Romanish language

From OpenGeofiction Encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Romanish language
Limba romenească
Pronunciation/'limba rome'ne̯askə/
Native toAntharia, Aurenia, Commonia
RegionRomany
EthnicityRomanies
Native speakers28,000,000 (2011)
Erasince the 11th century
Language familyUletarephian
Early formsRomantian
DialectsAromanish
Egano-Romanish
Moldavian
Old Romanish
Standard formsAntharo-Romanish
Writing systemin Antharia and Aurenia:
Romantish Alphabet +ă, â, ï, î, ș, ț
in Commonia:
see Old Romanish Alphabet
Official status
Official language inAntharia, Aurenia, Commonia (Transcommonia and Transmoldavia)
Minority language inGobrassanya, Egani, Niscavo, Euresia, Pretany, Midistland
OGFL-1ro
OGFL-2/Trom
OGFL-2/Broa
File:Romanish tree diagram.png
Tree diagram of the Romanish language

The Romanish language (in Romanish Limba Romenească, Iviran Romanish Límba Romeneáscъ, in Old Romanish (Glagolit) Ʌи́мбa Рѡмєнѣ́скъ) is the official language of Antharia and *. Outside Antharia it is also spoken by communities of Romanies in the countries that today make up Niscavo, *, * and Suria. The language is spoken by around 15 million people as native language, primarily in Antharia and *, and by another 4 million as second language. It is part of the Northern Uletarephian Romantish languages.

The Romanish language evolved from the Garlian language, as people from Garlis settled in the early 9th century the historic region Romany. Before the colonization, people living in this area spoke an early Slevic language, known as Romano-Slevic. The Garlians withdrew from Romany in the 11th century and left the region strongly influenced by the Garlian language. The following 5 centuries, Garlian mixed with Romano-Slevic, Antharian and Eganian and evolved to the Romanish language.

Until 1862, Romanish used an own Syrillangan Alphabet. Since 1862, the old and the new Romanish alphabet coexisted. In 1948, Antharia gave up the Old Romanish Alphabet forever. Other Romanish minorities in Suria and in * still use the Old Romanish Alphabet sometimes.

Example text

Old Romanish Alphabet (until 1862):

Фїєкáрє ʌѡкꙋїтѡ́р aнѳaрѧ́н, ѡрйкáрє ï'áр фѝ фѡ́ндꙋʌ, є́стє ѡбʌигáт пє ти́мп дє ръзбѡ́й съ сє aʌъ́тꙋрє aрмáтєй aнѳaрїє́нє. Чи́нє сє фъръ́ш̩є дє aчѣ́стъ ѡбʌигaцю́нє вa фѝ пєдєѱи́т кꙋ мѡáртѣ.

Transitional Alphabet (1862-1950):

Fïe'cáre locuïtór anѳarïán, orĭ'cáre ï'ár fì fóndul, éste obligát' pe tímp' de rĕḑbóĭ sĕ se aléture armáteĭ anѳarïéne. C̦íne sĕ fĕréște de ac̦ástĕ obligațïúne va fì pedeѱít' cu moártë.

New Romanish Alphabet (since 1950):

Fïecare locuitor antarian, oricare i-ar fì fondul, este obligat pe timp de război să se alăture armatei antariene. Cine se ferește de această obligațiune va fì pedepsit cu moartea.

In Ingerish:

Every Antharian locator, whatever his ethnic backgrounds are, is obliged to join the Antharian army during war. Who yields to this obligation is going to be punished with death.

(Jean Gheorghe-Barraca, Ʌꙋ́птa Мѣ́)

List of Eganian loanwords

Eganian word Romanish word Ingerish translation
Alema Alemă Forest
Eklisa Ekliză Church
Ektiri Ektiră Palace/Mansion
Emporgos Empurgă Tower
Gjefěri Geafără Bridge
Kastem Kastemă Castle
Katrem Katremă Boulevard
Kepa Chepă Park
Pantotcheos Pantotcee Inn
Stipê Stâpă Embassy
Xetrem Șetremă Street

Romanish Alphabets

The Romanish language used two alphabets:

New Romanish Alphabet

The new Romanish alphabet is a variant of the Romantian alphabet used by the Romanish language. It is a modification of the classical Latin alphabet and consists of 31 letters, six of which (Ă, Â, Î, Ï, Ș, and Ț) have been modified from their Romantish originals for the phonetic requirements of the language:

Letter Name
A, a a / aleph
Ă, ă ă / șva
Â, â î / î din a / gagh din aleph
B, b be / bî / beth
C, c ce / cî / khet
D, d de / dî / dalet
E, e e / ayin
F, f ef / fe / fî / peh deschis
G, g ge / ghe / gî / ghimmel
H, h haș / ha / hî / heh
I, i i / yud
Letter Name
Ï, ï isur / i sur / iota / dublu yud
Î, î î / î din i / gagh din yud
J, j je / jî / zayin ghereș
K, k ca / capa / kuf
L, l el / le / lî / lammed
M, m em / me / mî / mem
N, n en / ne / nî / nun
O, o o / vuv deschis
P, p pe / pî / peh închis
R, r er / re / rî / reș
S, s es / se / sî / sameciu
Letter Name
Ș, ș șe / șî / șin
T, t te / tî / tav
Ț, ț țe / țî / țadik
U, u u / vuv închis
V, v ve / vî / beth vuv
W, w dublu ve / dublu vî / dublu vuv
X, x ics / khet sameci
Y, y igan / i egan / ipsilon / yud igan
Z, z ze / zet / zed / zî / zayin

For words ending with stressed vowels, the New Romanish Alphabet uses the grave accent: aveà, Adakalè, fì, marò, făcù.

Transitional Alphabet: Until 1950, the New Romanish Alphabet used the letters C̦, c̦ instead of Ce/Ci, ce/ci; Z̦, z̦ instead of J, j; Ḑ, ḑ instead of Z, z and Ģ, ģ instead of Ge/Gi, ge/gi.

Romanish Alphabets

The Old Romanish Alphabet is the first Syrillangan alphabet, standardized first in the 9th century. It was later adapted to Surian and other Slevic languages.

The Old Romanish alphabet is nowadays still used in Glagol under the name Glagolit Alphabet, as well as officially in the 1852 Antharian National Exhibition Park in Borodyn.

Starting 1862, Old Romanish started being gradually replaced with the current Romantian Romanish alphabet. The transitional version from 1910-1920 is still used in Iviron.

Currently obsolete letters marked in red, missing equivalent letters in blue.

Old
Romanish/Glagolit
letter
Iviran
Romanish
letter
Romantian
Romanish
letter
Iddash
Iviran
letter
A, a
Áзꙋ
A, a
Aзoŭ
A, a
Aleph
א
אל"ף
Б, Б
Бꙋ́кю
B, b
Bukю
B, b
Beith
ב
בי"ת
В, в
Вє́дѣ
V, v
Vith
Г, г
Гʌáгѡʌ
G, g
Glagol
G, g
Gimmel
ג
גימ"ל
Д, д
Дѡ́брꙋ
D, d
Dobroŭ
D, d
Daleth
ד
דל"ת
Є, є
Є́стїй
E, e
Estiĭ
E, e
Ayin
ע
עי"ן
Ъ, ъ
Їє́рꙋ
Ĕ, ĕ
Ieroŭ
Ă, ă
Shva
Џ, џ
Џѣ́ма
Ģ, ģ
Ģѣma
J, j
Garshgimmel
ז׳
זי"ן שי"ן
Z̦, z̦[1]
Z̦ibete
Ꙁ, ꙁ[2]
Ꙁє́ʌѣ
Ḑ, ḑ
Ḑelѣ
Z, z
Zayin
ז
זי"ן
З, з
Зє́мʌѧ
З, з
Зemlꙗ
И, и
Íйџѣ
I, i
Iĭz̦ѣ
I, i
Youd
י
יו"ד
Ï, ï
Исꙋр[3]
Й, й
Ѵѡ́та
Ĭ, ĭ
Ѵota
К, к
Кáкꙋ
K, k
Kakoŭ
K, k
Khet
ח
חי"ת
C, c
Kouf
ק
קו"ף
Ʌ, ʌ
Ʌїю́дѧ
L, l
Lюdꙗ
L, l
Lamed
ל
למ"ד
М, м
Мъсʌи́тє
M, m
Mĕslite
M, m
Mem
מ
מ"ם
Н, н
Нáшꙋ
N, n
Nașoŭ
N, n
Nun
נ
נו"ן
О, о
Ѡ́нꙋ
O, o
Onoŭ
O, o
Vov deschis
ו
ו"ו
Ѡ, ѡ
Ѡ́мєга
Ꙋ, ꙋ[4]
Ꙋ́къ
U, u
Ukĕ
U, u
Vov închis
П, п
Пѡкѡ́й
P, p
Pokoĭ
P, p
Pey închis
פ
פ"א
Ф, ф
Фрáтꙋ
Ф, ф
Фratoŭ
F, f
Pey deschis
Р, р
Рѫ́цъ
R, r
Rѫțĕ
R, r
Reish
ר
רי"ש
С, с
Сʌѡ́ва
S, s
Sloba
S, s
Sameq
ס
סמ"ך
Т, т
Тꙋ́рда
T, t
Turda
T, t
Teth
ט
טי"ת
Х, х
Хѣ́рꙋ
Х, х
Хѣroŭ
H, h
Hey
ה
ה"א
Ц, ц
Цѝ
Ț, ț
Ți
Ț, ț
Tsadeq
צ
צד"י
Ч, ч
Чє́рвꙋ
C̦, c̦
C̦erboŭ
ce, ci צ׳
טי"ת שי"ן
Ш, ш
Шà
Ș, ș
Șa
Ș, ș
Shin
ש
שי"ן
Ш̩, ш̩
șc̦ șt שט
Ѣ, ѣ
Ѩ́тю
Ѣ, ѣּּּ[5]
Ꙗtю
ea יה
Ꙟ, ꙟ[6]
Ꙟ̃трꙋ
Ꙟ, ꙟ
ꙟntru
Î, î
Youdn
יי
ייודן
Ꙟ̃, ꙟ̃
Ꙟ̃
ꙟn în יין
Ѯ, ѯ
Ѯѝ
Ѯ, ѯ
Ѯi
X, x
Khet Sameq
קס
Ѱ, ѱ
Ѱѝ
Ѱ, ѱ
Ѱi
ps פס
Old
Romanish/Glagolit
letter
Iviran
Romanish
letter
Romantian
Romanish
letter
Ш̩, ш̩
Ш̩ѣ́
șc̦ șt
Ѳ, ѳ Ѳ, ѳ th
Ѵ, ѵ Ѵ, ѵ Y, y
Ã, ã an an
Ъ, ъ Ĕ, ĕ Ă, ă
Ю, ю Ю, ю iu
Ѥ, ѥ Ѥ, ѥ ie
Ѣ, ѣ Ѣ, ѣ ea
Ѫ, ѫ Ѫ, ѫ Â, â
Ѩ, ѩ Ꙗ, ꙗ ia
Ѧ, ѧ Ꙗ, ꙗ ia

Differences between different alphabets

Old Romanish Syrillangan Transitional Romanish New Romanish
Чѣ́ртъ Чеартэ C̦eartĕ Ceartă
Вѫʌчє́ш̩й Вылчещй Vѫlc̦eșc̦ĭ Vâlcești
Ѩ́ръшй Ярэшь Ꙗrĕșĭ Iarăși
Aнѳáрѧ Антаря Anѳarꙗ Antaria
Ꙋʌє́ѳѣ Улетеа Uleѳea Uletea
Кѵри́ʌик Кирилик Kѵrilik Kirilic
ЮБи́рє Юбире Юbire Iubire
Дєш̩єптъчꙋ́нє Дещептэчуне Deșc̦eptĕc̦юne Deșteptăciune
Ѵ́ѱиʌѡн Ипсилон Ѵѱilon Ipsilon
Џѣ́мъѳ' Джамэт Ģeamĕѳ Geamăt

Romanish on the map

Ingerish Romanish Regionalisms[7]
Avenue Cale (ca) Patremă (eg), Uliță (sl)
Boulevard Bulevard (fr) Katremă (eg), Șosea (fr)
Bridge Pod (ga) Geafără (eg), Punte (fr)
Castle Cetate (ga), Fort (fr) Kastemă (eg), Kală (tr), Kremlin (sl), Rad/Radeț (db)
Cathedral Catedrală (fr) Katedrikă (eg), Sobor (sl)
Cemetery Cimitir (eg) Țintirim (eg)
City Oraș (es) Pală (eg)
Church Biserică (ga) Ekliză (eg), Basilică (ga), Țârkovă (su)
Dock Bazin (fr) Darsenă (dc)
Embassy Ambasadă (fr) Stâpă (eg)
Forest Pădure/Pădurice (ga) Alemă (eg), Codru (ga)
Inn Han (tr) Karavanserai(l) (fr), Pantotcee (eg), Bezesten (tr), Posadă (ca)
Lake Lac (ga) Liman (tr), Iezer (sl), Râmnic (sl), Baltă (sl), Râbniță (db)
Market Piață (dc) Bazar (tr), Agolă (eg)
Monastery Mănăstire (sl) Mânăstire (sl), Abație (dc)
Mosque Moschee/Moschiță (fr) Geamie (tr)
Palace Palat (ga) Ektiră (eg), Palas (fr), Șaté (fr)
Park Parc (fr) Chepă (eg), Grădină (sl)
Passage Pasaj (fr) Pasagiu (fr)
Peak Vârf (sl) -
Platform Peron (fr) Binariu (dc)
Skete Schit (eg) -
Square Piață/Piațetă (dc), Scuar (fr) Ploșcead (su)
Street Stradă (dc) Șetremă (eg)
Synagogue Sinagogă Templu (ga), Havră (tr)
Tower Turn (gm) Empurgă (eg), Foișor (es)
Town Sat (ga) -
Train station Gară (fr) Statou (eg), Nădragiu (db)

Pronunciation

Letters Positions Pronunciation Examples Examples in
Archantan Ingerish
Notes
a
a anywhere a baciu roughly like father
a before the sounds l, m, r, s ɑ bal palm, also
aa
a'a
anywhere aʔɑ qaal
ca'al
uh-(ʔ)oh often also written aha
an anywhere ɑ̃ Antharia roughly like song
b
b anywhere v Bărrădin voice in most Romanish dialects
bh anywhere b Argonbhad about mostly in neologisms from Kalmish
for other neologisms mostly mp
c
c anywhere k casă skip in southern dialects only used before the letters o and u
c before e, i or y s cetate sack
ch before e, i or y k chin skip h revokes the rule above
ch in Kalmish and Iviran neologisms χ Garchinburgh uvular fricative
d
d anywhere ð deal other
d before e (when pronounced as i), i and y alde jig
dh anywhere d idhen dust h revokes the rule above
mostly in neologisms
dd anywhere d Jidda dust mostly in neologisms from Iviran and Kalmish
doesn't turn to dʒ in declensions
e
e mostly before c, g, i, j, r, s, ș, ț, v, x, y, z e vedere they
e before a, b, d, f, h, l, o, p, t i sens see
e at the beginning and the end of any word i/ie (depending on the following letter) Edineț see
ee
e'e
anywhere eʔe
eʔi
leel - often also written ehe
em/en anywhere ẽj̃ Massena similar to lane
eu anywhere əw meu between sow and sew
l
f anywhere f (in north Romanish dialects)
ɸ (in south Romanish dialects)
foc fire
voiceless bilabial fricative
also written as ph, mostly in southern dialects
g
g anywhere ɡ glod glamour
g before e, i or y ger jar
-g at the end of a word χ berg uvular fricative mostly in Kalmish neologisms
gh before e, i or y ɡ ghenă glamour h revokes the rule above
gh in Kalmish and Iviran neologisms χ Garchinburgh uvular fricative
gg before e, i or y ɡ Reggensberg grace mostly in neologisms from Kalmish and Iviran
h
h anywhere generally ʔ or unpronounced (when auxiliary) hamel, gher
hh anywhere h ahhab height mostly in Mazanic or Iviran neologisms
i
i anywhere i listă mean
i before l, r, s ɪ tir until
-ii at the end of a word copii similar to hue appears in plurals of nouns ending with -il
ii/-iii anywhere i.çi fiilor, copiii similar to hue
im/in anywhere ĩj̃ vadim between lane and seen l
l anywhere ɫ Vlăssia please
-l at the end of a word w Podrompal
cedrul
tow -ul ofter written as -ou or -lu in southern dialects
ll anywhere l mallic dental l, similar to ladder mostly in Ispelian or Franquese neologisms

IPA

Consonants
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
b ban boy
d dop day
ger gender
f foc face
ɡ gol, unghie good
h horn hat
k cal, chip, kilogram, quasar skip
l lună love
m mic moon
n nor name
ŋ lung long
p pas span
r rac, mare curd (Scottish (?) Ingerish)
s sare sun
ʃ șarpe shape
t tare stop
ts țară cats
cer choose
v val, watt voice
z zid zone
ʒ jar measure
Non-native consonants
ɲ Saligny roughly like canyon
Vowels
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
a a roughly like father
e erou roughly like bet
ə ăsta about
i inel, mie beet
ɨ înspre, cârnat roses
o oraș law (Pretanic Ingerish)
u uda, dual fool
Non-native vowels
ɑ̃ Henri roughly like croissant
ɵ chemin de fer roughly like sir
ø bleu, loess
y ecru, fürer roughly like few
 
Semivowels
IPA Examples in Romanish Examples in Ingerish
j iarnă, creioane, rai, yacht you or boy
w băcăuan, dulău, tweeter wine or cow
Diphthongs
e̯a bea, Andreea short e followed by full a; similar to yard
e̯o vreo short e followed by full o; similar to yawn
o̯a foarte, oace short o followed by full a; similar to wagon
 
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ dulău [duˈləw] Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ extraordinar [ˌekstra.ordiˈnar] Secondary stress
. mie [ˈmi.e] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus
ʲ rupi [ˈrupʲ] Palatalization (placed after the palatalized consonant)
  1. equivalent to the Surian Ж, ж, obsolete Romanish letter Garshzayin
  2. Obsolete, nowadays replaced with З, з
  3. Literally "Surian I"
  4. Also written with the characters Ȣ, ȣ
  5. Regionally also Ë, ë
  6. until the 16th century Ѭ, ѭ
  7. their origins in parentheses: Castellanese (ca), Drabantian (db), Darcordian (dc), Eganian (eg), Estian (es), Franquese (fr), Gaerman (gm), Garlian (ga), Proto-Slevic (sl), Surian (su), Turquese (tr)