User:Zhenkang/Sandbox/Kuehong Main Sandbox
A draft for the history of Kuehong, plus all stuff related to Kuehong.
- 1 History
- 2 Ly Duc An
- 3 1967 Coup
- 4 Politics
- 5 Navbox for political divisions
- 6 Names for Kuehong
- 7 Franchises in Kuehong
- 8 Ethnic groups in Kuehong
- 9 Personal mapping quick references
- 10 other stuff
- 11 See also
The area of what will be today's Kuehong has already been settled since the stone age. According to the Kue legend and archaeological evidence, the predecessor to the modern Kue culture -the Co Xua culture - has flourished from around the 10th century BC, and has a prominent influence in the region. Over time, however, rifts between the various tribes were formed resulting in civil wars which negatively impacted the Co Xua influence, leading to the tribes and the area became subject to the region's then ancient power- the Ruobruom Kingdom - in the 4th century BC. After the kingdom later collapsed due to internal rebellion, the Kue tribes decided on forming an alliance, leading to the formation of the first Kue state on the Muinon Peninsula in the 2nd century BC. At the same time, the Dehau tribes from what will be today's Cinasia formed another rival state against Kue. For the next few centuries, there is often war between Kue and Dehau.
It was around the 4th century AD, the Kue state, along with the Dehaus, were overwhelmed by the expanding Orinocian Empire. Nevertheless, some of the Kue, against the rule of the Orinocans, allied with the Dehaus and launched a revolution to overthrow the empire's rule. After the successful defeat of the empire, the Kue state transformed into a kingdom under the Noi dynasty, but peace did not last for long between the Dehaus and the Kue. The newly unified kingdom was later divided in the 5th century AD. The 6th century saw the further split of the Kue Kingdom. The Dehaus launched a war against the weakened Kue states, later subduing most of the states in the 6th to 7th century AD. One state, the La Kingdom, however, remained strong and managed to destroy the Dehau-led kingdom in the war of Lim Dat in 685. The La Kingdom later transitioned into the Kue Kingdom soon after.
Independence and Division
Shortly after the division of Bai, with both Bai administrations abandoning its remaining colonies, Kuehong became officially independent on 2 July 1922. The Congress for the Development of Kuehong (CDK) was installed by the Bai government led by an unpopular Bai politician. However, soon after, the Kue people revolted against the CDK administration, replaced by the Kuehongese National Alliance (KNA), a coalition of pro-Kue parties. Under the new administration through the 30s, pro-Kue policies were enacted that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners in the government have sparked unrest in the eastern regions that are Bai-dominated. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo, in opposition to the government after it listed the Bai people in Kuehong to be 'illegal immigrants', barring Bai people from taking part in future elections. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade, leading to an intervention by external forces which quickly mediated the situation. The war ended with a divided Kuehong between the Bai and the Kue groups (east and west respectively) until an agreement can be settled on reconciliation.
The KNA remained in power at the Kue side, or West Kuehong. However, the war saw the coalition being more divided than before. With the worsening economic situation, a communist uprising overthrew the KNA administration on 2 March 1942. On the Bai side, the guerillas formed a provisional government (military junta) supported by the Federal States and it became reliant on foreign corporations for its economy. The Bai side remained unstable with constant changing leadership without any visible regime change. In 1945, after formally taking charge after a show election, the communists in West Kuehong enacted a series of socialist policies. The policies were successful in garnering the support of the masses in the West, with better healthcare and housing policies than the East. Hence, due to the political instability in the East, many chose to emigrate to the West but soon saw that marginalisation against the Bai community remained, resulting in double defections. Nevertheless, failing to develop the economy, instead of relying mainly on agricultural produce, saw the successes of such policies to be rather short-lived. The years leading up to the 50s saw a rise in border skirmishes at the Line of Control between the communists and the guerillas. The guerillas began a campaign against communism in response to the incursions and defections. It attempted to reform the economy by nationalising the economy but failed, largely due to corruption and threats by foreign corporations to pull out all of its operations which the economy is dependent on. The guerillas later made a controversial defence pact with the Federal States in 1951. In response, the communists then signed a pact with Suria a few months after.
The communists' control over West Kuehong did not last long. Frustration with what was perceived as government mismanagement and tax collection abuses led to riots in several towns in West Kuehong. After months of social unrest, with the failure of the government to address it, a military coup took place in 1954 supported by the East, ousting the communist government from power. Meanwhile, the East saw government reforms in the 50s, with a new stable leader undertaking radical reforms aimed at fostering development. However, he failed to gain widespread support due to his controversial ties with the mafia and reluctance to clamp down on criminals, alongside his over-reliance on the FSA, leading to his overthrow by his rival. Reforms were paralysed, though he led to the reestablishment of democracy in the East. A new administration, the Kue Conservative Party, started its rule over the country after its win in the 1956 elections and began a modernisation programme in the country, including clamping down on the mafia and reforming law enforcement in the country.
Reunification and military rule
In the later decade of the 50s, the new administrations on both sides decided to push for efforts for reunification, starting a series of secret talks between both sides. For the military in the West, it is to gain stability in the region and legitimacy to its rule and to counter the remaining socialist and communist threats more effectively. Additionally, there were calls by the civilian population in the West for the military to step down for a new civilian government. In the East, the government hopes to gain more control on the undeveloped ports in the West for further trade prospects, after a pull-out by some foreign companies over a controversial policy enacted in 1957 that saw the increase in tariffs on foreign goods. With the communists weakened, the East began to be more willing to engage with the government in the West. Kuehong was reunified on 31 January 1960, after a series of talks and agreements and overwhelming support for the merger, under a transitional government which will lead to the nation's first national elections. The new economic and modernisation policies brought further stability in the region. However, while national sentiments were high, tensions still remained between the Kue and Bai people, resulting in riots in a few cities. In response, a curfew was imposed, with freedom of speech and movement heavily curtailed. The new government formally declared on 9 May 1961 that 'all indigenous groups are equal under the law', and pursued a programme of 'Kuehongese Kuehong' to encourage racial harmony in the region. The programme stressed an acceptance attitude within the multi-racial society, where a race/ethnic accept the racial differences of others in order for all to live together by respecting each other as a citizen in one country.
The lockdown ended in 1962 to pave way for general elections in 1964, resulting in a landslide win for the United Democratic Kuehong Union, a coalition of rightist party led by the Kue Conservative Party. The leftist coalition, however, dismissed the elections as rigged and refused to acknowledge the results, triggering conflict in the region. Despite efforts in mediating the situation, the unrest led to the assassination of the rightist leader by some radicals in March 1967. In light of the assassination, the military took action by staging a coup in August and launched a crackdown against the leftist activists. Even after peace was restored after the crackdown, the military refused to cede power back to the already weakened rightist coalition and banned all political parties and activities. On 13 July 1968, the military formally took power with the swearing-in of the then defence minister Trần Chí Duệ (陈志睿) as the Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress, replacing the vacant posts of the prime minister and president, starting military rule over the country.
The military banked on their broad appeal to the population, by continuing policies promised by the rightist government, which has not been implemented due to the unrest. Due to the policies, the nation recovered economically from the series of political instability beforehand. Massive development took place in the western regions, which saw little development under communist rule. However, the military was criticized for its emphasis on developing large-scale infrastructure projects. Many felt the millions of dollars spent on building new motorways and a rail network wasted, especially since deaths of the villagers were reported to make way for the motorways, with a death toll amounting to around 500; others supported Tran's vision to develop a centre for peace, education, and religion in the heart of the country.
To solidify military rule, the military started the nationalisation of corporations and businesses in the country all under a new trade union indirectly controlled by the military. In 1974, the new constitution was put in place formalising military rule over the country, which also declares all citizens of Kuehong to be part of the military, hence formally turning Kuehong into a stratocracy. A year after, National Service was implemented in light of confrontations with other nations especially in the Sound of Pa and the Belphenian Sea, though many claimed the move is to ensure the military rule involves everyone.
In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.
The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introducing the two four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.
In 1994, Ly Duc An, despite his promise not to continue for another term, was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in Vang Ngat in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.
After the 1998 national elections, regarded as 'fair and free', Diep stepped down as chairman to make way for his brother Diep Quang Nhan. Under his tenure, he has to face several crises, such as the Neeg Rebellion in 2001 and further tensions with Belphenia over its military activities in the Belphenian Sea. He also made the controversial decision to dismiss and arrest the Chief of the Assembly (formerly Chief Counsellor) and 15 other counsellors over 'deep disagreements' in certain policies, especially his decision to embark on numerous mega-projects, especially the construction of the new capital Bakdep. In response to growing government opposition, Diep's government disbanded several non-governmental organisations (NGOs), considering them 'a threat to national security'. In 2003, however, Diep made the decision to pardon and release the political prisoners on the condition they will not contest in that year's elections. In response, the candidates which supported the pro-democracy movement boycotted the elections, hence the elections were won largely by those supportive of the military. Diep was then re-elected for another term as chairman.
In 2004, the government made reforms in the Education system, with Primary education being made compulsory. The government also made a surprise reduction of national service duration from three years to two and a half years for males and from two and a half years to two years for women. Later that year, the government also legalised of casino gambling, to increase its attractiveness as a tourist destination.
In 2009, Kuehong was hit by a severe typhoon, delaying national and state elections for the year.
Gallery of past military leaders (as heads of state)
Ly Duc An
| Ly Duc An|
Lý Duc An
|Ly in 1993|
1 September 1990 - 24 February 1996
|Predecessor||Trần Tu Tín|
|Successor||Diep Duy Tam|
Ly Duc An (born 2 February 1933) was a Kuehongese military official and poltician who led Kuehong as the country's first elected Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress from 1990 to 1996. Initiallt hailed as a reformist, support for hims later dropped when he refused to implement further reforms and purged his opponents. He was later overthrown in a coup in 1996 after his controversial re-election in 1994 and later was put under house arrest for abusing his power and his role in the AB massacre in 1993. He still remains under house arrest to this day.
Clockwise from top left: Pro-military supporters and troops expressing their support for the coup, a publicity photograph displaying the earliest support for the coup, tanks on the streets of the then capital Namthinhvuong, the corpse of the interim leader Phúc Kinh Gu who was killed in the midst of the coup, confrontation between anti-military protestors and the military.
|Date||16 August 1967|
|Result||Military victory. End of civilian rule in Kuehong.|
The 1967 Kuehongese coup d'etat, or often referred to as the 16 August Revolution, was a military coup d'etat in Kuehong in 1967, organised by the Kuehongese military loyal to then Defence Minister and Chief of the Defence Force Tran Chi Due. The coup deposed interim president Phúc Kinh Gu (福京俱) when he failed to deal with the political instability in the country following the assassination of To Chap Tac.
According to declassified documents on the coup, it was meant to be bloodless, but several protestors disrupted the coup and 'things began to spin out of control' after that. The military only said about 500 died in the coup; many estimated from 1000 to 5000. It was one of the bloodiest incidents in Kuehong's history.
Kuehong is a federal parliamentary republic ruled by a military junta. The constitution declares the rule of the military legitimate since 1974 and hence it is a stratocracy, one of the few nations under the system, with the population of Kuehong all considered part of the military under the constitution. It is an executive-led governing system, with the National Security and Stability Committee as the executive branch. The head of state is the Chairman of the Committee, who serves for at most two five-year terms, while the head of government is the Chief of the National Advisory Assembly (Chief of the Assembly), the leader of the federal legislative branch.
There has been a number of reforms in the government since the 80s, which nowadays gives the legislative more power over decisions, including the power to impeach the Chairman. The reforms also saw the gradual introduction of democracy in the country, with citizens being able to vote for the counsellors in the Assembly. However, central power remains in the Committee, which can force a reconsideration of legislation. The committee can propose new bills, issue subordinate legislation, and has authority to dissolve the legislature.
The Chief of the Assembly is nominated by the Committee and elected by the 280 Counsellors. All of the counsellors, in turn, are elected by the people through a national election. Candidates for the Assembly needed to go through a 'screening process' by the Election Committee. All of the counsellors are not affiliated to any political party (since political parties are banned) but normally aligned themselves into two ideological groups: the pro-military camp (the current majority) and the pro-democracy camp. The elections for the Assembly is held every five years (with the exception of 2009, which was delayed until 2011 due to a severe typhoon), the most recent of which was held in 2016. Registered military personnel of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the Assembly and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory, but in recent years this has been debated upon.
The Supreme National's Court of Kuehong, headed by a chief justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Advisory Assembly. The legal system of Kuehong runs parallel with the legal system of the military. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Kuehong is known to have very tough penalties for certain offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. Homosexuality is banned in Kuehong.
Despite the political reforms allowing greater democracy in Kuehong, critics still maintained that the regime remains authoritarian. There still remains on restrictions of speech and transparency of the government, but many acknowledged the improvements in curtailing democracy and the rule of law and justice in Kuehong. For example, in 2016, the Assembly managed to pass certain changes regarding the National Penal Code, changing the policy from mandatory to discretionary capital punishment.
|Political Divisions of Kuehong|
|Vang Ngat||Vang Ngat|
|Trac Ke||E-dang · Nha Hoa · Kho Lai · Qui Lac · Tan Bi · Phu Dung · Mo Pha · Cham Mi|
|Bo Sinh||Trung Minh · Vung Hoa · Lu Hu · Dan Thanh · Ti Lao · Kham Mo · Lake Dura · Then Vuong · Lai Duoc · Hoa Linh|
Names for Kuehong
Franchises in Kuehong
Ethnic groups in Kuehong
List of other minorities:
- Neeg people (mainly in the Da Ma area, RW Hmong)
- Ksekr people (mainly in Trac Khe area, RW Khmer Krom)
Personal mapping quick references
For my personal quick references for comparisons with real world cities. (Cities that I planned to develop in the short-term, not in order.)
Vang Ngat is meant to be somewhat similar to Penang, Malaysia, and Singapore. Since it has quite an advantage of being close to Uletha, I am thinking of it as an international city and a cultural bridge between Northern Archanta and Uletha.
The Chinese characters Vang Ngat is actually a Chinese translation of an island (Pulau Pangkor) in Malaysia, which I have visited. Similarly, for the capital, O-man, the Chinese characters are actually from a Chinese translation of an island in Singapore (Pulau Ubin).
Bakdep (capital) and Phongthinh
Bakdep is meant to be a rather well-developed and planned city, something along the lines of Naypyidaw, Myanmar. The addition of a nearby port city is an inspiration of Klang, Malaysia, and the relationship between Incheon and Seoul. Bakdep means 'Beautiful North'.
Namthinhvuong means 'prosperous south', though it can be quite far from it given its rampant crime rates and stuff. It is an analogue to Ho Chi Minh City.