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A draft for the history of [[Kuehong]], plus all stuff related to Kuehong.
 
A draft for the history of [[Kuehong]], plus all stuff related to Kuehong.
==Timeline==
 
===Post-Bai colonisation and division===
 
*20s: Kuehong becomes independent but with a pro-Bai government installed. A protest follows and the government was overrun by a Kue uprising.
 
*30s: Under a Kue-dominated government, it enacted a series of pro-Kue policies that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners have sparked unrest in the eastern regions. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade.
 
*41: After the end of the civil war, it was agreed to divide Kuehong between the Bai and the Kue groups, until an agreement can be settled on reconciliation.
 
*42: The weakened Kue government was overthrown by communists. Meanwhile, the guerillas formed a military junta dependent on fascist Bai and the Federal States. It eventually transitted into a weak government which is ineffective and corrupt.
 
*45-50: After the communists' victory at the Kue side, it enacted socialist policies but failed to develop the economy, instead of relying mainly on agricultural produce. A series of border skirmishes follow at the Line of Control between the communists and the guerillas. The guerillas began a campaign against communism in response to the incursions and attempted to reform the economy but failed, largely due to corruption and unrest in the region.
 
  
===Reunification and rise of military junta===
 
*50s: The communist government began to decline due to power struggles and disagreements on policies, resulting in the rise of a rightist movement over that side supported by the Bai side. Meanwhile, on the Bai side, the rightist government began a series of economic reforms, improved the infrastructure and reduced poverty rates. However, corruption still remained rampant on that side, with factionalism emerging in the government. Protests became more widespread over such problems.
 
*54: The communists were overthrown in a military coup supported by Kue Bai and the Federal States. The military decided to hold talks with the rightist government at the Bai side for reunification, to attain stability and legitimacy to its rule.
 
*60: Kuehong was reunified after a series of talks and agreements and overwhelming support for the merger. Under the unified government, economic policies brought further stability in the region. However, in the name of national security, to prevent riots between ethnic groups, freedom of speech was heavily curtailed.
 
*67: After the assassination of the rightist leader, the military launched a nationwide coup and imposed a lockdown in response to a series of protests. After blaming the assassination on some opposition groups, the military started a series of purges against the opposition. The rightist government collapsed soon after the purges, having ceded all of its power to the coup, and hence Kuehong was under military rule since then.
 
  
===Military rule===
+
==History==
(May be subject to change)
 
*70: Under military rule, it took on the rightist government plans to further develop the nation. One reason for this is to show themselves as proper successors of the nation, but at the same time to ensure the nation recovers economically from the series of political instability beforehand. Massive development took place on the former Kue side (west), which saw little development under communist rule. Meanwhile, it decided to engage with CARECU nations for foreign investments and diversify its economy. To further consolidate military power over the nation, it implemented compulsory National Service for all Kuehongese citizens, but different citizens have different roles depending on their background and ability.
 
*72: At this point, almost all aspects of society (business, media, production) were nationalised or brought under government control. Further economic plans saw a combination of communist central planning and rightist policies, which in some way have brought further progress to the economy.
 
:74: During the massive construction of motorways in the country, several villagers were forced to move, resulting in clashes against the military when they refused to. Known today as the Kuehong Motorways Incident, it ended with the brutal killing of the villagers, with a death toll amounting to around 500.
 
*75-76: Racial riots broke out once more, which were met with a brutal crackdown. After the riots, the military implemented a policy of racial harmony in an attempt to unite the various ethnic groups.
 
*79: Military leader dies, a new leader takes over and began a series of social reforms. The military began to loosen its hold over the nation by reducing security checks and surveillance, and loosen restrictions on the media and the press. Social policies (such as healthcare and education) were reformed or introduced in response to certain critics.
 
*82: Development of new capital airport. Ports were refurbished under a massive national redevelopment.
 
*85: A series of purges against corruption was conducted in this year. Military leader resigns.
 
*86: Martial law formally ended but the military is still in control of Kuehong. Meanwhile, constitutional changes were made to allow elections within the military. Meanwhile, however, political activities were still restricted. In 1987, more protests emerged, which ended with another coup after the then leader resigns.
 
*91: A form of election took place within the military itself to appoint new members for the junta. While heavily criticised as favouring the military instead, the new military junta went on to further develop the nation.
 
*94: Government went to restructure the economy in the nation.
 
*99: Further protests broke out over the death of a student, which prompted reforms to the government.
 
*01: New military leader elected, implemented five-year terms for those leading the junta.
 
*02: Further constitutional reforms were made, including setting up an advisory committee whose members are elected by civilians. The members, however, were appointed by the military junta.
 
*03: The first limited elections were largely boycotted due to the heavy restrictions, prompting the government to further made reforms.
 
 
 
Other events can include typhoons, earthquakes, tsunamis, border conflicts with neighbours etc.
 
 
 
===Contemporary era===
 
*09: Elections for the year have to be postponed due to a severe typhoon.
 
*11: First elections were held, won by the Nhân Dân Party (Đảng Nhân Dân). The political party, however, has controversial ties with the military junta that ruled the country, and hence many critics considered the elections to be a sham.
 
*15: During the months leading up to the 2016 elections, several pro-democracy candidates for the Advisory Council were banned from participating over 'corruption' and were arrested due to 'treason'. With the lack of credible opposition, the elections were viewed as a formality and dismissed as sham elections by the international community. The number of registered voters has decreased, probably in response to the ban of the opposition.
 
 
 
==Prose version for history==
 
 
===Independence and Division===
 
===Independence and Division===
 
Shortly after the division of Bai, with both Bai administrations abandoning its remaining colonies, Kuehong became officially independent on 2 July 1922. The Congress for the Development of Kuehong (CDK) was installed by the Bai government led by an unpopular Bai politician. However, soon after the Kue people revolted against the CDK administration, replaced by the Kuehongese National Alliance (KNA), a coalition of pro-Kue parties. Under the new administration through the 30s,  pro-Kue policies were enacted that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners in the government have sparked unrest in the eastern regions that are Bai-dominated. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo, in opposition to the government after it listed the Bai people in Kuehong to be 'illegal immigrants', barring Bai people from taking part in future elections. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade, leading to an intervention by external forces which quickly mediated the situation. The war ended with a divided Kuehong between the Bai and the Kue groups (east and west respectively) until an agreement can be settled on reconciliation.
 
Shortly after the division of Bai, with both Bai administrations abandoning its remaining colonies, Kuehong became officially independent on 2 July 1922. The Congress for the Development of Kuehong (CDK) was installed by the Bai government led by an unpopular Bai politician. However, soon after the Kue people revolted against the CDK administration, replaced by the Kuehongese National Alliance (KNA), a coalition of pro-Kue parties. Under the new administration through the 30s,  pro-Kue policies were enacted that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners in the government have sparked unrest in the eastern regions that are Bai-dominated. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo, in opposition to the government after it listed the Bai people in Kuehong to be 'illegal immigrants', barring Bai people from taking part in future elections. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade, leading to an intervention by external forces which quickly mediated the situation. The war ended with a divided Kuehong between the Bai and the Kue groups (east and west respectively) until an agreement can be settled on reconciliation.
Line 56: Line 20:
 
In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.
 
In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.
  
The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introduction the four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.
+
The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introducing the two four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.
  
In 1994, Ly Duc An was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in [[Vang Ngat]] in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.  
+
In 1994, Ly Duc An, despite his promise not to continue for another term, was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in [[Vang Ngat]] in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.  
  
 
===21st century===
 
===21st century===
 +
After the 1998 national elections, regarded as 'fair and free', Diep stepped down as chairman to make way for his brother Diep Quang Nhan. Under his tenure, he has to face several crises, such as the Neeg Rebellion in 2001 and further tensions with [[Belphenia]] over its military activities in the [[Belphenian Sea]]. He also made the controversial decision to dismiss and arrest the Chief of the Assembly (formerly Chief Counsellor) and 15 other counsellors over 'deep disagreements' in certain policies, especially his decision to embark on numerous mega-projects, especially the construction of the new capital Bakdep. In response to growing government opposition, Diep's government disbanded several non-governmental organisations (NGOs), considering them 'a threat to national security'. In 2003, however, Diep made the decision to pardon and release the political prisoners on the condition they will not contest in that year's elections. In response, the candidates which supported the pro-democracy movement boycotted the elections, hence the elections were won largely by those supportive of the military. Diep was then re-elected for another term as chairman.
 +
 +
In 2004, the government made reforms in the Education system, with Primary education being made compulsory. The government also made a surprise reduction of national service duration from three years to two and a half years for males and from two and a half years to two years for women. Later that year, the government also legalised of casino gambling, to increase its attractiveness as a tourist destination.
 
===Gallery of past military leaders (as heads of state)===
 
===Gallery of past military leaders (as heads of state)===
 
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:65%;"
 
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="width:65%;"
Line 70: Line 37:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|1
 
|1
|Trần Chí Duệ
+
|General Trần Chí Duệ
 
|[[File:Nguyễn Khánh 1964.jpg]]
 
|[[File:Nguyễn Khánh 1964.jpg]]
 
|1970-1979
 
|1970-1979
Line 76: Line 43:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|2
 
|2
|Vũ Tuấn Hưng
+
|Colonel General Vũ Tuấn Hưng
 
|[[File:Kyaw Zaw.png]]
 
|[[File:Kyaw Zaw.png]]
 
|1979-1984
 
|1979-1984
Line 82: Line 49:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|3
 
|3
|Trần Tu Tín
+
|Captain Trần Tu Tín
 
|[[File:Đoàn Khuê.jpg]]
 
|[[File:Đoàn Khuê.jpg]]
 
|1984-1990
 
|1984-1990
Line 88: Line 55:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|4
 
|4
|Ly Duc An
+
|General Ly Duc An
 
|[[File:Senior General Min Aung Hlaing 2017 (cropped).jpg]]
 
|[[File:Senior General Min Aung Hlaing 2017 (cropped).jpg]]
 
|1990-1996
 
|1990-1996
Line 94: Line 61:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|5
 
|5
|Diep Duy Tam
+
|Lieutenant General Diep Duy Tam
 
|[[File:Bouasone.jpg]]
 
|[[File:Bouasone.jpg]]
 
|1996-1998
 
|1996-1998
Line 100: Line 67:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|6
 
|6
|General Diep  
+
|Major General Diep Quang Nhan
 
|[[File:Kem Sokha (2013).jpg]]
 
|[[File:Kem Sokha (2013).jpg]]
 
|1998-2011
 
|1998-2011
Line 106: Line 73:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|7
 
|7
|Vu Yền Lực
+
|Senior Colonel Vu Yền Lực
 
|[[File:Yawd Serk.jpg]]
 
|[[File:Yawd Serk.jpg]]
 
|2011-present
 
|2011-present

Revision as of 15:48, 13 September 2019

A draft for the history of Kuehong, plus all stuff related to Kuehong.


History

Independence and Division

Shortly after the division of Bai, with both Bai administrations abandoning its remaining colonies, Kuehong became officially independent on 2 July 1922. The Congress for the Development of Kuehong (CDK) was installed by the Bai government led by an unpopular Bai politician. However, soon after the Kue people revolted against the CDK administration, replaced by the Kuehongese National Alliance (KNA), a coalition of pro-Kue parties. Under the new administration through the 30s, pro-Kue policies were enacted that marginalised the Bai minority in the country. Further hardliners in the government have sparked unrest in the eastern regions that are Bai-dominated. A guerilla group, the Bai Liberation Front, was formed, believed to be a direct inspiration of the ANLA in Antigo, in opposition to the government after it listed the Bai people in Kuehong to be 'illegal immigrants', barring Bai people from taking part in future elections. Tensions soared which resulted in a bloody civil war in the next half of the decade, leading to an intervention by external forces which quickly mediated the situation. The war ended with a divided Kuehong between the Bai and the Kue groups (east and west respectively) until an agreement can be settled on reconciliation.

The KNA remained in power at the Kue side, or West Kuehong. However, the war saw the coalition being more divided than before. With the worsening economic situation, a communist uprising overthrew the KNA administration on 2 March 1942. On the Bai side, the guerillas formed a provisional government (military junta) supported by the Federal States and it became reliant on foreign corporations for its economy. The Bai side remained unstable with constant changing leadership without any visible regime change. In 1945, after formally taking charge after a show election, the communists in West Kuehong enacted a series of socialist policies. The policies were successful in garnering the support of the masses in the West, with better healthcare and housing policies than the East. Hence, due to the political instability in the East, many chose to emigrate to the West but soon saw that marginalisation against the Bai community remained, resulting in double defections. Nevertheless, failing to develop the economy, instead of relying mainly on agricultural produce, saw the successes of such policies to be rather short-lived. The years leading up to the 50s saw a rise in border skirmishes at the Line of Control between the communists and the guerillas. The guerillas began a campaign against communism in response to the incursions and defections. It attempted to reform the economy by nationalising the economy but failed, largely due to corruption and threats by foreign corporations to pull out all of its operations which the economy is dependent on. The guerillas later made a controversial defence pact with the Federal States in 1951. In response, the communists then signed a pact with Suria a few months after.

The communists' control over West Kuehong did not last long. Frustration with what was perceived as government mismanagement and tax collection abuses led to riots in several towns in West Kuehong. After months of social unrest, with the failure of the government to address it, a military coup took place in 1954 supported by the East, ousting the communist government from power. Meanwhile, the East saw government reforms in the 50s, with a new stable leader undertaking radical reforms aimed at fostering development. However, he failed to gain widespread support due to his controversial ties with the mafia and reluctance to clamp down on criminals, alongside his over-reliance on the FSA, leading to his overthrow by his rival. Reforms were paralysed, though he led to the reestablishment of democracy in the East. A new administration, the Kue Conservative Party, started its rule over the country after its win in the 1956 elections and began a modernisation programme in the country, including clamping down on the mafia and reforming law enforcement in the country.

Reunification and military rule

In the later decade of the 50s, the new administrations on both sides decided to push for efforts for reunification, starting a series of secret talks between both sides. For the military in the West, it is to gain stability in the region and legitimacy to its rule and to counter the remaining socialist and communist threats more effectively. Additionally, there were calls by the civilian population in the West for the military to step down for a new civilian government. In the East, the government hopes to gain more control on the undeveloped ports in the West for further trade prospects, after a pull-out by some foreign companies over a controversial policy enacted in 1957 that saw the increase in tariffs on foreign goods. With the communists weakened, the East began to be more willing to engage with the government in the West. Kuehong was reunified on 31 January 1960, after a series of talks and agreements and overwhelming support for the merger, under a transitional government which will lead to the nation's first national elections. The new economic and modernisation policies brought further stability in the region. However, while national sentiments were high, tensions still remained between the Kue and Bai people, resulting in riots in a few cities. In response, a curfew was imposed, with freedom of speech and movement heavily curtailed. The new government formally declared on 9 May 1961 that 'all indigenous groups are equal under the law', and pursued a programme of 'Kuehongese Kuehong' to encourage racial harmony in the region. The programme stressed an acceptance attitude within the multi-racial society, where a race/ethnic accept the racial differences of others in order for all to live together by respecting each other as a citizen in one country.

The lockdown ended in 1962 to pave way for general elections in 1964, resulting in a landslide win for the United Democratic Kuehong Union, a coalition of rightist party led by the Kue Conservative Party. The leftist coalition, however, dismissed the elections as rigged and refused to acknowledge the results, triggering conflict in the region. Despite efforts in mediating the situation, the unrest led to the assassination of the rightist leader by some radicals in March 1967. In light of the assassination, the military took action by staging a coup in August and launched a crackdown against the leftist activists. Even after peace was restored after the crackdown, the military refused to cede power back to the already weakened rightist coalition and banned all political parties and activities. On 13 July 1968, the military formally took power with the swearing-in of the then defence minister Trần Chí Duệ (陈志睿) as the Chairman of the Security and Stability Congress, replacing the vacant posts of the prime minister and president, starting military rule over the country.

The military banked on their broad appeal to the population, by continuing policies promised by the rightist government, which has not been implemented due to the unrest. Due to the policies, the nation recovered economically from the series of political instability beforehand. Massive development took place in the western regions, which saw little development under communist rule. However, the military was criticized for its emphasis on developing large-scale infrastructure projects. Many felt the millions of dollars spent on building new motorways and a rail network wasted, especially since deaths of the villagers were reported to make way for the motorways, with a death toll amounting to around 500; others supported Tran's vision to develop a centre for peace, education, and religion in the heart of the country.

To solidify military rule, the military started the nationalisation of corporations and businesses in the country all under a new trade union indirectly controlled by the military. In 1974, the new constitution was put in place formalising military rule over the country, which also declares all citizens of Kuehong to be part of the military, hence formally turning Kuehong into a stratocracy. A year after, National Service was implemented in light of confrontations with other nations especially in the Sound of Pa and the Belphenian Sea, though many claimed the move is to ensure the military rule involves everyone.

Reforms

In 1979, Tran dies, with a new leader Vũ Tuấn Hưng (武俊兴) taking over, beginning a series of social reforms by loosening restrictions and control over the populace. The new leader went on to build new schools and public services funded by the military. The military went on to encourage start-ups in the country, encouraging military-trained officials to also engage in business activities as well. He eventually made his controversial move to allow immigrants in the country. However, his economic policies also saw the rise of 'undesirable elements' in the government, such as illicit drug trade and corruption in the country. While initially, the government denied such charges, the trade was eventually exposed by the leader's own opponents who were pushing for the 'cleansing' of the military government, leading to a series of resignations of prominent officials including Vu himself in 1984. He was replaced by colonel Trần Tu Tín, who continued such reforms, though he was criticised for being slow on implementing his promises of a better Kuehong. Nevertheless, he is known for his efforts in revising the education and healthcare system in Kuehong. He was forced to resign in 1990 due to his failing health.

The new leader, Lý Duc An (李德恩), took a bold step in the reformation of the government itself. To enhance the credibility of the government, he implemented a system of checks and balances, introducing the two four-year term limits for the chairman post and the formal establishment of the legislature - the National Council - led by a Chief Counsellor. In 1992, after the implementation of the new constitution, he launched the first nationwide elections for the new legislature in Kuehong. However, the 1993 elections, initially hailed as Kuehong's first step to democracy, was quickly dismissed as a sham. Half of the 360 seats in the Council were already earlier appointed by the Congress, while the rest were nominated by the Congress for voters to pick. Some of the defeated candidates revealed that they were paid or intimidated to lose. The number of voters was relatively low (of about 120 000) since those eligible to vote comprises of those who ranks are higher than Major.

In 1994, Ly Duc An, despite his promise not to continue for another term, was controversially re-elected as Chairman by the Congress after he arrested his supposed successor for conspiracy and plotting to overthrow him. With no one able to succeed him and his reluctance to delay elections for Chairman, he continued on as Chairman. This sparked a demonstration in Vang Ngat in September that was immediately put down by the military. Nevertheless, Ly was later overthrown in a coup on 29 April 1996 when the military turned against him after Ly attempted to pass a law to extend his term limit. He was replaced by Colonel Diep Duy Tam, who led the bloodless coup. Diep's verbal attacks on corruption earned him much-needed initial support among the populace. Now-Chairman Diep, in response to mounting pressure for political reform, set up a constitutional review commission, including a team of advisors from the AN, to review the 1974 constitution. The recommendations include allowing direct elections by all ranks of the military (i.e. the whole population above the age of 18) to vote, no interference by the Congress in the nomination of the Chief Counselor, increasing the portion of seats for the national elections, and the right of the Council to impeach the Chairman if he/she abuses his/her power. The recommendations were largely accepted. Hence, the constitution was revised and approved with a majority vote in the council and became effective on 1 January 1997. Meanwhile, Diep established and normalised relations with other nations and signed various trade pacts to allow more overseas companies to operate in Kuehong. This has helped significantly improve the nation's economy. Soon after, the military in agreed to lease an army base in Vang Ngat for AN peacekeeping missions for 50 years over political unrest in the region.

21st century

After the 1998 national elections, regarded as 'fair and free', Diep stepped down as chairman to make way for his brother Diep Quang Nhan. Under his tenure, he has to face several crises, such as the Neeg Rebellion in 2001 and further tensions with Belphenia over its military activities in the Belphenian Sea. He also made the controversial decision to dismiss and arrest the Chief of the Assembly (formerly Chief Counsellor) and 15 other counsellors over 'deep disagreements' in certain policies, especially his decision to embark on numerous mega-projects, especially the construction of the new capital Bakdep. In response to growing government opposition, Diep's government disbanded several non-governmental organisations (NGOs), considering them 'a threat to national security'. In 2003, however, Diep made the decision to pardon and release the political prisoners on the condition they will not contest in that year's elections. In response, the candidates which supported the pro-democracy movement boycotted the elections, hence the elections were won largely by those supportive of the military. Diep was then re-elected for another term as chairman.

In 2004, the government made reforms in the Education system, with Primary education being made compulsory. The government also made a surprise reduction of national service duration from three years to two and a half years for males and from two and a half years to two years for women. Later that year, the government also legalised of casino gambling, to increase its attractiveness as a tourist destination.

Gallery of past military leaders (as heads of state)

Name Portrait Term of office Notes
1 General Trần Chí Duệ Nguyễn Khánh 1964.jpg 1970-1979 First military leader, who brought the whole nation under the military and formalised military rule.
2 Colonel General Vũ Tuấn Hưng Kyaw Zaw.png 1979-1984 Second military leader who brought about reforms, later resigned in a corruption scandal.
3 Captain Trần Tu Tín Đoàn Khuê.jpg 1984-1990 Third leader, the one behind the government reforms, brought further progress in democracy efforts in the country.
4 General Ly Duc An Senior General Min Aung Hlaing 2017 (cropped).jpg 1990-1996 First one to implement four-year term limits for chairman. However, he didn't keep to his promises of reforms and was later overthrown.
5 Lieutenant General Diep Duy Tam Bouasone.jpg 1996-1998 Though served for a relatively short-term, he helped further made progress in the reformation of Kuehong.
6 Major General Diep Quang Nhan Kem Sokha (2013).jpg 1998-2011 Longest serving military head, has overseen further reforms and modernisation in the country.
7 Senior Colonel Vu Yền Lực Yawd Serk.jpg 2011-present Current chairman of the Congress

Politics

Kuehong is a federal parliamentary republic ruled by a military junta. The constitution declares the rule of the military legitimate since 1984 and hence it is a stratocracy, one of the few nations under the system, with the population of Kuehong all considered part of the military under the constitution. It is an executive-led governing system, with the National Security and Stability Committee as the executive branch. The head of state is the Chairman of the Committee, while the head of government is the Chief of the National Advisory Assembly (Chief of the Assembly), the leader of the federal legislative branch.

There has been a number of reforms in the government since the 80s, which nowadays gives the legislative more power over decisions, including the power to impeach the Chairman. The reforms also saw the introduction of democracy in the country, with citizens being able to vote for the counsellors in the Assembly. However, central power remains in the Committee, which can force a reconsideration of legislation. The committee can propose new bills, issue subordinate legislation, and has authority to dissolve the legislature.

The Chief of the Assembly is nominated by the Committee and elected by 140 Counsellors. All of the counsellors, in turn, are elected by the people through a national election. Candidates for the Assembly needed to go through a 'screening process' by the Election Committee. All of the counsellors are not affiliated to any political party (since political parties are banned) but normally aligned themselves into two ideological groups: the pro-military camp (the current majority) and the pro-democracy camp. The elections for the Assembly is held every five years (with the exception of 2009, which was delayed until 2011 due to a severe typhoon), the most recent of which was held in 2016. Registered military personnel of age 21 and above may vote for the members of the Assembly and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory, but in recent years this has been debated upon.

The Supreme National's Court of Kuehong, headed by a chief justice, is the country's highest court of appeal, though it is also answerable to the National Advisory Assembly. The legal system of Kuehong runs parallel with the legal system of the military. Beneath the Supreme People's Court stand the provincial municipal courts and numerous local courts. Kuehong is known to have very tough penalties for certain offences as rape, rioting, vandalism, and certain immigration offences. Homosexuality is banned in Kuehong.

Despite the political reforms allowing greater democracy in Kuehong, critics still maintained that the regime remains authoritarian. There still remains on restrictions of speech and transparency of the government, but many acknowledged the improvements in curtailing democracy and the rule of law and justice in Kuehong.


List of names for places in Kuehong

Resources: http://www.nomfoundation.org/nom-tools/Nom-Lookup-Tool/Nom-Lookup-Tool?uiLang=en and https://www.ura.gov.sg/sbnbWeb/searchsbAction.do

State name Capital
枋林 Phương Lâm 鹿山 Lộc Sơn
斗湖 Đấu Hồ 南盛旺 Nam Thịnh Vượng
利处 Lợi Xớ
巴生 Bơ Sinh
卓溪 Trác Khê 北叶 Bắc-đẹp (national capital)
打领 Chiến Lính
邦咯 Vâng Ngát 乌敏 Ô-mắn
泰保 Thái Bầu 博港 Vác Cảng
野麻 Dã Ma 沙亚 Sà-a

Unused names

Port: Cảng (港)

  • Bơ Sinh (巴生)
  • Chơ-ảnh (加影)
  • Sơ Tái (梳再)
  • Kiều-đài (桥抬)
  • Chiến Lính (打领)
  • Sà-a (沙亚)
  • Phu Dung (夫容)
  • Đấu Hồ (斗湖)
  • Phúc Lính (福领)
  • Yên Luân (安川)
  • Hắc Điền (黑田)
  • Khảo Đăng (考登)
  • Nhị Binh (二兵)
  • Cựa Mọc (巨木)
  • Trác Khê (卓溪)
  • Thái Bầu (泰保)
  • Lộc Sơn (鹿山)
  • Phương Lâm (枋林)
  • Ngớ Quán (鱼馆)
  • Mã Kha (马柯)
  • Chiếng-ấy (政意)
  • Phổ Lan (普兰)
  • Dã Ma (野麻)
  • Phong Thịnh (丰盛)
  • Tạp-đước (卡特)
  • Lợi Xớ (利处)
  • Pha Sang (坡廊)
  • 典仑 Điển Lôn
  • 牢镇 Lào Trấn
  • 唯光 Dúi Quang
  • 和凶 Hoà Hung

For Vang Ngat

  • 加雅 Chơ Nhã
  • 基玛 Cơ Mã
  • 亚雨 Á Vũ
  • 如切 Nhơ Thiết
  • 菜市 Thái Thị
  • 莉安 Lài An
  • 仁宗 Nhân Tông
  • 丹甘 Đan Cam

Names for common map features

Roads:

  • 大路 Đại lộ Avenue
  • 塘铺 Đường phố street
  • 路 Lộ road
  • 高速 Cao tốc highway
  • 塘秩 Đường chật lane

Others:

  • 公园 Công viên Park
  • 车站 Xa trậm Railway Station
  • 寨军事 Trại quân sự Military Base
  • 客栈 Khách Sạn Hotel
  • 家祠 Nhà thờ Church

Franchises in Kuehong

Ethnic groups in Kuehong

List of other minorities:

  • Neeg people (mainly in the Da Ma area, RW Hmong)
  • Ksekr people (mainly in Trac Khe area, RW Khmer Krom)

Personal mapping quick references

For my personal quick references for comparisons with real world cities. (Cities that I planned to develop in the short-term, not in order.)

Vang Ngat

Vang Ngat is meant to be somewhat similar to Penang, Malaysia, and Singapore. Since it has quite an advantage of being close to Uletha, I am thinking of it as an international city and a cultural bridge between Northern Archanta and Uletha.

The Chinese characters Vang Ngat is actually a Chinese translation of an island (Pulau Pangkor) in Malaysia, which I have visited. Similarly, for the capital, O-man, the Chinese characters are actually from a Chinese translation of an island in Singapore (Pulau Ubin).

Bakdep (capital) and Phongthinh

Bakdep is meant to be a rather well-developed and planned city, something along the lines of Naypyidaw, Myanmar. The addition of a nearby port city is an inspiration of Klang, Malaysia, and the relationship between Incheon and Seoul. Bakdep means 'Beautiful North'.

Namthinhvuong

Namthinhvuong means 'prosperous south', though it can be quite far from it given its rampant crime rates and stuff. It is an analogue to Ho Chi Minh City.

Vang Ngat (wiki intro)

Vang Ngat

See also

User:Yuanls/Sandbox/Commonia