ciudadana||Presidente|
|Hoogland||11/7/1861||Arva||Ingerish, Dutch, Ouisx, Corxich, Huny||Staatsparlement (State Parliament)||Minister-President|
|Gloriosa||11/7/1861||Gloriosa||Castellan, Ingerish, Dutch, Corxich||Parlement(State Parliament)||Minister-President|
|Struiskust||11/7/1861||Tabora||Dutch, Ingerish, Ouisx, Huny||Staatsparlement (State Parliament)||Minister-President|
|Fayaan City||11/7/1868||Fayaan City||Dutch, Ingerish, Castellan||Parlement||President|
At the federation level, the Parliament (State General, Staten Generaal) is elected every 4 years, and counts 200 members. A system of proportional representation is used, depending on the population of each state. Through referendums, citizens may challenge any law passed by parliament. The president of the confederation is elected by the State General. There is no limitation on the time a president can take office, but after each federal election, the newly elected State General has to elect a president. The President chairs the government and assumes official representative functions.
The federal state's authority includes federal justice; defence and federal police; social security and health; monetary policy; public finances and federal taxes; foreign trade and relations; inter-state transport; national parks and monuments.
List of Federal presidents
|Term of Office
|1|| General Juan Jimenez
military coup of 1938
|2|| General Johan Verbanck
|3|| General Wannes Everaert
|Term of Office
|Political Party||Parties in government|
|1|| Koen-Jan Boers
|Democratic Party||Democratic Party|
|2|| Wannes Everaert
|National Party|| National Party|
|3|| Johan Pelikaans
|Democratic Party|| Democratic Party |
|4|| Christiaan Verbanck
1980 - 1984
|National Party|| National Party|
|5|| Olivier Eicken
|Socialist Party|| Socialist Party|
|6|| Erik Guerrero Goedleven
|Liberal Party|| Liberal Party|
|7|| Christiaan Verbanck
|National Party|| National Party|
|8|| Olivier Eicken
1993 (ad interim)
|Socialist Party|| Socialist Party|
|9|| Mark Halfons
|Liberal Party|| Liberal Party|
|10|| Olivier Eicken
|Socialist Party|| Democratic Party |
|11|| Bart Vandermolen
1999 (successor of Eicken when he resigned)
|Democratic Party|| Democratic Party |
|12|| Mark Halfons
|Liberal Party|| Liberal Party|
|13|| Eduardo Garcia Collembeeck
|National Party|| National Party|
|14|| Steven Lamoral De Corbe
|Socialist Party|| Socialist Party|
|15|| Bart Vandermolen
|Democratic Party|| Democratic Party|
|16|| Johannes Aapboom
|Liberal Party|| Liberal Party|
At the State level, different systems exist. All states have an elected parliament (elections every 3-6 years) and a head-of-state (mostly State President). Some head-of-states are directly elected, others appointed by the parliament.
The member state's authority includes state justice and state police; religion; culture, language and heritage; environment and nature; economy and employment; fisheries, agriculture, forestry and mining; planning; regional transport; education; state finances and state taxes; housing; public works; energy.
Communication and transport
The government-owned FayPostal has a monopoly on postal services. Package delivery services do not fall under this monopoly but are highly regulated with licences only provided to FayPostal, WestWood and United Transporters. Each state has a three letter postal code that is also used for licence plates. Telecommunications services have been privatized in 1991. In order to ensure coverage of rural and remote areas, mobile phone network licences come with obligations to cover certain areas. Current mobile phone networks are Roodnet, SelvaMobile, FayTelco and MunionConnect. Several smaller mobile network companies don't own their own network infrastructure: FPhone, Zune Mobile, EasyConnect and Taurus.
The road system is divided in a national, state and municipality level.
|Motorways||A||Federal||Big Motorways Connecting Cities - see list|
|Motorways - Ringroads||R||Federal||Motorway ringroads around cities|
|Secundary and Tertiary Roads||XXX||State||Uses state code|
|Local roads||no number||Municipality||includes unsealed roads and paths|
The first railway in Fayaan was constructed in 1843, connecting Puerto Cruz with Santa Cruz. In 1940 the military rule nationalized the railway system under 'Fayaan Railways'. In 1984 the company was renamed FRail; it remains state property until the present. The railway system divides stations into three categories: national, regional and local. Train services are likewise divided in national (NR), regional (RR) and local (LR) connections, with an additional rush hour (PR) category. A railway modernisation plan was started in 2003, which includes the creation of a parallel high speed (HR) network. Traditionally the railway system has been a backbone of freight transport, but improvements in road infrastructure has shifted traffic to trucks.
Bus, tram and subway transport is organised at the local level. Most larger cities have a city-owned public transport company (sometimes a public-private cooperation company), often also covering the major surrounding municipalities. Federal laws regulate subway transport, ensuring the safety.
Smaller municipalities often rely on private bus transport that works with licences and/or concessions. Intercity bus transport is almost always privately organised, except for the Noordkaap state, where the state runs an intercity bus system.
Military and Security
Fayaan Armed Forces
The president is the commander-in-chief of the Fayaan Armed Forces (Fayaan Strijdkrachten, Fuerzas Armadas de Fayaan). The operational command rests with the Chiefs of Staff. The military is structured into three branches, each structured into decisions which are in turn structured into brigades. The main branches and decisions are:
- Fayaan Land Forces
- Fayaan Marine Forces
- Fayaan Air Forces
State Militia Forces
Under the Fayaan constitution, the states are allowed to maintain state (militia) forces that fall under the double command of the commander in chief of the considered state and the Fayaan Armed Forces commander in chief. Militia forces are organized reserved forces, that are allowed to operate in the territory of their state in peacetime. During war times they can operate under the Fayaan Armed Forces command outside their state territory. Most states have organized their Militia as a reserve force, with limited professional personnel. Some states maintain a professional Militia. Some states have a joined Militia. Active militia (2019):
- Noordkaap and Citroenkust Militie
Fayaan Union Defence Forces
The Fayaan Union Defence Forces (Dutch: Unie van Fayaan Defensie; Castillan: Fuerzas de Defensa de la Unión Fayaan; abbreviated as UFD) is a military police force, in charge of controlling the borders of Fayaan.