Fayaan

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Flag of Fayaan Union of the Fayaan Colonies

Capital: Fayaan City

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Fayaan, officially the Union of the Fayaan Colonies (Lentian: Unie van de Kolonies Onder Fayaan, Castellanese: Unión de las Colonias de Fayaan) is a federation in the northeastern Archanta. Located on the northern part of the Muinon Peninsula, it shares a land border to Kuehong at the south. Fayaan is governed by a president elected by the parliament (Staten Generaal). The different member states still hold much legislative power, though they do not have the right to secession.

Fayaan is one of the most well-developed countries in the region. Its economy is centred on international trade, with key exporting sectors being high tech and military tech industries, agro-pharmaceutical, agriculture and engineering. Fayaan draws a fair number of tourists due to its national parks and nature reserves, colonial architecture, Bai temples and excellent beaches.

Etymology

The name Fayaan is derived from the Fayaan settler family, who settled in Noordkaap region during the 16th century. Originally the country was named the "Confederate Union of North Munion" but the name Fayaan was chosen in 1806 to avoid international tensions on the use of the name Munion.

History

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History of Fayaan
Colonisation Period1500-1789
• Early colonisation1500-1610
• Golden Age1610-1700
• Ingerish Occupation1690-1789
Independence to Military Rule1755-1801
• Independence Wars1755-1789
• First Republic1801-1938
• Civil War1931-1938
• Military Rule / Second Republic1938-1968
Third Republic1968-
• Golden Decade1974-1986
• Economic Crisis1986-1994
• Tech Age1994-

Pre-Colonial Period

Little is known about the period before Ulethan colonisation. Fayaan was inhabited by Ouisx, Corxich and Huny tribes. Agriculture was probably introduced around 500 BCE? but even in 1500 CE many tribes still lived a hunther-gatherers. The Bai founded several coastal cities and trading posts on the west coast between 1000 and 1500 CE. In southern Fayaan several Kue villages existed.

Colonial Period 1500-1755

Early Lentian colonization 1500-1610

The Lentian explorer Erik Meulenaers with his vessel 'Eenhoorn' is the first known Ulethan visitor of the Fayaan western coast in 1473. Lentian merchantes gained interest in Fayaan as a trading centre for exotic fruits and spices. A private trading company led by the Asselmans and Goedhuys families founded the city of Noordkaap in 1489 (according to oral traditions) or 1492 (according to inscriptions in the Noordkaap Church). Over the next decades, Lentian merchants united in a trading company called Koloniale Kompagnie van Archanta Minor (KKAM) which founded trading centres along the Fayaan western coast. The KKAM encouraged the settlement of both Castellan and Lentian farmers and craftsman, taking also advantage of religious tensions in Uletha.

Golden Age of Colonialism 1610-1690

By the early 1600s, the KKAM structured their Archanta Minor colonies into different governates, each centred around a major trading post: Noordkaap (Noordkaap and Witzandmond), Citroenkust (Zonnevliet), Grootmui, Sint Sebastiaanshaven, Hallond, Santa Cruz, Hoopsbaai, Villa Ronda, Huysburg, Klaarmeer, Yldago, St Baafsland, Triumfo and Vuysburg. Large plantations were erected where tropical fruits and spices were grown. Also, logging become was important, resulting in an increasing shipyard industry that provided Lentian trading companies with ships. The ports towns developped as trading centres between Bai and Uletha.

During the colonial period, society developed in a very strict hierarchical way. Colonies were governed by a governor who was controlled by merchant guilds and agricultural estate owners. Craftsmen and agriculture labourers remained poor and had no political power. In 1630 the Noordkaap Governate was the first to establish an elected parliament Staten Generaal, but only major taxpayers had voting rights. Soon followed the other governates.

Ingerish Period 1690-1765

The wealth of Fayaan attracted the attention of Ingerland. Social unrest increased in the late 1680s. The KKAM had few military forces and had difficulties suppressing revolts in Santa Cruz, Triumfo and Hoopsbaai. Ingerland seized the opportunity and send a fleet to the Hoopsbaai/Santa Cruz area in 1680, under the pretext of defending Ingerish trade routes against piracy. With the KKAM structure weakened by internal struggles and revolts, they were unable to give a proper response. The governates if Santa Cruz and Huysburg raised an own fleet, which was destroyed during the sea battle of la Selva (July 4th 1690). Dyuring the following months Ingerish troops occupied easily the different Fayaan governates, except for Noordkaap. In the same period, the Vuysburg was lost to Kue forces.

Formally the Fayaan region became the Ingerish Protectorate of Northern Archanta. In 1692 New-Willhead was founded as the new governate capital on the southern shores of the Hoopsbaai - near the location of the contemporary parliament in Fayaan City. From New-Willhead the protectorate was governed with an iron hand. Ingerish was introduced as the official administrative and trade language, even though few people spoke Ingerish. The Northern Archanta economy was reshaped to produce and export agricultural goods and mining products. Merchants lost much of their political power, though New-Willhead and Huysburg remained important trading centres.

Independence to Military Rule

Liberation movement and unification (1755-1801/1868)

With decreasing economic profits, Ingerland slowly lost its grip on Northern Archanta. Piracy became common and in the 1740s and 1750s several cities were sacked. Where protection from Ingerish troops was inefficient, several city militia were founded. After a major (but failed) pirate raid on Zonnevliet in 1755, a rebellion broke out in Citroenkust, which started the First Independence War (1755-1765). Aided by Noordkaap troops, Citroenkust, Grootmui and Sint Sebastiaanshaven were liberated from Ingerish occupation. In 1765 the Treaty of Huysburg ended the Independence War and allowed nothern Munion to be independent as the Union of Northern Munion.

Peace was only of a short duration, and in 1780 again a widespread rebellion broke out, starting in Santa Cruz. This started the Santa Cruz War (1780-1789) in which local militia fought with Ingerish troops. Officially Noordkaap was not involved, but they supported several militia financially. After Huysburg (1783), Santa Cruz (1784) and Puerto Cruz (1788) were liberated, the Ingerish retreated. The Treaty of Hoopsbaai (1789) ended the war, allowing the governates to become independent again.

After the Ingerish troops left, Noordkaap, Citroenkust, Sint-Sebastiaanshaven and Hallond were unified in the Union of Northern Munion, but none of the other governates joined in 1789. Gloriosa, formally part of the Santa Cruz Governate, declared independence from Santa Cruz in 1791 and joined the Union. Under economic pressure and fearing renewed Ulethan occupation, soon a political pro-unification movement emerged. This resulted in the founding of the Confederate Union of North Munion in 1801, but Yldago, Santa Cruz and Hoopsbaai didn't become a member. Yldago and Santa Cruz joined the confederation in 1831, after much political pressure. The Hoopsbaai area still had an important Ingerish population and remained heavily divided, lacking a central governate and suffering from a civil war. Military struggles between the different city militia remained common. After several military interventions of Fayaan in the 1830s, the Hoopsbaai State joined the union in 1839 with the promise of safety for the Ingerish population.

In 1806 the confederation was renamed Union of the Colonies of Fayaan, which was a politically more neutral name. Fayaan was the name of a mythical 16th century settlers family which occurs in many mythical tales in the colonies. It remains uncertain if the family really existed, although a Fayaan estate in the Noordkaap State is known since 1590 (pre-dating the myths).

First Republic (1801-1931)

The Union of the Colonies of Fayaan was organized as a confederation where the member states had still relatively much political power. In 1838 the eastern coast was organized as a territory with three states: Hoogland, Gloriosa and Struiskust. To strengthen the national feelings, the new capital Fayaan City was founded in 1868 at the Bay of Hope (Hoopsbaai). Although today the image often exist of Fayaan City being founded in some pristine setting, the Bay of Hope was actually by 1868 already heavily urbanized with the towns of St-Jans-Hoop and St-Denijs-Hope and the adjoining Bai City in the north; and the towns of New-Willhead (now President City), Oxmarsh and La Carolina around the Fayaan Deep. Ingerish settlers remained important in the Hoopsbaai area, and today Fayaan City has still an important Ingerish population. Fayaan City quickly grew as capital, and became the major export harbor and economic hub of Fayaan in the 1870s.

The early days of the First Republic were characterized by economic growth and territorial expansion towards the east, at cost of the indigenous populations. The confederation had chosen a liberal and progressive constitution in 1801, which enabled international trade and later on also first industrialization. Intense trade relationships with both Ulethan states and the Bai estrengthened the economy. Especially Witzandmond was an important international trading center, and from the 1840s on this role was slowly taken over by the Hoopsbaai region (Fayaan City). During the first half of the 1800s the economy was mainly based on agriculture, international trade and some logging and wood export. In the late 1840s the Witzandmond area saw it's first industrialization, followed by the Hoopsbaai area in the 1850s. A modern railway network was constructed from the 1850s on, boosting further industrialization. With rich coal and iron reserves, Fayaan could develop as an industrial nation. Profiting from its location along international maritime trade routes, it also developed an important textile industry.

From the early 1900s, social unrest increased. A combination of high taxes and high government expenditures, corruption and increased competition from other countries resulted in an economic crisis. many factories, especially in the textile industry closed. This resulted in strikes and political instability. During the late 1890s army expenditures had increased a lot, which made the army an important political and social factor, that forcefully suppressed strikes and social unrest. In 1923 the (socialist) president Hannes de Garcia Leenman was assassinated, and the following elections were won by Marius Fillen from the Freedom Party. Those elections were generally considered to be highly impacted by fraud by the military. On June 2nd 1926, Fillen was assassinated, allegedly by communist insurgents. Vice-president Erik Panhoudt took power with the support of the military. he soon started an anti-communist and anti-socialist campaign. Panhoudt was re-elected in the 1927 elections, which was considered relatively fair. But social tensions grew in the next years, with many street protests and strikes. Slowly Fayaan evolved to a kind of civil war, with communist and socialist militia taken over large parts of the city of Witzandmond and also being active in the Fayaan City and Huysburg areas.

Munion Civil War (1931-1938)

The May 1931 elections ended in chaos, with massive street protests by both leftists and nationalists. Nationalist groups occupied many election stations in Fayaan City, while communist militia prevented free elections in Witzandmond. With less than 26% of cast votes counted, General Jan-Frans Ghyslinck of the right winged Freedom Party was declared winner. In the weeks following the elections, the military suppressed any protests and many left wing politicians were arrested and executed (1931 Blood Days). Although not formally ending the democracy, 1931 is often considered the start of the military rule. During the first years many state and city administrations opposed the federal militarized rule, often resulting in violent conflicts and an internal civil war like episode. Only in July 1935 the federal government gained full control of Witzandmond, which marks the end of widespread rebellion against the federal government. Until 1938 rebelling left winged militia controlled some smaller rural inland areas, but some guerilla left winged troops remained active in forested mountain areas until the early 1950s.

In January 1932 Kue militias were reported to have attacked Fayaan after crossing the Vang Ngat Strait, but this was probably a false-flag operation. This incident was used by the Fayaan military to attack northern Kuehong. Facing heavy and unexpected resistance from Kuehong militia and citizens, these attempts were generally not successful. By early 1934 Fayaan was fully participating in the Munion civil war with Fayaan troops fighting along Bai and Cinasian troops. Southern Fayaan was attacked several times by Kue militia, destroying several towns like Puerto Triumfo. Fayaan Military forces were known for their cruel treatment of the Kue, and many human rights violations have been reported. Peace talks ware started in summer 1937 and a temporary ceasefire was agreed on 1 December 1937. In January 1938 Fayaan agreed to withdraw its remaining troops from the O-Man region. In April 1938 the Fayaan military retreated behind the 1931 borders, followed by the signing of a formal peace treaty on May 8th 1938.

Although officially the Munion civil war is still today often framed as an external conflict, many armed conflict occurred between the military and different Fayaan militia between 1931 and 1935. Data on casualties of the domestic conflict are lacking, but the death toll was probably 10 000 to 15 000, while probably about 20 000 were imprisoned. The Munion was was also the start of the Fayaan exodus, that continued also under the military rule until 1943. About 175 000 communist, socialist and liberals supporters left the country. An additional 25 000 leftist militia members joined Kue Freestate forces and other militia in the Munion War. Of those probably less then 2 000 survived, most of them assimilating in the Kuehong society.

Military Rule - Second Republic (1938-1968)

After signing of the Munion peacy treath in May 1938, Fayaan Military announced the second republic on June 7th 1938. Martial law was introduced on a permanent base. All key political functions were taken over by the military.

Third Republic (1968-)

Geography

Fayaan is located on the Archanta continent, at its most northeastern tip on the Munion peninsula.

Geology

Situated in a zone of colliding plates, plate tectonics has played a major role in the geological setup of Fayaan. Contemporary topography is driven by the Munion/Fayaan orogeny, but different older phases can be found.

Paleozoic

The early Paleozoic geology is poorly understood. Scattered remnants of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks indicate mainly marine environments. But most pre-Devonian deposits went through an important metamorphic phase later on, and limited information is preserved. The Devonian Taur Massif includes lots of traces of older Massifs, but the nature and age of possible pre-Devonian orogenic phases remain contested.

Plate collisions resulted in a mountain-forming stage during the Devonian, in Fayaan referred to as the Taur orogeny. Continents of the Devonian Period are not directly connected to the contemporary period, and Fayaan was probably located at the northern edge of a large continental plate that collided with a marine plate. It is generally accepted that contemporary Fayaan was situated in the southern hemisphere in a dry (south) to monsoon subtropical (north) climate. Several Devonian massifs have been identified, with important sedimentary basins in between.

  • In the centre of the country three large Devonian Massifs occur: Taur Massif (named after Taurburg), Koksberg Massif (named after Hoge Kok) and Rossier (named after the village Rossier) Massif. Their connection during the early Devonian remains a point of discussion, but at least during the late Devonian the Koksberg Massif was separated from its neighbours, possibly through two rift structures, as is evidenced by late Devonian hillslope, fluvial and estuarine sediments found in between them.
  • They are surrounded by three sedimentary basins: a poorly understood marine basin at the north of Noordkaap; the Selva Basin to the west with plenty of coastal, deltaic and shallow marine deposits; the Gloriosa Basin to the east with some coastal and shallow marine deposits, but also lots of deeper marine deposits
  • The Triumfo Masif has been identified in the south, consisting of heavily transformed and metamorphosed marine sediments from Cambrian and (to a lesser extent) the Ordovician age.
  • Few Devonian sediments have been identified between the Triumfo and Koksberg/Rossier Massifs, and evidence points out that this was probably a plateau region with a desert climate. Also south of the Triumfo Massif a plateau occurred with an arid climate. Southeast of the Massif coastal to (deep) marine sediment have been found.

Mountain building coincided with volcanic activity, of wich remnants have mainly been found in the Triumfo and Taur Massifs.


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Devonian mountain building continued at a lower speed during the Carboniferous period. A much wetter climate suggests a position near the equator. This resulted in an important erosion and sedimentation phase. The Taur Massif had probably the highest uplift rate, and large amounts of erosion filled in the surrounding sedimentary basins. Both west and east of the massif large amounts of river, delta and estuarine deposits can be found, often containing natural gas and/or coal. The Koksberg Massif had less or no uplift and was by the mid-Carboniferous already eroded to a low hilly landscape. The Rossier Massif was probably a low mountain range, with mainly sediment deposition to the west and south.

The Triumfo Massif was still an actively being uplifted, with some (more limited) uplift of the plateau region south of it. A large subsidence trench formed west of it (St Baafs Trench). Most eroded sediment ended up in this trench, with less sediment to be found to the east of the massif. By the late Carboniferous, the ocean north of Fayaan closed, resulting in more shallow marine sedimentary deposits and finally by the end of the Carboniferous only continental (mainly fluvial) deposits remain.

During the Perm period, one global supercontinent formed, which dramatically changed the physiography of Fayaan. From a mountain/island region just south of a major ocean, it became an inland plateau region. Fayaan was located at a tropical to subtropical northern hemisphere latitude in an inland position. Climate varied between a continental monsoon climate (early Perm) and a dry continental climate (late Perm). Minor uplift still occurred in the Taur Massif, but most of Fayaan was a rather flat inland plateau , in which the remnants of the older Devonian Massifs were only slightly higher than surrounding plateaus.

Mesozoic

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The Trias was much alike the Perm: Fayaan was located inland with a dry to monsoon subtropical climate. Sedimentation was limited, although an increased number of fluvial deposits can be found from the Late Trias. An endorheic marly lake occurred south of the Taur mountains, which had eroded to a low mountain belt by then.

During the Trias the supercontinent started breaking up at different rift zones, but is was only during the Jura that new oceans started to form. Archante and Uletha split, creating a new ocean west of Fayaan. Meanwhile also a rift zone occurred within Archanta, opening up another ocean south of Fayaan. The Munion peninsula had a general west-northwest to south-southeast orientation with Fayaan located at the south-southeastern tip, and rotated to its contemporary south-southwest to north-northeast orientation from the Jura period on. Eustatic sea level rise resulted in flooding of many continents, and so did Fayaan. During the early Jura the Taur Massif was still an island, but by the Mid Jura all of Fayaan was covered by a shallow ocean, in which typical Juarssic red sandstone were deposited at the edges of the former Taur and Triumfo Massifs.

During the Cretaceous Period the contemporary continents started to get their shape. For Fayaan this meant plate tectonics resulted in the creation of a new uplifted region extending from Que Hong in the south, in Fayaan called the '''Klaarmeer Plateau'''. In south Munia it had a more pronounced mountain charcter, but in Fayaan it was a low plateau landscape, with altitudes not exceeding 100 m a.s.l. Tropical weathering was more important then erosion, and limited amounts of sediments have bene deposited east and west of it. The older Devonian Massifs to the north had now entirely disappeared. Instead a volcanic phase created a line of volcanic islands with a large coral reef system surrounding it. Most of Fayaan was covered by a shallow tropical warm sea around this coral reef, with lots of calcareous deposition.

By the end of the Cretaceous, at the onset of the Cenozoic, things started to change dramatically: the volcanic island zone was the place of a new uplift phase that triggered the Fayaan Orogeny.

Cenozoic

Climate

Fayaan City, Capital State, 0 m a.s.l.
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Gloriosa, East Coast, 0 m a.s.l.
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Klaarmeer, Klaarland, 530 m a.s.l.
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3
 
 
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2.9
 
 
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Fayaan is located in the subtropical climate zone, and has a strong marine influence. The climate is largely influenced by the central mountain belt and it's location between two oceans. This results in a large diversity in both precipitation and temperature. On average, the winter climate is dominated by cooler oceans and westerlies, resulting in most precipitation on the western mountain flanks and the West coast, while the east is in general drier and warmer. Late spring and early summer are overall drier, although large thunderstorms occur especially in the south, especially in years where the ITCZ is located more to the north. In August and September, sometimes even October, tropical storms and hurricanes occur and form a kind of monsoon season with a dominance of easterly winds and especially a wet climate in the east. In late autumn they make place for more westerly winds which bring regularly big storms and precipitation, especially to the west.

When comparing climate data for Fayaan City and Gloriosa, Gloriosa has a drier winter to early summer, but is much more influenced by the summer monsoon. It is also warmer during the first half of the year, also because here westerlies bring inland air and not cooler ocean air, but from August on temperatures are influenced by the monsoon season. The inland city of Klaarmeer is shielded by the mountains from both easterly hurricanes and westerly storms, and precipitation is more evenly distributed over the year, with a peak due to thunderstorms during summer. During winter temperatures can drop below freezing, and in some years ice forms on the lake.

Biodiversity

The natural vegetation pattern of Fayaan follows the large climatic zones. Natural vegetation in the western coastal lowlands, now often removed for agriculture, is an evergreen subtropical forest, with many coastal marshes and estuaries. With increasing height, more and more deciduous trees occur, but height levels for tree species depend largely on the location. In the higher mountain regions these deciduous forests are replaced by evergreen conifer forests, and at the highest altitudes by a shrub-heather vegetation. The eastern flanks of the mountain ridges are often drier with a more monsoon like climate. Here coniferous trees occur often up to a lower altitude, with below only a small deciduous forest zone. Large parts of the eastern foothills and plateaus are covered by tree savannah and sometimes more open grass savannah, alternated with subtropical dry broadleaf forests. Some of the typical escarpments that are often covered in fog and rain are covered by a subtropical evergreen rainforest. Coastal lowlands are again wetter and covered by a dense subtropical dry broadleaf forests.

Government and Politics

Political organisation

Since 1968, Fayaan is a representative democracy organized as a federal semi-presidential republic. Each of the member-states are themselves organized in a democratic way, lead by a parliament-elected governor or state-president. Each of the states are divided into several provinces (exact name differs between states), which are again divided into several municipalities (which can be granted the title of City).

NUTS levels of Fayaan
Country NUTS1 NUTS2 NUTS3 LAU
Fayaan Member States Provinces

(Province, Provincie, Kwartier)

- Municipalities and cities
List of States and Provinces of Fayaan
State State Capital Province Province Capital
Noordkaap Witzandmond
Citroenkust Taurburg
Hallond Hallond
Santa Cruz Santa Cruz de la Selva
Capital State Fayaan City Province Roodwoudkust Zeesterstrand
Provincie Hoopsveld Hoopsveld
Provincie Rio Palmeras Wolvenburg
Paarl Kwartier Paarl City
Ooster Kartier Forests Kwartier
Fayaan City Kwartier Fayaan City
Villa Ronda State Villa Ronda
Huysburg State Huysburg
Yldago-Argentina
Klaarland Klaarburg Lage Leeye Maarsveld
Houtem-Edelland Edelburg
De Maandel Goeverneursmaandel
Beneden Klaarmeer Klaarburg
Boven-Klaarmeer Groenweg
St Baafsland Rotsenburg
El Triumfo El Triumfo
Ooskust Arva
Moorland Moorburg
Gloriosa Gloriosa

Head of states

Second Republic

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
1
Jan-Frans Ghyslinck
General Jan-Frans Ghyslinck

(1884 - 1949)

7 June 1938 8 April 1949 none
General Pedro Sanchez Willems

(1889-1962)

8 April 1949 26 May 1949 none
2
José Manuel Eijckman Roncali
General José Manuel Eijckman Roncali

(1899-1966)

26 May 1949 8 December 1962 none
3 General Ferdinand Maerlinck

(1926-1984)

8 December 1962 31 August 1968 none

Third Republic

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Term of office Political party
1 Ferdinand Maerlinck

(1926-1984)

1 September 1968 31 August 1972 Nationalist Republican Party
2 Erik Rooyacker

(1925-1994)

1 September 1972 31 August 1976 Social Democrats
3 Hans Van Toorburg

(1921-2004)

1 September 1976 31 August 1980 Conservative Union
4 Ferdinand Maerlinck

(1926-1984)

1 September 1980 31 August 1984 Nationalist Republican Party
5 Willem van Eyck - Seranno

(1933-...)

1 September 1984 31 August 1992 Liberal Union
6 Hans Van Toorburg

(1921-2004)

1 September 1992 3 February 1993 Conservative Union
7 Koen Liefmans

(1940- ...)

4 February 1993 31 August 1996 Conservative Union
11 Dries Beernaert

(1958-...)

1 September 1996 31 August 2004 Social Democrats
12 Sophie Asselmans

(1951-...)

1 September 2004 31 August 2008 Liberal Union
13 Eric Hathfield

(1962-2019)

1 September 2008 31 August 2012 Republican Union
14 Charles Wyms - Calvo

(1965-...)

1 September 2012 31 August 2020 Liberal Union
16 Liesbeth Loomans

(1974-...)

1 September 2020 in office United Ecologist

Administrative divisions

Economy

Demographics

Culture

Transport

Railways

Today, railway transport in Fayaan is managed by the public company Fayaan Nationale Spoorwagmaatschappij - Fayaan National Railway (FNS/FNR). It operates a standard gauge (1,435 mm) network, with some industrial narrow gauge lines. About 92% of the network is electrified. Since 2018 all sections have 25 kV AC railway electrification.

Historically different private companies operated the network. The first railway line opened between Fayaan City Noord and Bruinville in 1845, and was owned and operated by the private company Fayaan City Railway Company (FCRC). In 1846 it was already extended to Santa Cruz Sur. Between 1850 and 1880 railroad construction boomed, connecting most cities and towns of Fayaan. Between 1900 and 1940 several lines got abandoned and the network became in a state of disrepair. Under the military rule all private companies were nationalized, and in 1948 a large rationalization was implemented, in which smaller lines and many small stations were closed. During the 1960s and 1970s the network was further modernized and speeds on lines increased. In 1989 the first high speed line (250 km/h) opened, the (largely underground) connection between Fayaan City Noord and Fayaan City Airport. This line was extended to the new Santa Cruz Futuro station in 1994. A large investment plan was launched in 2012, and will result in an entire high speed network, with speeds between 200 km/h and 350 km/h, by constructing new lines and upgrading existing lines. The initial deadline of 2025 has already shifted to 2035.

Urban and Regional Public Transport

Urban and regional public transport is organized by the member states of Fayaan. Each state has its own public company that manages subway, tram and bus transport.

Road Transport

Harbors and waterways

Air transport