Difference between revisions of "Jardinia"

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|alt_coat = Coat of arms
 
|alt_coat = Coat of arms
 
|symbol_type =   
 
|symbol_type =   
|national_motto = Y en medio de la mar se alzó un jardín" (Castellanese)<br/><small>"And in the middle of the sea, a garden arose</small>
+
|national_motto = Y en medio de la mar se alzó un jardín" (Castellanese)<br/>"<small>And in the middle of the sea, a garden arose</small>
 
|national_anthem = "Himno de las Islas" (Castellanese)<br/><small>''Anthem of the Islands''</small>
 
|national_anthem = "Himno de las Islas" (Castellanese)<br/><small>''Anthem of the Islands''</small>
|image_map =  
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|image_map = Jardinia location.png
|alt_map =  
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|alt_map = Location of Jardinia in Antarephia
|map_caption =
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|map_caption = Location of Jardinia in Antarephia
 
|capital = [[Mondeonís]]
 
|capital = [[Mondeonís]]
 
|largest_city = [[Gibalbar]]
 
|largest_city = [[Gibalbar]]
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|cctld = [[.jr]]
 
|cctld = [[.jr]]
 
}}
 
}}
'''Jardinia''' (/dʒɑːrdɪniə/; <small>Castellanese</small>: /xɑrdɪniɑ/), officially the '''Republic of Jardinia''' ([[Castellanese]]: ''República de Jardinia''), is an island country located in the eastern [[Hesperic Ocean]], around 30 kilometres off the coast of [[Oxhano]], in northwestern [[Antarephia]]. It comprises 8 main islands and other minor islets, divided into 6 regions called ''comarcas''.
+
'''Jardinia''' (/dʒɑːrdɪniə/; <small>Castellanese</small>: /xɑrdɪniɑ/), officially the '''Republic of Jardinia''' ([[Castellanese]]: ''República de Jardinia'')<ref group=note name=Note01/>, is an island country located in the eastern [[Hesperic Ocean]], around 30 kilometres off the coast of [[Oxhano]], in northwestern [[Antarephia]]. It comprises 8 main islands and other minor islets, divided into 6 regions called ''comarcas''.
  
 
It has an area of over 750 km2 and a population of around 416,000 inhabitants. Its capital city is [[Mondeonís]] and its largest city is [[Gibalbar]], both located in [[Matano Island]].
 
It has an area of over 750 km2 and a population of around 416,000 inhabitants. Its capital city is [[Mondeonís]] and its largest city is [[Gibalbar]], both located in [[Matano Island]].
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=== Castellanese conquest and early colonization ===
 
=== Castellanese conquest and early colonization ===
In 1508, the Castellanese land in Western Matano and quickly take control over the whole island and the majority of Zódar Island. The colonizers founded San Juan Bautista (Albún) and San Cristóbal del Monte de Onís (Mondeonís), and named the archipelago as Jardín de la Mar Nueva. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Castellanese used Jardinia as a point of connection between Tarephia and the colonies in Guai, Brulias or Paxtar.
+
[[File:Map_of_Samos_-_Bordone_Benedetto_-_1547.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Map of Matano Island in a 1547 atlas.|link=]]
 +
In 1508, Castellanese explorers landed in Western Matano and quickly took control over the whole island and the majority of Zódar Island. The colonizers founded San Juan Bautista (Albún) and San Cristóbal del Monte de Onís (Mondeonís), and named the archipelago as Jardín de la Mar Nueva. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Castellanese established a colony in Jardinia whose economy was based on commerce, stonework and some agriculture. Las Rocas (now Gibalbar), Dosén and Mondonís became important cities and their ports served as a stopover point for ship routes between Tarephia and the colonies in central and southern Antarephia and Kartumia.
  
 
=== Florescentan and Ingerish rule ===
 
=== Florescentan and Ingerish rule ===
In 1812, the colony of Jardinia was handed over to the Florescentan Empire, who renamed the territory as Ilhas Jardim. Florescenta owned the territory until 1874, when the collapse of the Empire and the local revolts for the independence of Jardinia forced the colonizers to flee. However, those claims for independence were rapidly muted by the Ingerish Occupation of 1874.
+
In 1812, the Florescentan Empire conquered the colony and ousted the Castellanese. The territory became a colonial province and was renamed as Ilhas Jardim.
  
The archipelago became part of the Ingerish Empire with the name of [[New Gardenland]], but was largely unattended by its rulers due to its isolation from the rest of the Empire and the apparent lack of resources.
+
In 1874, the collapse of the Florescentan Empire and local revolts for independence led by Francisco Yécora forced the colonizers to flee. On November 16th 1874, Yécora declared the independence of the Free State of Jardinia and proclaimed himself president. That same day, hundreds of native Jardinians invaded the streets of several towns to protest against independence and the rule of ''criollos''.
 +
 
 +
The pro-independence pretensions soon fell on deaf ears when, in that same year, Ingerish colonizers arrived and took control of the islands, partly thanks to the support of natives. Indepence leaders were imprisoned or executed, including Yécora, who is claimed by many chroniclers to have been forced to throw himself into an active volcano, now named Calderilla de Yécora in his honour. The archipelago became part of the Ingerish Empire with the name of [[New Gardenland]], but was largely unattended by its rulers due to its isolation from the rest of the Empire and the apparent lack of resources, leading to constant clashes between settlers, ''criollos'' and natives and to failed uprisings against the occupation.
  
 
=== Second Castellanese rule (1905-1959) ===
 
=== Second Castellanese rule (1905-1959) ===
In 1905, Ingerland and Castellán sign the Treaty of Winburgh, which granted Castellán full control over Jardinia.
+
In 1905, Ingerland and Castellán signed the Treaty of Winburgh, which granted Castellán full control over Jardinia. They established a protectorate and gave Jardinia some autonomy and self-government institutions, allowing ''criollos'' to access important positions and powerful jobs.
  
 
=== Independence and First Republic (1959-1986)===
 
=== Independence and First Republic (1959-1986)===
Independence from Castellán was obtained in 1959 through a peaceful transition. Democratic elections were held that year and a new constitution was enacted. During the 1960s and 70s, Jardinia became a modern and richer nation, mostly because of the rediscovery of Naú mercury mines (research later found that Taukan tribes had also exploited the mines in the first millennium BC).
+
Independence from Castellán was obtained in 1959 through a peaceful transition. Democratic elections were held that year and a new constitution was enacted. During the 1960s and 70s, Jardinia became a modern and richer nation, mostly because of the rediscovery of Naú lead mines (research later found that Taukan tribes had also exploited the mines in the first millennium BC).
  
In the 1980s, however, tensions started growing as several economic crisis at the beginning of the decade had left 40% of the population unemployed. Political instability also became an issue in 1984, when the right-wing party Patriotic Alliance, which had been in power since independence, refused to accept the victory of the Communist Party of Jardinia, which had won 37 of the 50 seats in the Cortes.
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In the 1980s, however, tensions started growing as several economic crisis at the beginning of the decade had left 40% of the population unemployed. Political instability also became an issue in 1984, when the Communist Party of Jardinia won 37 of the 50 seats in the Cortes and pushed the right-wing Patriotic Alliance out of the government. The polarization of the society and the two main parties became more visible as violence grew. On one hand, the Communist Party and its allies were preparing for a Socialist Revolution, as they believed it was the only solution to the economic and social crisis; on the other hand, the Patriotic Alliance had concluded that the only way of avoiding a Socialist Revolution was planning a coup d'etât, something on which some members of the army were already working. Both of this events would end up happening at the same time in 1986 and leading to a long and bloody civil war.
  
 
=== Civil war (1986-1991) ===
 
=== Civil war (1986-1991) ===
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Laredo's coup d'etât in 1986 led to a civil war between the Patriotic faction (supporters of Laredo and the Patriotic Alliance) and the Popular faction (supporters of the Communist Party of Jardinia, renamed as Workers' Party in 1987). The war lasted until 1991, when the Popular faction entered in Naú, the last bastion of the Patriots.
 
Laredo's coup d'etât in 1986 led to a civil war between the Patriotic faction (supporters of Laredo and the Patriotic Alliance) and the Popular faction (supporters of the Communist Party of Jardinia, renamed as Workers' Party in 1987). The war lasted until 1991, when the Popular faction entered in Naú, the last bastion of the Patriots.
  
=== Second Republic (1991-present) ===
+
=== Post-war era and People's Republic (1991-present) ===
 
In the first years after the Civil War, the government led by Ximénez enacted a quasi-socialist constitution and took many draconian measures, specially towards the political persecution of dissidents. Thousands of pro-Patriots had to go into exile and those who stayed were put through tortures and imprisionment. The government also expropriated most private companies and private media was shut down. This line of action drew Jardinia into the international spotlight. Soon, the pressure from international governments and agencies, including some of Jardinia's allies, led to a change in the political regime, with a new constitution and the adoption of [[Jardinian socialism]].
 
In the first years after the Civil War, the government led by Ximénez enacted a quasi-socialist constitution and took many draconian measures, specially towards the political persecution of dissidents. Thousands of pro-Patriots had to go into exile and those who stayed were put through tortures and imprisionment. The government also expropriated most private companies and private media was shut down. This line of action drew Jardinia into the international spotlight. Soon, the pressure from international governments and agencies, including some of Jardinia's allies, led to a change in the political regime, with a new constitution and the adoption of [[Jardinian socialism]].
  
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In the late 90s and early 2000s, the succesives goverments took liberalizing measures and tried to recover from the wounds of the Civil War. More embassies were built and private companies were given more freedoms.
 
In the late 90s and early 2000s, the succesives goverments took liberalizing measures and tried to recover from the wounds of the Civil War. More embassies were built and private companies were given more freedoms.
  
 +
[[File:25SRodeaElCongreso2012_001.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Policemen chasing protesters in Mondeonís during the protests against Villalobos’ government in 2019. International organizations have raised the alarm about violations of human rights and disproportionated police violence.|link=]]
 
In 2008, a new turning point took place after the election of Manuel Rojas as President of Jardinia. His government started taking radical measures as the ones from the post-war period, including expropriations, nationalizations, more strict censorships and persecution of dissidents. That combined with the closure of the mercury mines of Naú in 2010, which skyrocketed unemployment and poverty rates, led to an unbearable situation for the Jardinian population.
 
In 2008, a new turning point took place after the election of Manuel Rojas as President of Jardinia. His government started taking radical measures as the ones from the post-war period, including expropriations, nationalizations, more strict censorships and persecution of dissidents. That combined with the closure of the mercury mines of Naú in 2010, which skyrocketed unemployment and poverty rates, led to an unbearable situation for the Jardinian population.
  
[[File:25SRodeaElCongreso2012_001.jpg|thumb|200px|right|Policemen chasing protesters in Mondeonís during the protests against Villalobos’ government in 2019. International organizations have raised the alarm about violations of human rights and disproportionated police violence.|link=]]
 
 
During the 2010s, civil demostrations and insurgencies have been common. Jardinia currently is one of the poorest countries in Antarephia and has one of the highest inflation rates in the world. Since the resignation of Rojas in 2019, weak and short-lasting governments have tried to calm down the situation of the country.
 
During the 2010s, civil demostrations and insurgencies have been common. Jardinia currently is one of the poorest countries in Antarephia and has one of the highest inflation rates in the world. Since the resignation of Rojas in 2019, weak and short-lasting governments have tried to calm down the situation of the country.
  
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=== Climate ===
 
=== Climate ===
Jardinia has a mediterranean climate, with hot or warm summers (Csa to Csb in the Köppen climate classification). Mountains and the westernmost areas tend to be colder than the rest of the country.
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[[File:Jardinia-climatemap.png|thumb|200px|right|Map showing the climatic regions of Jardinia according to the Köppen classification.]]
 +
Jardinia has a mediterranean climate, with hot or warm summers (Csa to Csb in the Köppen climate classification). The highest mountains, specifically Grandón and Angradudú, have a colder, continental climate (Dsb), and the easternmost parts of Zódar, Gramín and Sargrades Islands have a semi-arid climate (BSk), probably because of the continental winds which bring hot air from the Antarephian Desert.
  
 
{{Weather box
 
{{Weather box
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=== Biodiversity ===
 
=== Biodiversity ===
 +
The Jardinian archipelago is home to a high number of endemic plant and animal species, many of whom are endangered. The different climates and habitats that can be found on the islands due to their location and orography have contributed to its wide biodiversity, that includes all biological groups and kingdoms.
 +
 +
Species endemic to the islands include the Jardinian petrel, the green flowereater, the white possum or the giant cardamom.
  
 
== Politics ==
 
== Politics ==
Jardinia's constitution defines the country as a "people's democracy", which is "guided by the ideas of Jardinian Socialism". Technically, the country follows a parliamentary system, in which the President is elected by a Parliament elected in a general election every four years.
+
Jardinia's constitution defines the country as a "people's democracy", which is "guided by the ideas and thoughts of Yécora and Ximénez". Technically, the country follows a parliamentary system, in which the President is elected by a Parliament elected in a general election every four years.
  
 
=== Legislative ===
 
=== Legislative ===
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=== Foreign relations ===
 
=== Foreign relations ===
 
:''Main article: [[Foreign relations of Jardinia]]''
 
:''Main article: [[Foreign relations of Jardinia]]''
After the Socialist Revolution and the Civil War, and since the adoption of Jardinian Socialism, Jardinia has had a fluid foreign policy. Despite international condemns to the regime, Jardinia has established bilateral relations with many different countries. [[Suria]] and other states in the socialist sphere are the most important political allies and economic partners of Jardinia, but the country also has somewhat cordial relations with neutral and capitalist countries.
+
After the Socialist Revolution and the Civil War, and since the adoption of Jardinian Socialism, Jardinia has had a fluid foreign policy. Despite international condemns to the regime, Jardinia has established bilateral relations with many different countries. [[Suria]], [[Ohesia]] and other states in the socialist sphere are the most important political allies and economic partners of Jardinia, but the country also has somewhat cordial relations with neutral and capitalist countries.
  
The [[Federal States of Archanta]] is one of the countries which not only hasn't retaken pre-war-like relations, but has imposed harsh embargos and restrictions on Jardinian goods and citizens. [[Oxhano]], while having diplomatic relations with Jardinia, is very critic with its political regime and has had many tensions because of illegal immigration, military practices, etc.
+
The [[Federal States of Archanta]] is one of the countries which not only hasn't retaken pre-war-like relations, but also has imposed harsh embargos and restrictions on Jardinian goods and citizens. [[Oxhano]], while having diplomatic relations with Jardinia, is very critic with its political regime and has had many tensions because of illegal immigration, military practices, etc.
  
 
On the regional level, Jardinia is quite isolated. Most of its neighbours in northwestern Antarephia have repudated Jardinia's political regime and have failed to establish friendly bilateral relations. The most important economic partners in the region are [[Guai]], [[Brulias]], etc.
 
On the regional level, Jardinia is quite isolated. Most of its neighbours in northwestern Antarephia have repudated Jardinia's political regime and have failed to establish friendly bilateral relations. The most important economic partners in the region are [[Guai]], [[Brulias]], etc.
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The Republic of Jardinia is divided into 6 regions called ''comarcas''. Each ''comarca'' has a capital, a trial court and a local council composed by the mayors of its municipalities.
 
The Republic of Jardinia is divided into 6 regions called ''comarcas''. Each ''comarca'' has a capital, a trial court and a local council composed by the mayors of its municipalities.
  
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<center>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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</center>
  
== Economy ==
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== Economy and infrastructure ==
 
For centuries, Jardinia's economy has relied exclusively on agriculture, fishing and mining. Nowadays these sectors coexist with other manufacturing industries thanks to the processes of industrialization in the 1960s and in the 1990s. The industrialization of the 1990s made Jardinia one of the fastest-growing economies in the world until the late 2000s and early 2010s, when the crisis hit the country and many factories were closed, sending many people back to agriculture and fishing.
 
For centuries, Jardinia's economy has relied exclusively on agriculture, fishing and mining. Nowadays these sectors coexist with other manufacturing industries thanks to the processes of industrialization in the 1960s and in the 1990s. The industrialization of the 1990s made Jardinia one of the fastest-growing economies in the world until the late 2000s and early 2010s, when the crisis hit the country and many factories were closed, sending many people back to agriculture and fishing.
  
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<gallery caption="Tourist attractions in Jardinia" mode="packed" heights="200px">
 
<gallery caption="Tourist attractions in Jardinia" mode="packed" heights="200px">
File:San_Juan_City_Wall_5.jpg|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.73534/10.52648 Citadel of Gibalbar].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.73534/10.52648
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File:Baluarte_de_San_Diego.jpg|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.73534/10.52648 Citadel of Gibalbar].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.73534/10.52648
 
File:Arena_y_mata,_Dunas_de_Corralejo,_Fuerteventura,_España,_2015.JPG|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.75950/10.09811 Dunes of Pollén].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.75950/10.09811
 
File:Arena_y_mata,_Dunas_de_Corralejo,_Fuerteventura,_España,_2015.JPG|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.75950/10.09811 Dunes of Pollén].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.75950/10.09811
 
File:Cathedral_of_Cajamarca06.jpg|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.47764/10.27536 Cathedral of Naú].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.47764/10.27536
 
File:Cathedral_of_Cajamarca06.jpg|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.47764/10.27536 Cathedral of Naú].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.47764/10.27536
File:Tambo_Machay_Archaeological_site_-_overview.png|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.71821/10.28561 Caula Umbay Archaeological Site].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.71821/10.28561
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File:Tambo_Machay_Archaeological_site_-_overview.png|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.71790/10.28474 Caula Umbay Archaeological Site].|link=https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.71790/10.28474
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
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==== Bus ====
 
==== Bus ====
Buses play a major role in the public transport of Jardinia. In most of the country, bus is the only means of transportation available other than private cars. A dozen companies operate urban and interurban routes, some of which are state-owned while others are cooperatives.
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Buses play a major role in the public transport of Jardinia. In most of the country, the bus is the only means of transportation available other than private cars. A dozen companies operate urban and interurban routes, some of which are state-owned while others are cooperatives.
  
 
==== Rail ====
 
==== Rail ====
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During the colonial period some rail lines were built to serve ports, quarries and agricultural lands.
 +
 +
Currently there are two operative lines:
 +
*Dosén-Naú line: connects both cities through a 1435 mm non-electrified track. The journey lasts 45 minutes.
 +
*Mondeonís Metropolitan line: runs from Mondeonís city centre to Vonga through Salabar and Calabur. It has a metric gauge and is electrified. A fork connects the main line to Mondeonís Port.
 +
 +
The Matano Rail Corridor is a plan to build a rail line connecting all towns in Matano Island. Although the plan dates back to the early 2000s, construction never started and isn't planned to start in the near future.
  
 
==== Ports ====
 
==== Ports ====
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=== Energy ===
 
=== Energy ===
 
[[File:La_Palma_Power_Plant_R02.jpg|thumb|200px|right|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.65591/10.00288 Algusto oil-fired power plant] generates electricity for the area of Albún and Pororó.|link=]]
 
[[File:La_Palma_Power_Plant_R02.jpg|thumb|200px|right|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.65591/10.00288 Algusto oil-fired power plant] generates electricity for the area of Albún and Pororó.|link=]]
Most energy produced and consumed in Jardinia comes from non-renewable sources and is generated through thermoelectric and oil-fired power plants. Many of them were built in the 1990s with Surian technology, since much of the energy infrastructure was destroyed during the Civil War. Other sources of energy include hydroelectric plants like the ones in [https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.68742/10.21778 Axal Dam] or in Bodesa; the geothermal energy plant in Casadudú; or the wind farm in Gramín Island, financed by the Jardinian and the Surian governments.
+
Most energy produced and consumed in Jardinia comes from non-renewable sources and is generated through thermoelectric and oil-fired power plants. Many of them were built in the 1990s with Surian technology, since much of the energy infrastructure was destroyed during the Civil War. Other sources of energy include hydroelectric plants like the ones in [https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.68742/10.21778 Axal Dam] or in Bodesa; the [https://opengeofiction.net/#map=17/-38.68240/10.11458 geothermal energy plant in Casadudú]; or the wind farm in Gramín Island, financed by the Jardinian and the Surian governments.
  
 
In the last years, the Government has reached agreements with international companies to invest in the development of renewable energy plants in Jardinia. These plans include building more geothermal plants, wind farms and solar panels, as well as improving the electric network and ensuring the access to electricity to all of the population.
 
In the last years, the Government has reached agreements with international companies to invest in the development of renewable energy plants in Jardinia. These plans include building more geothermal plants, wind farms and solar panels, as well as improving the electric network and ensuring the access to electricity to all of the population.
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=== Languages ===
 
=== Languages ===
[[Castellanese language|Castellanese]] is the official language of Jardinia, spoken and understood by the vast majority of the population. Since it introduction in the 16th Century as a result of colonization, the Castellanese spoken in Jardinia has evolved until becoming a distinct dialect, [[Jardinian Castellanese]].
+
[[Castellanese language|Castellanese]] is the official language of Jardinia, spoken and understood by the vast majority of the population. Since its introduction in the 16th Century as a result of colonization, the Castellanese spoken in Jardinia has evolved until becoming a distinct dialect, [[Jardinian Castellanese]].
  
 
Jardinia has other two national languages, which despite not being official have a special protection status:
 
Jardinia has other two national languages, which despite not being official have a special protection status:
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=== Urban centres ===
 
=== Urban centres ===
{| style="border: 1px white;  border-spacing: 0; margin: 1em auto;"
+
 
|+ '''Largest municipalities of Jardinia'''
+
{{Largest cities
|-
+
| name        = Largest municipalities of Jardinia<!-- name of the template, e.g. Largest cities of Chile -->
! style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #B0C4DE;" |  
+
| class      = <!-- can be changed to "nav" to alter the template's colour scheme -->
! style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #B0C4DE;" | Name
+
| country    = Jardinia<!-- the name of the country, e.g. Chile -->
! style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #B0C4DE;" | Comarca
+
| kind        = municipalities<!-- replace "cities and towns" in the title w/ anything, e.g. "conurbations" -->
! style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #B0C4DE;" | Population
+
| stat_ref    = <small>Source: Centro Jardiniano de Datos y Estadísticas</small><!-- source of the pop. figures, e.g. Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas de Chile or use {{URL| }} -->
|-
+
| list_by_pop = <!-- link to the list of cities in the given country, if possible sorted by population -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 1
+
| div_name    = Comarca<!-- the name of the main administrative subdivision, e.g. Province, State, Region... -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Gibalbar]]
+
| div_link    = <!-- the template will automatically create a link for "div_name of country" (e.g. Provinces of Chile), if this doesn't work you can use this field -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Eastern Matano]]
+
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 86,318
+
| city_1      = Gibalbar<!-- a link to the article about the largest city -->
|-
+
| div_1      = Eastern Matano<!-- link to the administrative subdivision where said city is located -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 2
+
| pop_1      = 86,318<!-- population, do include the commas to separate the thousands -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Dosén]]
+
| img_1      = Paseo_del_Prado_-_panoramio_-_isol.jpg<!-- a picture showing an overview of the city -->
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Dosén (comarca)|Dosén]]
+
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 51,004
+
| city_2 = Dosén | div_2 = Dosén | pop_2 = 51,004| img_2 = Puerto_iquique1.jpg
|-
+
| city_3 = Abidom | div_3 = Western Matano | pop_3 = 33,583| img_3 = Pedreira_Prado_Lopes.jpg
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 3
+
| city_4 = El Espartizal | div_4 = Mondeonís (comarca) | pop_4 = 29,720| img_4 = Vista_parcial_do_Morro_do_Carmo,_Coronel_Fabriciano_MG.JPG
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Abidom]]
+
| city_5 = Mondeonís | div_5 = Mondeonís (comarca) | pop_5 = 28,150
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Western Matano]]
+
| city_6 = Albún | div_6 = Western Matano | pop_6 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 33,583
+
| city_7 = Treana | div_7 = Nostras Islands | pop_7 =
|-
+
| city_8 = Cenoba | div_8 = Mounts of Zódar | pop_8 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 4
+
| city_9 = Sargrades | div_9 = Nostras Islands | pop_9 = 15,941
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[El Espartizal]]
+
| city_10 = Naú | div_10 = Mounts of Zódar | pop_10 = 14,210
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Mondeonís (comarca)|Mondeonís]]
+
| city_11 = | div_11 = | pop_11 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 29,720
+
| city_12 = | div_12 = | pop_12 =  
|-
+
| city_13 = | div_13 = | pop_13 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 5
+
| city_14 = | div_14 = | pop_14 =  
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Mondeonís]]
+
| city_15 = | div_15 = | pop_15 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | Mondeonís
+
| city_16 = | div_16 = | pop_16 =  
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 28,150
+
| city_17 = | div_17 = | pop_17 =  
|-
+
| city_18 = | div_18 = | pop_18 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 6
+
| city_19 = | div_19 = | pop_19 =  
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Albún]]
+
| city_20 = | div_20 = | pop_20 =
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | Western Matano
+
}}
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" |  
 
|-
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 7
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Treana]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Islas Nostras]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" |
 
|-
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 8
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Cenoba]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Mounts of Zódar]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" |  
 
|-
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 9
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Sargrades]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | Islas Nostras
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 15,941
 
|-
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px; background: #CCCCFF;" | 10
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | [[Naú]]
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | Mounts of Zódar
 
| style="border: 1px white; padding: 5px;" | 14,210
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
 
=== Religion ===
 
=== Religion ===
 +
{{Pie chart
 +
| radius = 100
 +
| thumb = right
 +
| caption = Religious affiliation in Jardinia
 +
| other =
 +
| label1 =Irreligious
 +
| value1 =63
 +
| color1 =lightcyan
 +
| label2 =Christicism
 +
| value2 =15
 +
| color2 =purple
 +
| label3 =Imani
 +
| value3 =8
 +
| color3 =green
 +
| label4 =Indigenous beliefs
 +
| value4 =8
 +
| color4 =brown
 +
| label5 =Others/Not stated
 +
| value5 =6
 +
| color5 =grey
 +
}}
 +
The 1995 Jardinian Constitution declares that "Jardinia is an atheist state, but religious freedom is granted in privacy and in temples". As a result, a large percentage of the population is non-religious.
  
 
=== Education ===
 
=== Education ===
 
[[File:Palacete_de_la_Cónsula_01.jpg|thumb|200px|right|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.64858/10.37311 La Histrionisa Palace and its plot], located in the hills near Mondeonís colonial city, are the headquarters of the National Independent Education Centre.|link=]]
 
[[File:Palacete_de_la_Cónsula_01.jpg|thumb|200px|right|[https://opengeofiction.net/#map=18/-38.64858/10.37311 La Histrionisa Palace and its plot], located in the hills near Mondeonís colonial city, are the headquarters of the National Independent Education Centre.|link=]]
 
The Jardinian education system is entirely public, with only one private institution allowed: the [[National Independent Education Centre]]. In recent years, the economic crisis has led to the deterioration of the public educaction system, which in the 90s and 00s was world-wide known for its quality. Education is free from elementary school to higher education (university).
 
The Jardinian education system is entirely public, with only one private institution allowed: the [[National Independent Education Centre]]. In recent years, the economic crisis has led to the deterioration of the public educaction system, which in the 90s and 00s was world-wide known for its quality. Education is free from elementary school to higher education (university).
The basic education (Educación Básica) is eight grades long, from 6 to 14 years-old. The middle education (Bachillerato) is four grades long, from 14 to 18. The university education can be three, five or six years, depending on the degree. There is also vocational education (Formación Profesional) which can be two or three years.
+
The basic education (''Educación Básica'') is eight grades long, from 6 to 14 years-old. The middle education (''Bachillerato'') is four grades long, from 14 to 18. The university education can be three, five or six years, depending on the degree. There is also vocational education (''Formación Profesional'') which can be two or three years.
 
The only university in Jardinia is the [[National University of Jardinia]]. The National Independent Education Centre, despite not being considered a university, offers some valid degrees.
 
The only university in Jardinia is the [[National University of Jardinia]]. The National Independent Education Centre, despite not being considered a university, offers some valid degrees.
  
Line 503: Line 518:
  
 
=== Sports ===
 
=== Sports ===
The most popular sports in Jardinia are football, basketball, martial arts, cycling and bullfighting.
+
[[File:Plaza_de_Toros,_Tlascala,_Mexico_(15781319386).jpg|thumb|200px|right|Famous matador Amadeo Lavilla fighting a bull in [https://opengeofiction.net/#map=19/-38.64628/10.38683 Mondeonís Bullring].|link=]]
 +
Traditionally, the most popular sports in Jardinia have been football and bullfighting. Football was introduced by the Ingerish colonizers in the late 19th century and consolidated during the first half of the 20th century, when the first football teams were founded. In 1942, the Jardinian Football League was established. The most renowned teams are the ''Unión Deportiva de Gibalbar'', the ''Atlético de Dosén'' and the ''Minera de Naú''.
  
== References ==
+
Bullfighting saw great popularity in the 1920s and 30s, when Castellanese soldiers, noblemen and chiefs financed the construction of bullrings and imported bulls from Castellan. Many native people started fighting bulls with the purpose of participating in contests and acquiring fame. After independence, bullfighting fell in disgrace as it was seen as a symbol of imperialism and colonialism. Many bullrings were dismantles and the sport was even banned for some years. During the Civil War, however, bullfighting became popular among members of the Popular Faction, and after their victory in the war its popularity was restored. Now, it is one of the most popular yet controversial sports in Jardinia.
{{reflist}}
+
 
 +
In recent years, other sports such as basketball, cycling or martial arts have collected a noticeable number of followers.
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==
 
*[[Outline of Jardinia]]
 
*[[Outline of Jardinia]]
 +
 +
== Notes ==
 +
{{reflist|group=note|refs=
 +
<ref name=Note01>The Jardinian Constitution does not establish any official name for the country, but the denomination ''República de Jardinia'' (Republic of Jardinia) was made official in a 2002 ordinance and is usually used in official documents and international treaties. Nonetheless, other denominations such as ''República Popular de Jardinia'' (People's Republic of Jardinia) or ''República Cooperativa de Jardinia'' (Cooperative Republic of Jardinia) have been used in a few occasions.</ref>
 +
}}
 +
 +
== References ==
 +
{{reflist}}
  
 
== External links ==  
 
== External links ==  
 +
  
 
{{Navbox
 
{{Navbox
 
| title      = Jardinia articles
 
| title      = Jardinia articles
 
| state      = expanded
 
| state      = expanded
| content    = '''Economy and transport:'''  [[Airports in Jardinia|Airports]] · [[:Category:Companies in Jardinia|Companies]] · [[Roads in Jardinia|Roads]]<br>'''Geography:'''  [[Biota of Jardinia|Biota]] · [[Comarcas of Jardinia|Comarcas]] · [[Geology of Jardinia|Geology]]<br>'''History:'''  [[Jardinian Civil War|Civil War (1986-1991)]]<br>'''Politics:'''  [[Foreign relations of Jardinia|Foreign relations]] · [[Jardinian socialism]] · [[Jardinian Armed Forces|Military]]<br>'''Society and culture:'''  [[Bullfighting in Jardinia|Bullfighting]] · [[:Category:Languages of Jardinia|Languages]] ([[Jardinian Castellanese]] · [[Lunderic language|Lunderic]] · [[Obenai language|Obenai]]) · [[National symbols of Jardinia|National symbols]] · [[List of Jardinians|Notable people]] · [[National University of Jardinia|Universities]]
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| content    = '''Economy and transport:'''  [[:Category:Airports in Jardinia|Airports]] · [[:Category:Companies in Jardinia|Companies]] · [[Roads in Jardinia|Roads]] · [[Jardinian supremo|Supremo (currency)]]<br>'''Geography:'''  [[Biota of Jardinia|Biota]] · [[:Category:Comarcas of Jardinia|Comarcas]] · [[Geology of Jardinia|Geology]] · [[:Category:Municipalities of Jardinia|Municipalities]]<br>'''History:'''  [[Province of Ilhas Jardim|Province of Ilhas Jardim (1812-1874)]] · [[Province of New Gardenland|Province of New Gardenland (1874-1905)]] · [[Protectorate of Jardinia|Protectorate of Jardinia (1905-1959)]] · [[Jardinian Civil War|Civil War (1986-1991)]] · [[Jardinian Crisis (2010-present)]]<br>'''Politics:'''  [[Foreign relations of Jardinia|Foreign relations]] · [[Jardinian socialism]] · [[Jardinian Armed Forces|Military]]<br>'''Society and culture:'''  [[Bullfighting in Jardinia|Bullfighting]] · [[:Category:Languages of Jardinia|Languages]] ([[Jardinian Castellanese]] · [[Lunderic language|Lunderic]] · [[Obenai language|Obenai]]) · [[National symbols of Jardinia|National symbols]] · [[List of Jardinians|Notable people]] · [[National University of Jardinia|Universities]]
 
}}
 
}}
 
{{Navbox Countries of the World}}
 
{{Navbox Countries of the World}}
  
 
[[Category:Jardinia| ]][[Category:Countries]] [[Category:Countries_in_Antarephia]] 
 
[[Category:Jardinia| ]][[Category:Countries]] [[Category:Countries_in_Antarephia]] 

Latest revision as of 11:02, 29 May 2021

10, -38.6038, 10.3060
Republic of Jardinia
República de Jardinia
FlagCoat of arms
FlagCoat of arms
Motto:
"Y en medio de la mar se alzó un jardín" (Castellanese)
"And in the middle of the sea, a garden arose"
Anthem:
"Himno de las Islas" (Castellanese)
Anthem of the Islands
Location of Jardinia in Antarephia
Location of Jardinia in Antarephia
CapitalMondeonís
Largest cityGibalbar
Official languagesCastellanese
 • National languagesLunderic, Obenai
DemonymJardinian
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary people's republic
 • PresidentRafael Carretero
LegislatureCortes de las Islas
 • Upper houseSocial Assembly
 • Lower houseChamber of Legislators
Area
 • Total750 km2
290 sq mi
Population
 • Estimate (2019)ca. 416,000
 • Density554.7/km2
1434.5/sq mi
GDP (nominal)2019
 • Total$2.63 billion
 • Per capita$6,320
HDI (2018)Decrease 0.695
medium
TimezoneWUT ±0
CurrencyJardinian supremo (JRS)
Drives on theright
Internet TLD.jr

Jardinia (/dʒɑːrdɪniə/; Castellanese: /xɑrdɪniɑ/), officially the Republic of Jardinia (Castellanese: República de Jardinia)[note 1], is an island country located in the eastern Hesperic Ocean, around 30 kilometres off the coast of Oxhano, in northwestern Antarephia. It comprises 8 main islands and other minor islets, divided into 6 regions called comarcas.

It has an area of over 750 km2 and a population of around 416,000 inhabitants. Its capital city is Mondeonís and its largest city is Gibalbar, both located in Matano Island.

Jardinia is a unitary semi-socialist people's republic which follows a dominant-party parliamentary system. Some international organizations and experts consider Jardinia an authoritarian regime without true democracy and where alarming human rights abuses are committed. Jardinia is a member of the Assembly of Nations, the International Red Shield Movement and the Developing Nations Forum.

Etymology

The name Jardinia was given to the archipelago by the Castellanese colonizers in the early 16th Century. It derives from the word jardín, which means "garden" in Castellanese, because of the dense forests and biodiversity that covered the islands.

History

See also: Timeline of Jardinian history

Pre-colonial history

The earliest archaeological remains found in what is now Jardinia is Las Rodantas Archaeological Site, in Gramín Island, which has been dated back to 10,000 BC aproximately. Most historians agree that either heat waves or wars between tribes in the Antarephian continent led to gradual migrations to the islands. Many prehistoric tribes established in the archipelago between 8000 BC and 2000 BC.

Around 1000 BC, Taukan tribes from now-day Guai arrived at Matano Island and quickly took control of most of the Jardinian islands. They introduced writing and a new political organization. This is considered the first civilization to establish in the Jardinian Archipelago, whose economy was based on agriculture, mining and sea trading.

During the 1st century BC, several internal wars led to the rise of the Borong Civilization, which only had control over the Jardinian islands. The Borong Era was a time of isolation and setback, with many reported genocides and famines.

Castellanese conquest and early colonization

Map of Matano Island in a 1547 atlas.

In 1508, Castellanese explorers landed in Western Matano and quickly took control over the whole island and the majority of Zódar Island. The colonizers founded San Juan Bautista (Albún) and San Cristóbal del Monte de Onís (Mondeonís), and named the archipelago as Jardín de la Mar Nueva. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Castellanese established a colony in Jardinia whose economy was based on commerce, stonework and some agriculture. Las Rocas (now Gibalbar), Dosén and Mondonís became important cities and their ports served as a stopover point for ship routes between Tarephia and the colonies in central and southern Antarephia and Kartumia.

Florescentan and Ingerish rule

In 1812, the Florescentan Empire conquered the colony and ousted the Castellanese. The territory became a colonial province and was renamed as Ilhas Jardim.

In 1874, the collapse of the Florescentan Empire and local revolts for independence led by Francisco Yécora forced the colonizers to flee. On November 16th 1874, Yécora declared the independence of the Free State of Jardinia and proclaimed himself president. That same day, hundreds of native Jardinians invaded the streets of several towns to protest against independence and the rule of criollos.

The pro-independence pretensions soon fell on deaf ears when, in that same year, Ingerish colonizers arrived and took control of the islands, partly thanks to the support of natives. Indepence leaders were imprisoned or executed, including Yécora, who is claimed by many chroniclers to have been forced to throw himself into an active volcano, now named Calderilla de Yécora in his honour. The archipelago became part of the Ingerish Empire with the name of New Gardenland, but was largely unattended by its rulers due to its isolation from the rest of the Empire and the apparent lack of resources, leading to constant clashes between settlers, criollos and natives and to failed uprisings against the occupation.

Second Castellanese rule (1905-1959)

In 1905, Ingerland and Castellán signed the Treaty of Winburgh, which granted Castellán full control over Jardinia. They established a protectorate and gave Jardinia some autonomy and self-government institutions, allowing criollos to access important positions and powerful jobs.

Independence and First Republic (1959-1986)

Independence from Castellán was obtained in 1959 through a peaceful transition. Democratic elections were held that year and a new constitution was enacted. During the 1960s and 70s, Jardinia became a modern and richer nation, mostly because of the rediscovery of Naú lead mines (research later found that Taukan tribes had also exploited the mines in the first millennium BC).

In the 1980s, however, tensions started growing as several economic crisis at the beginning of the decade had left 40% of the population unemployed. Political instability also became an issue in 1984, when the Communist Party of Jardinia won 37 of the 50 seats in the Cortes and pushed the right-wing Patriotic Alliance out of the government. The polarization of the society and the two main parties became more visible as violence grew. On one hand, the Communist Party and its allies were preparing for a Socialist Revolution, as they believed it was the only solution to the economic and social crisis; on the other hand, the Patriotic Alliance had concluded that the only way of avoiding a Socialist Revolution was planning a coup d'etât, something on which some members of the army were already working. Both of this events would end up happening at the same time in 1986 and leading to a long and bloody civil war.

Civil war (1986-1991)

Main article: Jardinian Civil War
Multilingual sign warning of a minefield in the proximities of Albún. Minefields from the Civil War are still an issue in Jardinia.

Laredo's coup d'etât in 1986 led to a civil war between the Patriotic faction (supporters of Laredo and the Patriotic Alliance) and the Popular faction (supporters of the Communist Party of Jardinia, renamed as Workers' Party in 1987). The war lasted until 1991, when the Popular faction entered in Naú, the last bastion of the Patriots.

Post-war era and People's Republic (1991-present)

In the first years after the Civil War, the government led by Ximénez enacted a quasi-socialist constitution and took many draconian measures, specially towards the political persecution of dissidents. Thousands of pro-Patriots had to go into exile and those who stayed were put through tortures and imprisionment. The government also expropriated most private companies and private media was shut down. This line of action drew Jardinia into the international spotlight. Soon, the pressure from international governments and agencies, including some of Jardinia's allies, led to a change in the political regime, with a new constitution and the adoption of Jardinian socialism.

The Constitution of 1995 establishes a bicameral parliament with a Chamber of Legislatiors for political parties and a Social Assembly for trade unions. Only parties which have adopted Jardinian socialism as part of their ideology are legalized and allowed to concur to elections, which means that in fact only the Workers' Party and allied parties such as the Socialist Party of Jardinia have representation.

In the late 90s and early 2000s, the succesives goverments took liberalizing measures and tried to recover from the wounds of the Civil War. More embassies were built and private companies were given more freedoms.

Policemen chasing protesters in Mondeonís during the protests against Villalobos’ government in 2019. International organizations have raised the alarm about violations of human rights and disproportionated police violence.

In 2008, a new turning point took place after the election of Manuel Rojas as President of Jardinia. His government started taking radical measures as the ones from the post-war period, including expropriations, nationalizations, more strict censorships and persecution of dissidents. That combined with the closure of the mercury mines of Naú in 2010, which skyrocketed unemployment and poverty rates, led to an unbearable situation for the Jardinian population.

During the 2010s, civil demostrations and insurgencies have been common. Jardinia currently is one of the poorest countries in Antarephia and has one of the highest inflation rates in the world. Since the resignation of Rojas in 2019, weak and short-lasting governments have tried to calm down the situation of the country.

Geography

The islands that form Jardinia sum up an area of about 750 km2. The biggest island is Matano Island, followed by Zódar Island, Gramín Island, Flat Island and Head Island. The archipelago is located in the Hesperic Ocean, 30 kilometres away from the Antarephian continent. The islands are mostly mountainous, with dense forests and fertile valleys and plains, being the largest one the Plains of Zódar.

Grandón is the highest peak of Jardinia at 2079 metres above sea level. During centuries, however, it was believed that the highest mountain was Angradudú, in Matano, which lies at 1804 metres MSL.

Climate

Map showing the climatic regions of Jardinia according to the Köppen classification.

Jardinia has a mediterranean climate, with hot or warm summers (Csa to Csb in the Köppen climate classification). The highest mountains, specifically Grandón and Angradudú, have a colder, continental climate (Dsb), and the easternmost parts of Zódar, Gramín and Sargrades Islands have a semi-arid climate (BSk), probably because of the continental winds which bring hot air from the Antarephian Desert.

Climate data for Jardinia International Airport (1981-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 40.8
(110)
40.0
(100)
39.5
(100)
33.4
(92)
29.2
(85)
23.8
(75)
22.4
(72)
24.0
(75)
30.4
(87)
32.9
(91)
36.0
(97)
39.2
(100)
40.8
(110)
Average high °C (°F) 29.8
(86)
30.1
(86)
27.7
(82)
24.2
(76)
21.0
(70)
18.5
(65)
17.2
(63)
17.6
(64)
18.5
(65)
21.1
(70)
24.4
(76)
27.3
(81)
23.1
(74)
Average low °C (°F) 15.5
(60)
15.9
(61)
14.2
(58)
11.8
(53)
9.3
(49)
8.0
(46)
7.0
(45)
7.6
(46)
8.5
(47)
9.5
(49)
12.1
(54)
13.5
(56)
11.1
(52)
Record low °C (°F) 6.0
(43)
6.0
(43)
2.2
(36)
2.4
(36)
−0.1
(32)
−3
(27)
−2.1
(28)
0.0
(32)
−0.3
(31)
0.2
(32)
2.1
(36)
3.2
(38)
−3
(27)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12.0
(0.47)
7.6
(0.30)
19.4
(0.76)
37.4
(1.47)
99.0
(3.90)
132.2
(5.20)
141.5
(5.57)
118.4
(4.66)
84.3
(3.32)
32.1
(1.26)
23.7
(0.93)
18.2
(0.72)
728.3
(28.67)
Average precipitation days 2.4 2.3 3.9 8.7 13.3 16.9 19.1 18.9 17.1 9.9 6.5 3.8 122.8
Mean daily sunshine hours 11.5 11.0 9.6 8.3 6.9 5.9 6.1 7.2 7.7 9.6 10.6 11.5 8.8
Source: Jardinian Meteorological Agency

Biodiversity

The Jardinian archipelago is home to a high number of endemic plant and animal species, many of whom are endangered. The different climates and habitats that can be found on the islands due to their location and orography have contributed to its wide biodiversity, that includes all biological groups and kingdoms.

Species endemic to the islands include the Jardinian petrel, the green flowereater, the white possum or the giant cardamom.

Politics

Jardinia's constitution defines the country as a "people's democracy", which is "guided by the ideas and thoughts of Yécora and Ximénez". Technically, the country follows a parliamentary system, in which the President is elected by a Parliament elected in a general election every four years.

Legislative

The national legislature is the Cortes de las Islas (Islands' Courts), which is formed by two houses: the Chamber of Legislators for political parties and the Social Assembly for trade unions. The Cortes also elect the President.

Each of the two chambers of the Parliament has 50 members elected by six constituencies (matching the comarcas) by proportional representation.

The main party is the Workers' Party (called Comunist Party of Jardinia until 1987). It was the only party allowed to participate in elections until the constitutional reform of 1995. Through that constitutional reform, the country abandoned the stricter communism that had been Jardinia's ideology since the end of the Civil War, and adopted the Jardinian Socialism.

Camaralegisladoresjardinia march2020.svg
Chamber of Legislators after the March 2020 election
Party Leader Seats
Workers' Party Rafael Carretero 47
Socialist Party of Jardinia Luis Pérez 2
Independents 1

Executive

The executive power is exercised by the Government. The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and is elected by the Cortes. As of 2021, the President is Rafael Carretero.

Normally, the President of Jardinia is also the First Secretary of the Workers' Party, although there have been exceptions. The only president who wasn't a member of the Workers' Party was Arsenio Montálvez, who belonged to the Socialist Party of Jardinia.

Political parties

The legal parties, which can stand for elections, are:

  • Workers' Party (Partido de los Trabajadores, PT) — main party of Jardinia, leader of the Popular Faction in the Civil War and single party from 1991 to 1995. Its ideology is Jardinian Socialism and left-wing nationalism. It is linked to the Workers' Confederation (Confederación de los Trabajadores) trade union.
  • Socialist Party of Jardinia (Partido Socialista de Jardinia, PSJ) — socialist party, part of the Popular Faction and ally of the Workers' Party. It has had parliamentary representation since 1995 and is the only "small party" which has occupied the presidency of Jardinia. It had to adopt Jardinian Socialism as part of its ideology in 1995 in order to be legalized.

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Jardinia

After the Socialist Revolution and the Civil War, and since the adoption of Jardinian Socialism, Jardinia has had a fluid foreign policy. Despite international condemns to the regime, Jardinia has established bilateral relations with many different countries. Suria, Ohesia and other states in the socialist sphere are the most important political allies and economic partners of Jardinia, but the country also has somewhat cordial relations with neutral and capitalist countries.

The Federal States of Archanta is one of the countries which not only hasn't retaken pre-war-like relations, but also has imposed harsh embargos and restrictions on Jardinian goods and citizens. Oxhano, while having diplomatic relations with Jardinia, is very critic with its political regime and has had many tensions because of illegal immigration, military practices, etc.

On the regional level, Jardinia is quite isolated. Most of its neighbours in northwestern Antarephia have repudated Jardinia's political regime and have failed to establish friendly bilateral relations. The most important economic partners in the region are Guai, Brulias, etc.

Jardinia is a member of the Assembly of Nations since its foundation. It is also a member of the Commonwealth of Castilophone Countries, the Developing Nations Forum or the International Red Shield Movement.

Administrative divisions

The Republic of Jardinia is divided into 6 regions called comarcas. Each comarca has a capital, a trial court and a local council composed by the mayors of its municipalities.

Name Name in Castellanese Code Capital Municipalities
Dosén Dosén DO Dosén
Eastern Matano Matanó Oriental ME Gibalbar
Mondeonís Mondeonís MC Mondeonís
Montes de Zódar Montes de Zódar MZ Naú
Nostras Islands Islas Nostras IN Treana
Western Matano Matanó Occidental MO Abidom

Economy and infrastructure

For centuries, Jardinia's economy has relied exclusively on agriculture, fishing and mining. Nowadays these sectors coexist with other manufacturing industries thanks to the processes of industrialization in the 1960s and in the 1990s. The industrialization of the 1990s made Jardinia one of the fastest-growing economies in the world until the late 2000s and early 2010s, when the crisis hit the country and many factories were closed, sending many people back to agriculture and fishing.

Tourism

Tourism is a growing industry in Jardinia. In the latest years, governments have tried to promote the country as an international tourist destination. However, tourism is still undeveloped because of the small size of the country, the lack of infrastructure and the strict visa requirements.

Since 2016, the number of international tourists has spiked thanks to the devaluation of the supremo and the construction of new hotels and resorts. To this day, many countries advise against visiting Jardinia due to the social unrest, the action of terrorist groups and the political authoritarianism. In 2018, the country received 140,000 international visitors, with a total expenditure of $90 million.

Transport

Road

View of the trunk road between Gibalbar and Llandosa, of which only 3 km have been built.

In the 1990s, the government tried to promote the automobile industry in Jardinia through the National Motorization Plan, which was based on encouraging people to buy FANA cars as a way to promote the industry and the modernization of the country. As part of the plan, the road network in Jardinia was largely improved.

There are a few trunk roads (autorrutas), which are mostly accesses and ringroads in the main metropolitan areas. They have at least two lanes on each way, no level crossings and a maximum speed of 100 km/h.

Conventional roads, which link urban areas, have traffic signs, surface markings and a maximum speed of 80 km/h. Their ID is a letter C followed by the number of the comarca and the specific number of the road.

Rural parts of the country are still conected by precarious roads in which landslides, impassable potholes and accidents are not uncommon.

Bus

Buses play a major role in the public transport of Jardinia. In most of the country, the bus is the only means of transportation available other than private cars. A dozen companies operate urban and interurban routes, some of which are state-owned while others are cooperatives.

Rail

During the colonial period some rail lines were built to serve ports, quarries and agricultural lands.

Currently there are two operative lines:

  • Dosén-Naú line: connects both cities through a 1435 mm non-electrified track. The journey lasts 45 minutes.
  • Mondeonís Metropolitan line: runs from Mondeonís city centre to Vonga through Salabar and Calabur. It has a metric gauge and is electrified. A fork connects the main line to Mondeonís Port.

The Matano Rail Corridor is a plan to build a rail line connecting all towns in Matano Island. Although the plan dates back to the early 2000s, construction never started and isn't planned to start in the near future.

Ports

Air

Jardinia International Airport is the country's main and only international airport. It is located in Matano Island, near the Mondeonís Metropolitan Area.

Jardiniana de Aviación is Jardinia's flag carrier, and the only airline operating domestic flights within the country.

Energy

Algusto oil-fired power plant generates electricity for the area of Albún and Pororó.

Most energy produced and consumed in Jardinia comes from non-renewable sources and is generated through thermoelectric and oil-fired power plants. Many of them were built in the 1990s with Surian technology, since much of the energy infrastructure was destroyed during the Civil War. Other sources of energy include hydroelectric plants like the ones in Axal Dam or in Bodesa; the geothermal energy plant in Casadudú; or the wind farm in Gramín Island, financed by the Jardinian and the Surian governments.

In the last years, the Government has reached agreements with international companies to invest in the development of renewable energy plants in Jardinia. These plans include building more geothermal plants, wind farms and solar panels, as well as improving the electric network and ensuring the access to electricity to all of the population.

Currency

The supremo is the currency of Jardinia. With an exchange rate of 38,000 supremos for 1 USD, it is one of the most devalued currencies in the world.

Demographics

Ethnic groups

Racial and ethnic groups in Jardinia
White and Mestizo
  
73.2%
Lunderic
  
11.9%
Native Jardinian
  
10.4%
Romani
  
0.8%
Others/Not stated
  
3.7%

Jardinia is an ethnically diverse country. Before colonization, the archipelago was inhabited by indigenous Jardinians belonging to various tribes. Native Jardinians are still a considerably numerous group, representing 10% of the country's population, distributed mainly in the mountainous areas of Matano and Zódar and in Sargrades and Head Islands.

The Castellanese colonization in the 16th Century meant the arrival white Ulethans, which together with mestizos (descendants of Ulethans and Natives) form up 73% of the population.

Another numerous ethnic group is Lunderic, formed by the descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves, mostly of Imani faith, brought by the Castellanese. They represent 12% of the population, mostly distributed along the eastern coast of Matano, specially in Gibalbar, and the Plains of Zódar. To this day, they mantain a unique culture and language, Lunderic, which has a special status and protection.

Languages

Castellanese is the official language of Jardinia, spoken and understood by the vast majority of the population. Since its introduction in the 16th Century as a result of colonization, the Castellanese spoken in Jardinia has evolved until becoming a distinct dialect, Jardinian Castellanese.

Jardinia has other two national languages, which despite not being official have a special protection status:

  • Obenai, a Taukan-related language spoken by Native Jardinians.
  • Lunderic, a language closely related to Mazanic spoken by the Lunderic people (descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves).

Urban centres

 
Largest municipalities in Jardinia
Source: Centro Jardiniano de Datos y Estadísticas
Rank Comarca Pop.
Gibalbar
Gibalbar
Dosén
Dosén
1 Gibalbar Eastern Matano 86,318 Abidom
Abidom
El Espartizal
El Espartizal
2 Dosén Dosén 51,004
3 Abidom Western Matano 33,583
4 El Espartizal Mondeonís (comarca) 29,720
5 Mondeonís Mondeonís (comarca) 28,150
6 Albún Western Matano
7 Treana Nostras Islands
8 Cenoba Mounts of Zódar
9 Sargrades Nostras Islands 15,941
10 Naú Mounts of Zódar 14,210

Religion

Religious affiliation in Jardinia

  Irreligious (63%)
  Christicism (15%)
  Imani (8%)
  Indigenous beliefs (8%)
  Others/Not stated (6%)

The 1995 Jardinian Constitution declares that "Jardinia is an atheist state, but religious freedom is granted in privacy and in temples". As a result, a large percentage of the population is non-religious.

Education

La Histrionisa Palace and its plot, located in the hills near Mondeonís colonial city, are the headquarters of the National Independent Education Centre.

The Jardinian education system is entirely public, with only one private institution allowed: the National Independent Education Centre. In recent years, the economic crisis has led to the deterioration of the public educaction system, which in the 90s and 00s was world-wide known for its quality. Education is free from elementary school to higher education (university). The basic education (Educación Básica) is eight grades long, from 6 to 14 years-old. The middle education (Bachillerato) is four grades long, from 14 to 18. The university education can be three, five or six years, depending on the degree. There is also vocational education (Formación Profesional) which can be two or three years. The only university in Jardinia is the National University of Jardinia. The National Independent Education Centre, despite not being considered a university, offers some valid degrees.

Health

The Consitution of Jardinia guarantees free and universal healthcare. The entire health-system in Jardinia is public and state-owned, from primary care to hospitals, specialties or asylums. Due to the economic crisis and the embargoes some countries have against Jardinia, there are persistant shortages of medical supplies and equipments. Nonetheless, Jardinia is one of the countries with the highest ratio of doctors per habitant and has a life expectancy of 80.4 years for women and 73.5 for men, a favourable figure for a developing nation. The infant mortality rate in 2010 was 14 deaths per 1000 inhabitants.

Jardinia is one of the countries where the AIDS pandemic has been most severe, specially during the Civil War and the postwar years. Over the last decade, the government has succesfully controlled the spread of HIV with the help of NGOs and international organizations. As of 2020, HIV adult prevalence rate is estimated to be around 1.7%.

Since the 2000s, state-owned hospitals and reasearch facilities have performed avant-gard experiments and treatments, and have developed new and succesful pharmaceutical drugs and vaccines.

Culture

Media

The Jardinian government directly or indirectly controls most media in the country. The state-owned Empresa Nacional de Difusión (National Broadcasting Company) has the monopoly over television and owns six of the eleven legal radio stations and the most read national newspaper.

Sports

Famous matador Amadeo Lavilla fighting a bull in Mondeonís Bullring.

Traditionally, the most popular sports in Jardinia have been football and bullfighting. Football was introduced by the Ingerish colonizers in the late 19th century and consolidated during the first half of the 20th century, when the first football teams were founded. In 1942, the Jardinian Football League was established. The most renowned teams are the Unión Deportiva de Gibalbar, the Atlético de Dosén and the Minera de Naú.

Bullfighting saw great popularity in the 1920s and 30s, when Castellanese soldiers, noblemen and chiefs financed the construction of bullrings and imported bulls from Castellan. Many native people started fighting bulls with the purpose of participating in contests and acquiring fame. After independence, bullfighting fell in disgrace as it was seen as a symbol of imperialism and colonialism. Many bullrings were dismantles and the sport was even banned for some years. During the Civil War, however, bullfighting became popular among members of the Popular Faction, and after their victory in the war its popularity was restored. Now, it is one of the most popular yet controversial sports in Jardinia.

In recent years, other sports such as basketball, cycling or martial arts have collected a noticeable number of followers.

See also

Notes

  1. The Jardinian Constitution does not establish any official name for the country, but the denomination República de Jardinia (Republic of Jardinia) was made official in a 2002 ordinance and is usually used in official documents and international treaties. Nonetheless, other denominations such as República Popular de Jardinia (People's Republic of Jardinia) or República Cooperativa de Jardinia (Cooperative Republic of Jardinia) have been used in a few occasions.

References

External links

Jardinia articles
Economy and transport: Airports · Companies · Roads · Supremo (currency)
Geography: Biota · Comarcas · Geology · Municipalities
History: Province of Ilhas Jardim (1812-1874) · Province of New Gardenland (1874-1905) · Protectorate of Jardinia (1905-1959) · Civil War (1986-1991) · Jardinian Crisis (2010-present)
Politics: Foreign relations · Jardinian socialism · Military
Society and culture: Bullfighting · Languages (Jardinian Castellanese · Lunderic · Obenai) · National symbols · Notable people · Universities
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