This page is also available in Everian
|9, -35.2591, 3.8589|
|Leressan Republic |
|Flag||Coat of arms|
and largest city
|Official languages||Ingerish, Everian|
| • Regional languages||Northadi|
|Ethnic Groups||Kadmaric Everian (62%), Western Ulethan (23%), Northadi (10%), Turquese (3%), Other (2%)|
|Government||Classical Republican Democracy|
| • President||Ikụre Mạzạ̀in (LNP)|
| • Prime Minister||Letişi Mụzea (LPP)|
| • Total||37,007.03 km2|
14,288.49 sq mi
| • Water (%)||22.9|
| • Estimate (2019)||9,971,461|
| • Census (2013)||9,733,929|
| • Density||269.448/km2|
| • Total||֏307.40bn ($257.29bn)|
| • Per capita||֏30,827 ($25,803)|
| • Total||֏136.68bn ($114.40bn)|
| • Per capita||֏13,707 ($11,473)|
|Currency||Leressan Rivan (֏) (LER)|
Leresso, officially the Leressan Republic, is a country located on the southern coast of western Antarephia. Leresso is bordered to the north by Stature, by AN141c to the East, and by the Hesperic Ocean to the south and west. Its capital is Aludres, which is also the largest city.
It is a small country of 37,000 km² (≈14,280 sq mi) and has a population of just under 10 million.
It is unknown where the name "Leresso" comes from, though it is widely believed that the name is a rough transliteration of the native Everian name Yaruva, meaning "big land".
Based on data from surrounding countries, it is believed that the Kadmar and Sani River Valleys have been inhabited for around 8,000 years, though the earliest records of a permanent settlement were found in the Sani river valley dating back to the 14th century BCE.
Discovery and early colonization (1764-1778)
In 1764, an Ingerish galleon landed in the estuaries of the Kadmar River, in present-day Maqạnta.
Independence movement (1849-1851)
On May 19th, 1849, Leresso gained independence from Ingerland, sparking a surge in cultural rehabilitation and a quest for self-identity.
As a new nation, Leresso began the transition to a manufacturing economy much later than other Uletarephian nations, and took much longer to complete the process. While most powerful nations began industrializing in the 1760s and finished around the 1840s, Leresso did not begin until the 1850s and most sources agree it took as long as sixty years for Leresso to become industrialized.
Much of Leresso's geography is defined by its mountains and rivers. There are five major rivers that run through the country: to the south and east, the Sani River flows from the eastern Kusane Mountains and into the Bay of Nakhaz. To the north and west, the Kadmar river flows from the nation's highest point, Mount Levantụ, along the northern parts of the country and empties out in the Kadmar Estuary near Maqanta. Two of the other three major rivers flow into the Kadmar: The Kiyerma River, which has its origins in Northern Palumar, and the Khetsan River, which is the third-longest river in the country, after the Kadmar and Sani rivers. The Valerian River is also a major river because it serves as a sort of geographic boundary between the coastal hills of the west and the coastal hills of the south.
The topography of the country can roughly be divided into three zones: the south is hilly, the center is flat, and the north is mountainous. The coast of the country is well-defined by its rolling hills, spanning the entire coast, with peaks that rarely exceed 1200m (3,937ft).
The northern and eastern borders are well-defined by the Kusane mountains.
The highest point is Ṭimarashụn Peak, at a height of 3071m (10,075ft).
Due to its small size, Leresso does not experience a vast array of climates as one might expect from the topography. Generally, the Leressan climate is classified as Csa, with regional variants. The coast typically has the most stable climate, whereas further inland the temperatures begin to vary more, with hotter summers and colder winters, as moisture from the ocean is too far away to regulate the inland climate.
The Leressan Climate is mediterranean, with warm, sunny summers and cool, mild winters. The average temperature throughout the year stays generally the same, which is in the mid- to high-60s (F).
Leresso is divided into 8 regions, plus a special administrative zone for the national capital, Aludres.
Leresso is situated in western Antarephia, and is slowly becoming the cultural, economic, and political powerhouse of the region.
The Leressan Parliament as of 2018
The government is structured around a parliamentary system.
The Leressan Parliament constitutes one representative from each county. On average, each province holds thirty counties, thus thirty representatives. A final representative to Parliament is determined by a national election to chose the High Parliamentarian. As of the 2018 election, each of the 211 seats are held by a member of one of 13 various parties covering a large range of ideologies, from the far-left Anarchist Party and the PPKR to the far-right Fascist Party and Rumàe Party. Currently, the Leressan Progressive Party, known colloquially as LPP, holds a plurality of seats in the Parliament, and as such, the current Prime Minister, Letişi Mụzea, is a member of this party. The best-known coalitions in the parliament are the Moderate Coalition, consisting of the LPP, Green Party, Gever Party, and the International Party; and the Everian Coalition, consisting of the LNP, Hyamadài Party, and the Sallanist Party.
Leressan Nationalist Party (LNP): 25 seats
Gever Party (Gever): 21 seats
Rumàe Party (RP): 13 seats
Hyamadài Party (HP): 16 seats
International Party (IP): 24 seats
Labor Party (LP): 18 seats
Northadi Nationalist Party (NNP): 11 seats
Leressan Progressive Party (LPP): 37 seats
Fascist Party (FP): 6 seats
Anarchist Party (AP): 3 seats
Green Party (GP): 14 seats
Sallanist Party (SP): 17 seats
People's Party of the Kadmar River (PPKR): 6 seats
Law and judicial system
In Leresso, every county has its own Regional court. Similar to the Federal States, the Leressan judicial system includes an appeals system, where a plaintiff may appeal a Regional Court's decision to a Provincial Court. If the Provincial Court's decision is unsatisfactory, the plaintiff may appeal to the National High Court, which is the head judicial entity in the country.
As a small regional power in Antarephia, Leresso maintains strategic economic, political, and military alliances with its neighbors, as well as the other continental powers of Antarephia, such as Guai, Paxtar, and Ullanyé. Leresso also has a notable presence in northern Tarephia, given its embassy in Al-Kaza. Perhaps the country's most vital trade partner is the Federal States, being Leresso's biggest importer and contributing a sizeable amount to the Leressan economy.
Military spending in Leresso is unusually low.
The Leressan economy is mainly based on the service, manufacturing, and agriculture sectors, as well as the mining and tourism industries. It ranks as the world's thirty-second largest economy and in 2018 generated a nominal GDP of approximately $114 billion.
The country exports coal, oil and gas as well as wool, lumber and minerals (mainly iron ore, bauxite and stone). Oil revenues have been used to fund much infrastructure in the country, and are thought to contain another 37 million barrels of crude at current extraction rate, most of which is offshore in the east. Largely due to its terrain, Karolia is a net importer of food, although it does have significant farmland devoted to hops, grapes, barley and farm sheep and cattle.
Manufacturing industries include computer systems and software, automotive components and automobiles, aircraft and aircraft components, rail vehicles, scientific instruments, and the research, technology and healthcare industries. Global companies founded in Karolia include Finira (autos), SAI (aerospace), Saiku (beer), Katna (insurance and finance) and Muusaharmone (musical instruments).
The country has a large welfare state, providing health cover, education to postgraduate level and other social services to citizens. As a result, taxation is perceived as being higher than in many comparable countries, but this must be considered against the consistently high results in international standard-of-living and quality of life surveys. Karolia also scores highly on rankings of pay equality and gender equality in public life.
Financial institutions contribute a large share of the country's GDP. The stock market is located in Osmila and lists 70 companies in its top tier.
Leresso uses the drivan (֏) as official currency. First introduced to Leresso and West Kadmar in the summer of 1889, the drivan proved to be a more efficient currency to exchange than its predecessor, the Ingerish pound.
The drivan is produced by the Leressan National Mint located in Aludres and circulates around the country. It is not used by any other country.
The Leressan currency comprises coins of 1 drivan and 10 and 50 cent denominations and notes of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 drivan denominations.
The drivan has been designed and printed by the Reserve Bank Of Leresso, the Kadmar coat of arms appears on every coins and notes.
- the ֏1 note features the Battery of Magenta.
- the ֏5 note features the hart, an animal endemic to the Kadmar river valley.
- the ֏10 note features the first ship to ever become part of the Leressan Confederate Navy, the L.S.S. Seruso
- the ֏20 note features the national swallow, Cecropis kadmarae
- the ֏50 note features the Leressan Parliament in Aludres.
- the ֏100 note features the national flower of Leresso, the avalanche lily.
The exchange rate is Int$0.837 per ֏1.
The agriculture sector is highly localized in Leresso.
Traffic keeps to the right side of the road.
A high-speed train in Leresso.
The main railway network in Leresso is KadRail, and serves Leresso and West Kadmar. All trains run on the standard gauge.
Rail transport in Leresso is state-owned and operated, through a company known as Xaroḍamạz Ayarmạḍime Yaruvanụz Arovostạsi (Քառոչամազ Այառմօչւմե Յառուրանօւզ Առորոսպօսւ), also known as XAYA (ՔԱՅԱ). XAYA controls all cargo and local passenger rail lines. XAYA also controls express, inter-city, and high-speed passenger rail lines through a subsidiary company called KadRail, which also receives funding from the National Tourism Bureau.
There are four major high-speed rail routes in Leresso:
- Aludres-Saṭanay-Gnatsvar-Maqạnta, which travels through the most populous region in Leresso,
- Aludres-Ḍerban-Nayvar, which traverses the core portions of the Sani River Valley in Eastern Leresso,
- Aludres-Monṭexari, which traverses the eastern coastal region of Leresso, and
- Maqạnta-Haymarev-Laxarmạ-Kanarsụya, which travels through the entirety of the Kadmar River Valley
There are three major airports in Leresso: Aludres International (ALU), Beaudry (BEU), and Montecari International (MNT)
See also: Everian
The official languages of Leresso are Ingerish and Everian (Երւռյանօն, Yevernanạn), a Kadmaric language known for its alphabet and unique use of linguolabial consonants.
All signs around the country are written in both Ingerish and Everian. All Pre-Primary, Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary education facilities are required by national law to teach both Ingerish and Everian Linguistics courses. Some courses, such as Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, and World Economics, are taught solely in Ingerish due to the fact that Ingerish dominates the world stage in those fields.
Beginning in the mid-1980s, the government has been actively promoting the use of Everian over Ingerish in daily use so as to "preserve the national heritage and solidify the national identity" as well as attempting to limit Ingerish use to formal settings, such as educational institutions and business settings.
Everian uses the Kadmaric Alphabet, a writing system with no known connections to any other writing system in the world. Like most southern Antarephian nations, Leressans take pride in their unique language and consider it to be integral to the national identity. It is also one of the few non-Romnantian writing systems in the world with a unique punctuation system. It has 32 letters.
The education system is regulated by the government. Almost all schools in Leresso are public, save for a few international schools in Aludres. Birth year determines when a child is to start their education. The year in which a child turns six years old is the year they enter the Leressan education system as a Year 1 student (Ղասօծ 1). Students remain in primary school through Year 7, the year a student turns 12. The year in which a student turns 18 is the last year of secondary education, known as Year 13 (Ղասօծ 13).
In Leresso, the school year starts in late February and ends in late November, lining up with the austral summer. All primary and secondary schools start on the same day.
During Year 13, students prepare to take the University Entrance Exam, known in Everian as Ikavtàimạsi (Ւղարպացւմօսւ). The exam only applies to national universities, and is a mandatory test all Leressan citizens must take in order to complete their secondary education. International universities with campuses in Leresso are permitted by the government to set their own admissions process, but this must be done in conjunction with exam preparation. In recent years, Leressan students have seen international universities and their admissions processes as an easier way to continue their education, resulting in government pressure causing international universities to drastically decrease the incoming class size and providing even more government resources to national universities. The test takes place during the first week of October, over the course of two days. The first day constitutes a Mathematics and Ingerish exam, and the second day constitutes a Science and Everian exam. Each exam is 80 minutes long. There are strict noise ordinances in effect nationwide on testing days, with severe consequences for anyone in violation of these noise ordinances.
Healthcare is not hard to find, due to the frequency of Hospitals. found in cities. According to the Leressan Demographic Healthcare Coverage Survey (LDHCS), the city with the most healthcare coverage, and the healthiest citizens, is Montecari.
Death happens still, but in Leresso, it is hard to believe that 2% of the annual deaths in Leresso are due to avalanches. Avalanches are somewhat common, and they, for the most part, take place on the eastern slopes. It is there that they get the most snow, due to the weather patterns of northwest Antarephia.
The National Flag
The National Flag of Leresso
The flag of Leresso is considered an icon amongst the Leressan people, and is widely used as a common identifier for ethnic Everians across the world. The flag's yellow stripes represent eternal wealth and prosperity, the blue stripes represent the Kadmar and Sani rivers, and the white represents peace and progress, though some scholars and vexillologists may argue that white represents the avalanche lily as well as the Leressan people. The blue star in the middle of the flag has long been a common identifier for Leressans, as it was used to advertise secret resistance meetings and organize various militias during the struggle for independence in the 1840s.
There are several holidays that are nationally recognized by the Leressan people.
- Independence Day: 19 May. As of 2020, the country will be celebrating its 196th Independence Day. Leresso celebrates Independence Day with parades, food, parties, and lots of fireworks. The firework laws are more lenient in the rural center of the country than they are on the coast, especially in Aludres.
- Revolution Day: 24 June.
- Festival of Light: Second Friday of July to Third Wednesday. (2019: July 13-18)\
- National Day of Recognition: 7 November. This holiday was created in 1932 by Lidan Renatto, and serves as the anniversary of the death of Sallan Madesta, widely considered to be the greatest Leressan leader of all time.
An image of traditional kishyatom with buttered tovtam. The traditional Kishyatom is believed to originate somewhere in Western Leresso, either in Southwest Avilan, Kadantra, or Palomar Province.
Leressan cuisine is very vibrant. Most of the cuisine revolves around floral, herbal, and hearty elements in the food Leressans typically make. Here are a few dishes of note:
Tovtam (պորպամ), or "crispy herb bread" in Ingerish, is one of the Leressan staple foods. Tovtam is typically served before or with dinner. Most of the tovtam you will find in Leressan supermarkets will have both rosemary and lavender in them, though tovtam with only rosemary is cheaper to buy by about Ʀ6. Tovtam is not to be confused with the next item on our list.
Gebom (գեբոմ), or "heavy sweet bread", is similar to tovtam in most ways. Gebom is served with breakfast, sometimes on its own. Gebom is made the same way as tovtam, but with more butter and normally found with lavender. Although lavender is the common filling of gebom, this sweet treat can be also found made with rose. Gebom can also be made into the next item on our list.
Gedebom (գեդեբոմ), or "dessert bread", is one of the most popular desserts in Leresso. It is the same as Gebom, except the lavender and rose pieces are made into a flavorful cream. Gedebom can be described as floral creampuffs.
Kishyatom (ղւսչապոմ), or "Stewed spice meat", is the most popular food item in Leresso. It is similar to a beef stew, but it has carrots, celery, potatoes, squash (note: this is only added in Northadi Kishyatom), mild Leressan peppers, spicy Leressan peppers, ginger, and other spices. Traditionally served at dinnertime, though it could pass as lunch, Kishyatom is one of the most flavorful dishes of Leressan cuisine.
A typical Leressan breakfast constitutes of gebom, fruit juice, and eggs. Lunch is typically a hyevanotòme (չերանոպոմե), or "spicy meat bun", which is a sandwich made of spicy beef or lamb with lettuce and tomatoes on a Leressan water roll. Dinner varies, but one of the most common dishes served in Leressan restaurants for dinner is hyomobes (չոմոբես), a crusted fish dish, or kishyatom so tovtam bem, stewed spice meat with buttered herb bread. Dessert in Leresso is served at the same as dinner, and tends to be ice cream or gedebom.
The national flower of Leresso is the white avalanche lily, which grows in the mountains of Northad, Avilan, and Cymerra. The flower represents purity, remembrance, honor, strength, and courage.
Leresso has a national tongue-twister: "Setov to se yotes, vos te so toves," meaning: "Downwards to the ground, up to the heavens."
In Leresso, it is customary to knock on the door of a person's room once when entering and once when leaving, as it is considered to be a haven for that person, and knocking on the door signals your respect for that person's haven, and a request to enter that person's dwelling. This relates to the Leressan belief in aihyabenàd, meaning that every Leressan person has their own personal spirit that lives where they sleep, and guards them from èmaghai (malicious spirits) whilst they sleep.