|10, -38.6038, 10.3060|
|Republic of Jardinia|
República de Jardinia
"Y en medio de la mar se alzó un jardín" (Castellanese)
"And in the middle of the sea, a garden arose"
"Himno de las Islas" (Castellanese)
Anthem of the Islands
|• National languages||Lunderic, Obenai|
|Government||Unitary dominant-party parliamentary people's republic|
|• President||Rafael Carretero|
|Legislature||Cortes de las Islas|
|• Upper house||Social Assembly|
|• Lower house||Chamber of Legislators|
|• Total||750 km2|
290 sq mi
|• Estimate (2019)||ca. 416,000|
|• Total||$2.63 billion|
|• Per capita||$6,320|
|HDI (2018)|| 0.695|
|Currency||Jardinian supremo (JRS)|
|Drives on the||right|
Jardinia (/dʒɑːrdɪniə/; Castellanese: /xɑrdɪniɑ/), officially the Republic of Jardinia (Castellanese: República de Jardinia), is an island country located in the eastern Hesperic Ocean, around 30 kilometres off the coast of Oxhano, in northwestern Antarephia. It comprises 8 main islands and other minor islets, divided into 6 regions called comarcas.
Jardinia is a unitary semi-socialist people's republic which follows a dominant-party parliamentary system. Some international organizations and experts consider Jardinia an authoritarian regime without true democracy and where alarming human rights abuses are committed. Jardinia is a member of the Assembly of Nations, the International Red Shield Movement and the Developing Nations Forum.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 References
- 9 See also
- 10 External links
The name Jardinia was given to the archipelago by the Castellanese colonizers in the early 16th Century. It derives from the word jardín, which means "garden" in Castellanese, because of the dense forests and biodiversity that covered the islands.
- See also: Timeline of Jardinian history
The earliest archaeological remains found in what is now Jardinia is Las Rodantas Archaeological Site, in Gramín Island, which has been dated back to 10,000 BC aproximately. Most historians agree that either heat waves or wars between tribes in the Antarephian continent led to gradual migrations to the islands. Many prehistoric tribes established in the archipelago between 8000 BC and 2000 BC.
Around 1000 BC, Taukan tribes from now-day Guai arrived at Matano Island and quickly took control of most of the Jardinian islands. They introduced writing and a new political organization. This is considered the first civilization to establish in the Jardinian Archipelago, whose economy was based on agriculture, mining and sea trading.
During the 1st century BC, several internal wars led to the rise of the Borong Civilization, which only had control over the Jardinian islands. The Borong Era was a time of isolation and setback, with many reported genocides and famines.
Castellanese conquest and early colonization
In 1508, the Castellanese land in Western Matano and quickly take control over the whole island and the majority of Zódar Island. The colonizers founded San Juan Bautista (Albún) and San Cristóbal del Monte de Onís (Mondeonís), and named the archipelago as Jardín de la Mar Nueva. During the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the Castellanese used Jardinia as a point of connection between Tarephia and the colonies in Guai, Brulias or Paxtar.
Florescentan and Ingerish rule
In 1812, the colony of Jardinia was handed over to the Florescentan Empire, who renamed the territory as Ilhas Jardim. Florescenta owned the territory until 1874, when the collapse of the Empire and the local revolts for the independence of Jardinia forced the colonizers to flee. However, those claims for independence were rapidly muted by the Ingerish Occupation of 1874.
The archipelago became part of the Ingerish Empire with the name of New Gardenland, but was largely unattended by its rulers due to its isolation from the rest of the Empire and the apparent lack of resources.
Second Castellanese rule (1905-1959)
In 1905, Ingerland and Castellán sign the Treaty of Winburgh, which granted Castellán full control over Jardinia.
Independence and First Republic (1959-1986)
Independence from Castellán was obtained in 1959 through a peaceful transition. Democratic elections were held that year and a new constitution was enacted. During the 1960s and 70s, Jardinia became a modern and richer nation, mostly because of the rediscovery of Naú mercury mines (research later found that Taukan tribes had also exploited the mines in the first millennium BC).
In the 1980s, however, tensions started growing as several economic crisis at the beginning of the decade had left 40% of the population unemployed. Political instability also became an issue in 1984, when the right-wing party Patriotic Alliance, which had been in power since independence, refused to accept the victory of the Communist Party of Jardinia, which had won 37 of the 50 seats in the Cortes.
Civil war (1986-1991)
- Main article: Jardinian Civil War
Laredo's coup d'etât in 1986 led to a civil war between the Patriotic faction (supporters of Laredo and the Patriotic Alliance) and the Popular faction (supporters of the Communist Party of Jardinia, renamed as Workers' Party in 1987). The war lasted until 1991, when the Popular faction entered in Naú, the last bastion of the Patriots.
Second Republic (1991-present)
In the first years after the Civil War, the government led by Ximénez enacted a quasi-socialist constitution and took many draconian measures, specially towards the political persecution of dissidents. Thousands of pro-Patriots had to go into exile and those who stayed were put through tortures and imprisionment. The government also expropriated most private companies and private media was shut down. This line of action drew Jardinia into the international spotlight. Soon, the pressure from international governments and agencies, including some of Jardinia's allies, led to a change in the political regime, with a new constitution and the adoption of Jardinian socialism.
The Constitution of 1995 establishes a bicameral parliament with a Chamber of Legislatiors for political parties and a Social Assembly for trade unions. Only parties which have adopted Jardinian socialism as part of their ideology are legalized and allowed to concur to elections, which means that in fact only the Workers' Party and allied parties such as the Socialist Party of Jardinia have representation.
In the late 90s and early 2000s, the succesives goverments took liberalizing measures and tried to recover from the wounds of the Civil War. More embassies were built and private companies were given more freedoms.
In 2008, a new turning point took place after the election of Manuel Rojas as President of Jardinia. His government started taking radical measures as the ones from the post-war period, including expropriations, nationalizations, more strict censorships and persecution of dissidents. That combined with the closure of the mercury mines of Naú in 2010, which skyrocketed unemployment and poverty rates, led to an unbearable situation for the Jardinian population.
During the 2010s, civil demostrations and insurgencies have been common. Jardinia currently is one of the poorest countries in Antarephia and has one of the highest inflation rates in the world. Since the resignation of Rojas in 2019, weak and short-lasting governments have tried to calm down the situation of the country.
The islands that form Jardinia sum up an area of about 750 km2. The biggest island is Matano Island, followed by Zódar Island, Gramín Island, Flat Island and Head Island. The archipelago is located in the Hesperic Ocean, 30 kilometres away from the Antarephian continent. The islands are mostly mountainous, with dense forests and fertile valleys and plains, being the largest one the Plains of Zódar.
Grandón is the highest peak of Jardinia at 2079 metres above sea level. During centuries, however, it was believed that the highest mountain was Angradudú, in Matano, which lies at 1804 metres MSL.
Jardinia has a mediterranean climate, with hot or warm summers (Csa to Csb in the Köppen climate classification). Mountains and the westernmost areas tend to be colder than the rest of the country.
|Climate data for Jardinia International Airport (1981-2000)|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.8
|Average high °C (°F)||29.8
|Average low °C (°F)||15.5
|Record low °C (°F)||6.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.0
|Average precipitation days||2.4||2.3||3.9||8.7||13.3||16.9||19.1||18.9||17.1||9.9||6.5||3.8||122.8|
|Mean daily sunshine hours||11.5||11.0||9.6||8.3||6.9||5.9||6.1||7.2||7.7||9.6||10.6||11.5||8.8|
|Source: Jardinian Meteorological Agency|
Jardinia's constitution defines the country as a "people's democracy", which is "guided by the ideas of Jardinian Socialism". Technically, the country follows a parliamentary system, in which the President is elected by a Parliament elected in a general election every four years.
The national legislature is the Cortes de las Islas (Islands' Courts), which is formed by two houses: the Chamber of Legislators for political parties and the Social Assembly for trade unions. The Cortes also elect the President.
Each of the two chambers of the Parliament has 50 members elected by six constituencies (matching the comarcas) by proportional representation.
The main party is the Workers' Party (called Comunist Party of Jardinia until 1987). It was the only party allowed to participate in elections until the constitutional reform of 1995. Through that constitutional reform, the country abandoned the stricter communism that had been Jardinia's ideology since the end of the Civil War, and adopted the Jardinian Socialism.
|Workers' Party||Rafael Carretero||47|
|Socialist Party of Jardinia||Luis Pérez||2|
The executive power is exercised by the Government. The President is both the head of state and the head of government, and is elected by the Cortes. As of 2021, the President is Rafael Carretero.
Normally, the President of Jardinia is also the First Secretary of the Workers' Party, although there have been exceptions. The only president who wasn't a member of the Workers' Party was Arsenio Montálvez, who belonged to the Socialist Party of Jardinia.
The legal parties, which can stand for elections, are:
- Workers' Party (Partido de los Trabajadores, PT) — main party of Jardinia, leader of the Popular Faction in the Civil War and single party from 1991 to 1995. Its ideology is Jardinian Socialism and left-wing nationalism. It is linked to the Workers' Confederation (Confederación de los Trabajadores) trade union.
- Socialist Party of Jardinia (Partido Socialista de Jardinia, PSJ) — socialist party, part of the Popular Faction and ally of the Workers' Party. It has had parliamentary representation since 1995 and is the only "small party" which has occupied the presidency of Jardinia. It had to adopt Jardinian Socialism as part of its ideology in 1995 in order to be legalized.
The Republic of Jardinia is divided into 6 regions called comarcas. Each comarca has a capital, a trial court and a local council composed by the mayors of its municipalities.
|Name||Name in Castellanese||Code||Capital||Municipalities|
|Eastern Matano||Matanó Oriental||ME||Gibalbar|
|Montes de Zódar||Montes de Zódar||MZ||Naú|
|Nostras Islands||Islas Nostras||IN||Treana|
|Western Matano||Matanó Occidental||MO||Abidom|
For centuries, Jardinia's economy has relied exclusively on agriculture, fishing and mining. Nowadays these sectors coexist with other manufacturing industries thanks to the processes of industrialization in the 1960s and in the 1990s. The industrialization of the 1990s made Jardinia one of the fastest-growing economies in the world until the late 2000s and early 2010s, when the crisis hit the country and many factories were closed, sending many people back to agriculture and fishing.
Tourism is a growing industry in Jardinia. In the latest years, governments have tried to promote the country as an international tourist destination. However, tourism is still undeveloped because of the small size of the country, the lack of infrastructure and the strict visa requirements.
Since 2016, the number of international tourists has spiked thanks to the devaluation of the supremo and the construction of new hotels and resorts. To this day, many countries advise against visiting Jardinia due to the social unrest, the action of terrorist groups and the political authoritarianism. In 2018, the country received 140,000 international visitors, with a total expenditure of $90 million.
In the 1990s, the government tried to promote the automobile industry in Jardinia through the National Motorization Plan, which was based on encouraging people to buy FANA cars as a way to promote the industry and the modernization of the country. As part of the plan, the road network in Jardinia was largely improved.
There are a few trunk roads (autorrutas), which are mostly accesses and ringroads in the main metropolitan areas. They have at least two lanes on each way, no level crossings and a maximum speed of 100 km/h.
Conventional roads, which link urban areas, have traffic signs, surface markings and a maximum speed of 80 km/h. Their ID is a letter C followed by the number of the comarca and the specific number of the road.
Rural parts of the country are still conected by precarious roads in which landslides, impassable potholes and accidents are not uncommon.
Buses play a major role in the public transport of Jardinia. In most of the country, bus is the only means of transportation available other than private cars. A dozen companies operate urban and interurban routes, some of which are state-owned while others are cooperatives.
Jardinia International Airport is the country's main and only international airport. It is located in Matano Island, near the Mondeonís Metropolitan Area.
Jardiniana de Aviación is Jardinia's flag carrier, and the only airline operating domestic flights within the country.
Most energy produced and consumed in Jardinia comes from non-renewable sources and is generated through thermoelectric and oil-fired power plants. Many of them were built in the 1990s with Surian technology, since much of the energy infrastructure was destroyed during the Civil War. Other sources of energy include hydroelectric plants like the ones in Axal Dam or in Bodesa; the geothermal energy plant in Casadudú; or the wind farm in Gramín Island, financed by the Jardinian and the Surian governments.
In the last years, the Government has reached agreements with international companies to invest in the development of renewable energy plants in Jardinia. These plans include building more geothermal plants, wind farms and solar panels, as well as improving the electric network and ensuring the access to electricity to all of the population.
The supremo is the currency of Jardinia. With an exchange rate of 38,000 supremos for 1 USD, it is one of the most devalued currencies in the world.
Jardinia is an ethnically diverse country. Before colonization, the archipelago was inhabited by indigenous Jardinians belonging to various tribes. Native Jardinians are still a considerably numerous group, representing 10% of the country's population, distributed mainly in the mountainous areas of Matano and Zódar and in Sargrades and Head Islands.
The Castellanese colonization in the 16th Century meant the arrival white Ulethans, which together with mestizos (descendants of Ulethans and Natives) form up 73% of the population.
Another numerous ethnic group is Lunderic, formed by the descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves, mostly of Imani faith, brought by the Castellanese. They represent 12% of the population, mostly distributed along the eastern coast of Matano, specially in Gibalbar, and the Plains of Zódar. To this day, they mantain a unique culture and language, Lunderic, which has a special status and protection.
Castellanese is the official language of Jardinia, spoken and understood by the vast majority of the population. Since it introduction in the 16th Century as a result of colonization, the Castellanese spoken in Jardinia has evolved until becoming a distinct dialect, Jardinian Castellanese.
Jardinia has other two national languages, which despite not being official have a special protection status:
- Obenai, a Taukan-related language spoken by Native Jardinians.
- Lunderic, a language closely related to Mazanic spoken by the Lunderic people (descendants of Mazanic and Tarephian slaves).
|8||Cenoba||Mounts of Zódar|
|5||Naú||Mounts of Zódar||14,210|
The Jardinian education system is entirely public, with only one private institution allowed: the National Independent Education Centre. In recent years, the economic crisis has led to the deterioration of the public educaction system, which in the 90s and 00s was world-wide known for its quality. Education is free from elementary school to higher education (university). The basic education (Educación Básica) is eight grades long, from 6 to 14 years-old. The middle education (Bachillerato) is four grades long, from 14 to 18. The university education can be three, five or six years, depending on the degree. There is also vocational education (Formación Profesional) which can be two or three years. The only university in Jardinia is the National University of Jardinia. The National Independent Education Centre, despite not being considered a university, offers some valid degrees.
The Jardinian government directly or indirectly controls most media in the country. The state-owned Empresa Nacional de Difusión (National Broadcasting Company) has the monopoly over television and owns six of the eleven legal radio stations and the most read national newspaper.
The most popular sports in Jardinia are football, basketball, martial arts, cycling and bullfighting.
Geography: Biota · Comarcas · Geology
History: Civil War (1986-1991)
Politics: Foreign relations · Jardinian socialism · Military
Society and culture: Bullfighting · Languages (Jardinian Castellanese · Lunderic · Obenai) · National symbols · Universities