User:Leowezy/Dictionary

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Main Word Database

Nouns

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
acchōfu government executive
aekko draft sketch
aenkaiwe stadium
aenlai aircraft K.I., R.I.
aentágyu forest (area)
aentē forest R.I.: forest biotope
a'éropō airport
ajji next station
alfya class category
alshokku breakfast K.I.
alshū morning
alshūs morning (archaic)
altífōwe archive
am rain
amha summer T.I., K.I.
amrong castle built on top of a ridge or hill
ánal analysis
arem sun
arhazi first station
arihang archery
ashkal world T.I., K.I.
ashkan work service
ashkínoe autumn T.I., K.I.
assol union (not labour unions)
atómiwe police station
atóm'yi police
ātsu coal
áyunki trait specific characteristic
azaggu nation
B
baélzi last station direction of a train
balgafáchūm prosperity control
bálkon balcony
Bánakin army (military)
bappoeregwol proceeding process R.I.: provision (clause that offers exception to a law) K.I., R.I.
búbue intramuros area of a settlement inside its (historic) fortification
buéro city office/department
Būmal equiv. Of a Bachelor's degree
buntamshan civilisation
byoengwe hospital
C
chai page sheet
chákkoe fort citadelle
champyonsaē waterway
cheryu white
cho forest (place names)
chóntse opportunity option to do sth. R.I.
chúju fluency
D
Daebi brother T.I.
Dáhano Administration
darasushan age era
dattarān supreme court
denching telecommunication
denkan telephone box
densoi telephone
dígwansol diplomatic mission embassy staff
do point
dómaen discipline field of study/work
duére executive order directive
E
efoengzon quarry pit opencast mine
ekkaem view point on a langluet/on a coast
éshkim fencing
esshae war battle T.I., K.I.
F
fan’goel place of work
fármasi pharmacy T.I., K.I.
fōbal (lui) (for) example
foeton freight
Forsamé armed forces
fóski gold
G
gafamdoen duty task function
gangmi ocean
gántsu treasure
gáronti guarantee responsibility for correctness R.I.
gekkwae theatre
Gimbye kōfogótsu Motorway (in Kojo)
gíntai output performance accomplishment
gipun science (broad)
gisshae K.I.: night R.I.: time between sunset and sunrise K.I., R.I.
góbal allowance flat-rate
gōf golf
gōsaei region large area
gōsaeidaran regional court
góuwushenzóngwe shopping mall
gukyaei building object property R.I.
H
hael’yéron qualification eligibilty competence meeting a required criterion
Hainye father K.I.
halfān neighbour
hakkāyue issue matter affair
hakke convention
halim leaf
hāmaeltai municipality
han'gara technology
hīmchi basis fundament
hipparā construction site T.I., K.I.
hōfi valley
hōkengdō career
hōsol job vacancy empty post
hún'gō shipfare shipping
hyeng rail platform
hyengmang railyard train parking space
hyengjo railyard railway maintenance facility
I
icchisho arrivals
icchoetsōno immigration
igaengchi relationship (between countries, companies…)
ilza book
imre salary pay (private sector) wage
indásu industry
Ingli sister T.I.
ingyoe content
ishkel control
J
jae evening
jaei land soil earth's surface
jaeikol runway (airfare)
jaeyosohyoel land reclamation
jer evening (archaic)
jessu spring K.I.
Jōbunhakke people's convention (Kojolese parliament)
ju (jur) water (T.I.) drinking water (K.I.) body of water (T.I.) sewage or clean pipe water (R.I.)
jugwo waterworks sewage treatment plant
K
kábunjowe stock exchange
kágaldosim inner city
karetaki stone age
kassul capital city T.I., K.I.
katu terrace
kázen casern barracks
kikai opportunity chance K.I.
koémangchiwe market hall
kōfeibunwe city/town hall
kógalwe (tv) studio
kóha hut small house
kojōken allotment garden garden colony
kókke council
kokkyō border
kónfaero conference
kóntsuridíso construction site site R.I.
kōuetamolno deli R.I.
kowe grave (arch.) burial site (arch.)
kúriyé Postal service
kuttuem custom (cultural)
Kwachae woman K.I.
kyakkai cooperative cooperation
kyamulwe ferry house
kyanbun (private) agency
kyanfā (national government) agency
L
láfontāsh advantage
laidō road, street vehicle carriage way R.I.
lánche insect R.I.
lettore letter
líchi lake
lishi history
logishtikku logistics
lózipō sport airfield leisure airport
light brightness
lūshiwe cinema K.I., R.I.
luwa law
M
human
maeil E-Mail
maekkisho departure
maekkoetsōno emigration
Maekkyosil Prefect
Maekkyosilfā Office of the Prefect
maēro labyrinth hedge maze
maltyam march parade
Mama mother mum T.I.
man'gwo power plant
mankai competition
marīchon training
Máyol mother K.I.
méishī deli T.I., K.I.
mekí mosque
milītaeryu military
miren partner (so. who shares a common interest)
mítom part-time job
moeta horizon outlook T.I., K.I.
myeru the state type of government/political system
N
nafahang harbour T.I., K.I.
nagarasha (university) student
nain mountain
nakkōzi prior station
nálnūm last name (lit.: chosen name)
néruka present
netsū (river) shore (river) bank
nihoelwe lighthouse
nil water well
noé node R.I.
nomi map
O
Ochae man K.I.
Óduekin air force (milit.)
oezónkai festival (usually religious) K.I.
Ōkarong equiv. Of a PhD/doctoral degree
okkong contract treaty R.I.
ómpessha disabled person
ónagara University
oshoeng public
osodōchiti reference number
osoingamsói responsibility
osofaé cruise
osofaélai cruise ship
osómaei renumeration pay-grade (state officials)
osozal copy duplication T.I., K.I.
otash display exhibit K.I., R.I.
P
pacchan rice (grown in flooded paddies)
pahanjī requirement
pāng glory
Papa father dad T.I.
párfo perfume fragrance
párlekai parliament (generic term)
pashkil foundation trust endowment
patsū proof
Paushil navy (milit.)
pautang harbour landing stage T.I.
payata shoe
pecchi pet T.I.
pelgwo resource
pitōn festival T.I.
pyuesan (Institutional) power, might
R
raén Queen (historic title in western Kojo
raito web application online-plattform
rajaen’gyo strategy
rakuotashwe pharmacy R.I.
raribawe water park swimming pool for playing
refāgyu unit inside a ministry field of expertise inside an organisation
reggyadum management managing
rénle bird
ressoróng restaurant
rézo network
ríkin research
rízai mind brain (metaphorically) T.I., K.I.
rinin personell
roélijon religion
roen‘giésh expertise practically aquired knowledge
Rōka equiv. of a (non-consecutive) Master's degree
S
saeffusói continuation sequel
sāmahando constitution
senka subject (at uni)
senpā room chamber
sēzu politics policy (general strategy, not specific law)
shataei certificate
shil heart T.I., K.I.
shínchopō (Kojolese) constitution
shíyubi defense
shóukai (trade) fair
showaeng property R.I.
showugan museum
simitachi cemetery
sín cinema T.I.
sochizággai overseas foreign lands
soelsha sister K.I., R.I.
sogwosoi surrounding environment
solkai club chamber
sul'apétawe town/city hall
sulchae city town R.I.
T
tácham flood
taē (planet) earth R.I.
Taechi cross
taechikyō christianity christian church (denomination, community)
taechisūsha christians
taedo cross-section intersection
taéte treaty contract K.I.
taigi sport
táikomi hope good outlook
tákoechiwe wholesale central market
tanī family T.I., K.I.
tasha landscape
tau K.I., R.I.: daytime T.I.: day
tilan (string of) number (s)
tesan view(point) sight perspective (contentual) standpoint
tokkyaen town (place names)
tokkyaenbu type of medieval city wall
tom (public transport) ticket
Tónsae brother K.I., R.I.
tsukikae replacement T.I., K.I.
tsumri winter K.I.
tsungbon culture
tsuri flower
U
uelchae village R.I.
uelfā service (municipal agency on the regional level)
uénki territory
ufobal timetable (transportation)
ugóbawe swimming pool for excercise/sport
uimtan question inquiri K.I.
umki general characteristic quality R.I.
uzam energy (power network)
W
wamzudamolno spatial planning
waken garden
weiwe prison
woke arm limb
wokkwe elongated building
wúhakkai organisation association R.I.
Y
yaecchu spring T.I.
yaélai bicycle T.I., K.I.
yaesshang’gwol (job) benefit bonus additional perk
yētekel language
yilchúmi interest concern need
yinfa colour
yultai (natural) environment
yuralchēgwin’gwae idiosyncrasy quirk distinctive attribute
Z
zággaitsol country nation
Zangákka equiv. of a (consecutive) Master's degree
zan’ne day (24 hours) K.I., R.I.
zaráng heritage
zenbawe spa onsen swimming pool for relaxation
zensho grammar
zēsayin (border) customs
zibbu department subsection of a company/public authority
zika horse
victim T.I., K.I.
zoggwaran synagogue
zueshóukai (trade) fair

Verbs

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
amshu to begin doing something to take office K.I., R.I.
amyu to rain rain
anályu to analyse
aru to be to exist somewhere K.I.
azelu to say to chat to talk T.I.
B
byoeltsu to kill T.I., K.I.
byumu to sleep K.I.
C
chelnu to offer to be available
chuemu to protext (from sth.)
D
dashkalgaelu to classify to put into to categorize to move sth. into sth.
dashu to plan
díraeu to think to believe to suppose to guess K.I.
dochu to come T.I.
dōchu to come K.I.
E
elpyaenfu to lead to guide to exercise control over
enkēlu to fall/die in war
etadorau to be committed to sth. to put effort into sth.
F
fólkaishu to warmly receive, to welcome
fuézyadu to shoot (a gun)
fúshu to do to work on a job (old fashioned)
G
gafaemu to work on to treat K.I.
gyinelu to buy T.I.
gwoshu to be called to carry a name or designation
gyunyu to move (permanent, like moving house, shift a chance, change school)
H
hayelu to fly
haznuelu to reach
hyoelminkau to inhabit
I
icchalu to send (in)
icchonkwaeyu to send (in)
igaengchishu to be concentrated to be cumulated to be pooled
ikkontsuru to incorporate to build in
imkaibu to coordinate sth. to collaborate with so. K.I.
ingamu to say to talk to speak K.I.
ishu to hear
J
jijiyaeng'u to trade
jottu to give T.I.
K
kamfu to transport
kokkyōshu to border sth.
kóntitueyu to consist of
kóntsuru to build to carry out construction work K.I.
ku to be (descriptive) T.I., K.I.
kyabau to coordinate with so.
L
laébumru to live
laébumwe residence residential building
lishi history
lusunu to take a picture
M
maekkafaemu to develop
maekkalu to send (out)
maekkigyunyu to move house (non-specific if move to or away from adressant) to relocate
marzu to train to practice in an organised manner
mijilinlu to be interested in sth.
mishu to buy K.I., R.I.
N
nalkyu to choose
nambu to be to exist somewhere R.I.
O
odamishu
odamishu to sell K.I.
ongkwoéshu to interact
oetsōmu to migrate
ontérinu to agree to sth. to accept sth. K.I., R.I.
osoaku to represent
osoingamu to be responsible
otasu to sell R.I.
otazelu to offer K.I.
P
pettelchu to rotate
pyáfu to rise to get up
pyegifu to disuse
R
ralnu to write R.I.
raru to play to spend leisure time
roenglanzu to spread to be transmitted (germs etc.) R.I.
rosshu to own (rightfully) to be the owner of sth. R.I.
S
saeffushu to continue sth. to go on with sth.
settainōku to make available to provide
shárukanyaelu to protect to preserve
shōtalju to embrace to appreciate to encourage
showaengshu to own (factually) to control an asset to encourage R.I.
sowenlu to teach
soworu to learn
T
tamtsu to think (both process and 'to think, that…') to believe to ponder T.I.
tamtsu’u to think (mind-process, not 'to believe sth.') to contemplate K.I.
tuekau to open sth. (T.I., K.I.) to open sth. to public use (R.I.)
toidaebu to blossom
U
uetau to eat
umkishu to mark to be characteristic of K.I., R.I.
umsolgu to apply (for a job) K.I., R.I.
W
wálu to run
wámdau to plan K.I.
wesshu to contact K.I.
Y
yaeshitteru to advance sth. to spread sth. to promote sth.
yaeshkou to advance to rise into to be promoted to ascent
yuku to go to move by foot K.I.
Z
zoékau to maintain to upkeep
zádang’u to stem from to date from

Adjectives

Kojoshi Ingerish 1 Ingerish 2 Ingerish 3 Ingerish 4 Ingerish 5 Registry (if not universal)
A
aku south
anályumfel analythical
asaso (the) only (the) sole
asaso unique one of a kind
B
bang low subordinate
buēzu always all the time T.I.
būezu constant enduring R.I.
bojōaeng proficient to be skilful at
C
chidoe physical material
choewal equestrian K.I., R.I.
D
dehal difficult
dōdaeki regional
dyong east
E
ébolpang advanced developed sophisticated
émino outstanding eminent R.I.
F
fīngal warm (physical and emotional)
G
gaggwoelbunreisūka equitable
genji local in a small area
H
haelgyazó normal common usual
haerū far distant
haingbue available at a low cost discounted K.I.
humenyamin amber K.I.
hotai gross (finance)
hóti close near
I
ikaldon dense seamless
J
jarinum temporary K.I.
jeangba busy
K
kágal inner
kámpō voluntarily
kaná green
kibō north
kifaimdōdaeki stretegic
komkosa thematically wide varied
kōng deep
kyanbue inhouse internal inside an agency/company
L
limbē west
lomsa more (countable) K.I., R.I.
M
maecchaē great large important K.I.
maéi beautiful visually pleasing K.I.
maelduoen call for tenderopen bidding advertisement
maggitā nacre-coloured
mashkal special out of the ordinary the way sth. Is (qualitative)
mijizággai international
miryoku attractive appealing K.I.
munchipal municipal
N
nyū dark
O
onlain online
osují favourite
P
pacchi wet (fields, land)
pai bright (light)
pal brown
R
raiyuē highly strongly to a large degree K.I., R.I.
S
shim fast quick rapid (K.I.) T.I., K.I.
shotten hard
sochizággai foreign of/from a different country
song very
sumaron underwater submarine R.I.
supaéfi special noteworthy outstanding in importance/size/amount… (quantitative)
T
taechikyomsol christian
toicho all (K.I.: very strong emphasis) T.I., K.I.
tossal clear distinct pronounced
U
uítai valid (K.I.) durable until (R.I.) K.I., R.I.
umkinku constant enduring characteristically R.I.
ungsō calm peaceful T.I., K.I.
W
weng wet
Y
yemen outer
Z
zággai national
zóngmo important to be considered to play an important role R.I.

Names

Kojoshi Ingerish
A
Atarakkusī Ataraxia
B
C
D
Dyandoesha Ingerland
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Kottsōchi Axian Pensinular
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
U
Uleta Uletha
W
Y
Z
Word

Place names in Bai Script

Kojoshi Self-denomination
in Bai script
Meaning Izaki Reading Hopponese Reading Tengappei Reading
Kojo 夫国 husband/emperor - country (referencing the first ruler of a unified Kojo, Surb Rēkku, and his [Hopponese/Izaki...] wife) Tohtaskas (replaced by "Kojō" in modern times)
Pyingshum 平京 peace - capital Makksuba (replaced by "Pīnshūn" in modern times)
Finkyáse 金潮塞 gold - tide/chance - dam/fort Kinchōsai (replaced by "Finkyase" in modern times)
Kippa 木場 wood - (market) place Mukujān (replaced by "Kippa" in modern times)
Jaka 蛇河 serpent - river Zhakau
Yoyomi 四方見 four - direction - view Shipōken (replaced by "Yoyomi" in modern times)
Busakyueng 霧叉君 fog - road fork - ruler Mushakun
Womenlū
Kwaengdō 公湾道 Public - harbour - route Kōhandō
Wenzū 院湯 Palace - (bath) place Wintān
Manlung
Oreppyo
Hetta
Ántibes
Kahyuemgúchi
Nároggul Narogul
Góhomi
Geryong
Kari
Arákkanai
Ojufyeng
Zúkshi (Fóskiman h.) Zukkshi
Leshfyomi-sul Leshihomi-ken
Toefyei
Toribiri
Tsuyenji
Kimelíngsan-shu
Tamrong Tanlōn
Formajiá Formajā
Igilaē
Tinglyū Tīnlyū
Unzai Unðai
Chin-Jōrin
Īme
Laófil
Rajjihaim Razhihan
Shangmē Shānmē
Láoféi
Palda
Zúkshi (Cheryuman h.) Zukkshi
Línai
Makalasueng Makalaswēn
Jippun
Kōnil

Pronouns

Pronouns differ depending on the register used. The degree of nuancedness varies depending on the register, and some pronouns have different meanings in different registers despite being spelled and pronounced the same way. Especially in Tanōikishi, pronouns are frequently omitted.

Tanōikishi (mostly Pilser bases)
I yaesh
You (sg.&pl.) do/dō1
He/She nya/nyā1
It ji/jī1
We (inlc.&exl.) mel
They naráng
  1. Depending on whether a vowel (long) or consonant (short) is following
Kēikishi (some Hopponse influences)
I wádash
You (sg.&pl.) kigang
He alga/al1
She naráng2
It chira/occhira
We (exlc.) mel
We (inlc.) kigákkodash
They kára
  1. Old Pyilser: arka, "king", was the standard to address the rule directly.
    When the monarchy became unpopular, it became used as a standard pronoun for males.
  2. Court members betitled Queen Nobunga with plural naráng instead of "she".
    It stuck and became the standard polite "she".
Rikaikishi (some Ataraxian influences)
I
You(Sg.) chú
He íl
She aél
It il
He/She (Gender neutral pers. sg.)
One (animate sg.)
We (exclusive)
We (inclusive)
You (pl.)
They (personal)
They (personal/animate)
They (unambiguous, usually inanimate)
You (sg. or pl.)

Time and Date

Months
  • Arhash (py)
  • Petesh (py)
  • Márash (py)
  • Chiga (hp)
  • Maé (ax)
  • Rokkatsu (hp)
  • Hyuli (py)
  • Ógus (py)
  • Sekkembesh (py)
  • Jūgatsu (hp)
  • Nófom (ax)
  • Baél (py)

py = pyilser, hp = hopponese, ax = ataraxian ethymology

Days of the week
  • Kantau
  • x
  • x
  • x
  • Urban / Ūban
  • x
  • x

Numerals

Numerals in Kojoshi retain a certain stem, and their ending changes depending on what grammatical purpose they serve. Often these endings look similar to the particle with a similar function, although there are many exceptions and irregularities.

When forming large compound numbers, all numerals stay in their standard form and only the last numeral indicates the grammatical function, with 11 and 12 forming exceptions. Particle clusters have to be avoided with numerals. If for example one wants to say "(the item) on the fifth (rank of the shelf)", the particle ending for ~th and "of" would not merge, but instead the lowest tier of information (here the ordinal ~th part) is conveyed in the ending of the numeral, and the other particles are attached after that in their standard form, forming "hile de". Note that these situations usually only occur when the sentences are extremely shortened and all already mentioned information is omitted, as the long form would be "SHELF so hile RANK de".

Numerals in Kojoshi with some declinations
Ingerish Standard
name of number itself, counting, money
Quantifier ("so")
5 dogs, 7 years, 10 degrees
Ordinal number
The 5th row
Year
Usually other time particles following
Day
Day of the month, sim. to ord. number
-ary
primary, secondary, tertiary...
1 ara aso ale atali purímaē
2 yaéra yaésso yaére yaettali sékondaē
3 yúra yússo yúre yuttali yússodo
4 chura chuso chule chutari kwátenaē
5 hira hizo hile hitari kínaē
6 wera weso wele wetari sénaē
7 yota yotso yose yōdari yotsodo
8 utta uttso usse uttari uttsodo
9 inya inso inle indari insodo
10 tén ténso ténle tettari ténsodo
11 tárea táreso tárele táratáli
12 tyáera tyáso tyáre tyaettari
13 chén-yúra chén-yússo chén-yúre
14 chén-chura chén-chuso chén-chule
20 yaé-cchén yaé-cchénso yaé-cchénle
21 yaé-cchén-ara yaé-cchén-aso yaé-cchén-ale
30 yúra-cchen yúra-cchenso yúra-cchénle
40 chura-cchen chura-cchenso chura-cchénle
100 tōku tōkuso tōkure
123 tōku-yaé-cchén-yúra tōku-yaé-cchén-yússo
1,000 kau kazo kalu
1,123 Kau-tōku-yaé-cchén-yúra Kau-tōku-yaé-cchén-yússo
10,000 tén-kau tén-kazo
126,000 tōku-yaé-cchén-wera-kau tōku-yaé-cchén-wera-kazo
1,000,000 rifilem rifilso rifile

Particles

Particles mark the role of a word or clause in a sentence. Unlike affixes, they are used for a wide range of grammatical (as opposed to contentual) functions and are separated from the word they follow by a space. Particle usage depends heavily on the registry: in Tanōikishi and Kēikishi, a lesser number of particles with a broader range of meanings each are used, or omitted when clear from context. Rikaikishi however demands command over a much more nuanced set of particles, which also cannot be omitted by speaker's choice. As a result, the same particle can carry different meanings depending on the registry. The tables below lay out the most nuanced set of particles' functions, for the Rikaikishi registry.

Case

Particle Function Notes
ta / da Topic (the thing the sentence is about). Topic is assumed to be the subject unless marked by other particles.
fa Subject (the thing that "is" or "does"). Is frequently omitted, especially in spoken language.
sum Direkt object (the thing that is directly affected by an action).
ki Indirekt object (the thing that is indirectly affected by the action). For most cases there are more distinct particles. Is used in R.I. if the proper particle is unknown, e.g. not enough context, or to put specific emphasis on the fact that something is INdirectly affected (e.g. although it is not present). Can replace most indirect object markers in T.I. and K.I.
dash To be known or called as something, consisting or being made up of some things or material, to be different by an amount. Also classified as a sentence ending marker.
PH Doing something with something, using something as an instrumental for an aim.

Connection

Particle Function Notes
so Possession or subordination, also metaphorically. Uncle's house, cellar of the building, shape of the cloud, leaf-colour.
ko Equal and complete and. Two or more words or clauses are combined and seen as one grammatical unit.
Equal and incomplete and. Two or more words or clauses are combined and seen as one grammatical unit.
mi Subordinating and, or with. Two or more words or clauses are combined and seen as one grammatical unit. The word before the marker is the accompanying part.
kyam Inclusive or. Statement is true if at least one of the conditions is true.
koffyaem Exclusive or, XOR. Statement is true if one and only one of the conditions is true.

When listing more than two marked words or clauses, they can be separated by a comma and only the last instance of the particle is spelled out.

Comparing and Quantifying

Particle Function Notes
gwol Something is same as or equal to something in quality or quantity.
ayel Something is not same as or unequal to something in quality or quantity. Can also be expressed with gwol and negation of the verb.
PH Something is similar to something in quality or quantity. One of few particles only acceptable in T.I. and K.I.
PH Less than something.
PH More than something.
pa Relativises an amount per something.
PH Uncertainty about an exact amount, ca..

Time

Particle Function Notes
gae When, in a year, at a point in time. When used with years, the -tali or -tari and gea contracts to -taring or -taling.
anshue Before a point in time.
yéri After a point in time.
zuma For a duration.
hyeto Since a point in time, from a point in time on.
cho Until a point in time.
wazū While something happend, during something.
p

Location

Particle Function Notes
bue In(side) of something.
sochi Outside of something. Also used as a productive prefix.
aéku At or next to something, usually a point.
hakki At or next to something, usually a line or area.
abu Above
de On something, i.e. above and in contact.
takyoe Below
PH Underneath something, i.e. below and in contact.
máre Infront of something from the viewer's perspective, i.e. between the something and the viewer. Replaces PH in T.I. and K.I.
PH Infront of something from the reference object's perspective, i.e. on the front side of the object.
hintā Behind something from the viewer's perspective, i.e. the reference object blocks the viewer's view.
yete Behind of something from the reference object's perspective, i.e. on the back side of the object.
mijae (in)between
p

Direction

Particle Function Notes
re Movement or direction of subject towards something.
al Movement or direction of subject (away) from something.
hyuém Movement or direction of the direct object towards something.
sinka Movement or direction of the direct object (away) from something.
jung Into something
goel Out of something
bizal Through, via. Can sometimes be used interchangeably with PH (instrumental with).

Condition

Particle Function Notes
chú / shú Likely if If it rains, I will...
baerē Unlikely if If it rained, I would...
nyuel Theoretical, impossible if If it had rained, I would have...

Causal

Particle Function Notes
sokki Something happens inevitably because of something. Marks the factual reason of an action. Because it rained, I am wet
tamni Something happens partially because of something. Marks one underlying or partially reason for an action. I bought this present because of you (for someone else, but you told me about this particular article).
lui Something happens because of or for the sake of something. Marks the reason, justification or incentive of an action. I bought a present for you. (I needed one to give to you on your birthday). ALso used for referencing legal requirements that lead to one's actions.
nijúinde About or concerning what something is or does. Also used for areas of responsibilities (e.g. courts) or topics (e.g. museums).
kāwaryuzu Something happens despite a seemingly contrary fact.
nōtomzū Two or more seemingly contrary things happen at the same time, yet, on the other hand. Stands at the beginning of the second clause.


Sentence ending

Particle Function Notes
lin Question, used both for polar (yes/no) and open questions.
mon Milder question or uncertain statement when seeking clarification, confirmation or urging the listener to elaborate on the topic.
kue / gue Direct quote, usually followed by a verb like "say", "tell", "hear" etc. Kue if the final sound of the quote is a vowel, gue if it is a consonant.
dash Indirect quote, usually followed by a verb like "say", "tell", "hear" etc. Also classified as a case marker.

Pronouns and Determiners

Pronouns in Kojolese differ depending on the register used. The degree of nuancedness varies depending on the register, and some pronouns have different meanings in different registers despite being spelled and pronounced the same.

Tanōikishi, mostly from Pilser bases
I yaesh
You (sg.&pl.) do/dō1
He/She nya/nyā1
It ji/jī1
We (inlc.&exl.) mel
They naráng
  1. Depending on whether a vowel (long) or consonant (short) is following
Kēikishi, strong Hopponese influence
I wádash1
You (sg.&pl.) kigang
He alga/al
She naráng2
It chira/occhira
We (exlc.) mel
We (inlc.) kigákkodash
They kára
  1. Court members betitled Queen Nobunga with plural naráng instead of "she"; it stuck and became the standard polite "she".
Rikaikishi, partly influenced by Ataraxian
I je
You(Sg.) chú
He íl
She aél
It il
He/She (Gender neutral pers. sg.)
One (animate sg., "a person" or animal) hom
We (exclusive)
We (inclusive)
You (pl.)
They (personal) aelé
They (personal/animate)
They (unambiguous, usually inanimate)
You (sg. or pl.)
  • here: ai
  • this/these (one here) (pronoun; "I like this"): aile
  • this/these (one here) (determiner; "I like this book"): amren
  • there: kō
  • this/these (one there) (pronoun): kōle
  • this/these (one there) (determiner): kol

Verb Conjugation and Modal Verbs

Verbs in Kojolese are conjugated in 6 tenses (past, present and future, each with an optional progressive aspect), genera verbi (active and passive), and can be further modified with modal verbs (want, should, let's...). Kojolese is an agglutinative language, meaning verb modifying morphems can be added to the verb indefinitely until the meaning becomes too complicated for even natives to understand.

In the simple present every verb end in -u, for the progressive aspect this becomes -um. The simple past and past progressive are created with -e and -em, the future and the future progressive (only rarely used) are marked with -i and -im respectively. This also applies to modal verbs.

The active mood is unmarked. The most common way to express passiveness in a larger sentence is to use the (transitive) verb in a noun modifying clause before the respective noun. For example, odamishe tsuri fa toidaebu would mean "the sold flower blooms"/"the flower, that was sold, blooms". The modal verb o.rau was used to turn every verb into the passive form, with the final -u of the verb changing to an "o" (unless there is another vowel before the final -u, then the bridge vowel is not needed). This can indicate passive mood without changing the word order, however in modern Kojolese that is usually perceived as archaic use of language. In passive sentences where in Ingerish the objective of the speaker is to leave out the subject, the subject can simply be omitted in Kojolese and the thing the action is being done to is still marked with the direct subject marker SUM. The sentence "Yaesh sum byoeltsi" would mean "I will be killed", or literally "something (omitted) will kill me".

Verb forms (including modal verbs) can all be negated with the modal verb (u).rau. Where the negation(s) take place in the chains of main verb and modal verbs is very important to the meaning; for example, mish.rai.sau (buy.not.want) means "I don't want to BUY", but mishi.sa.rau (buy.want.not) means "I don't WANT to buy" (but I NEED to/was FORCED to...).

Modal verbs follow the verb they modify, and can build long chains. In the standard form, the modal verb overwrites the tense of the main verb. When it is important to retain the past or future tense of the main verb, the tenses themselves need to be expressed by another modal verb in between the main verb and the following modal verbs. These tense markers are the origin of the modern (shortened) tense forms. In Rikaikishi it is necessary to always use the modal verb form for the past and future tenses when adding modal verbs after the verb, and use the plain form strictly for the present tense. The present progressive aspect is lost in these cases and needs to be emphasized with marker words such as "right now".

Modal verbs usually consist of one or two syllables, and change the last syllable of the predecessor depending on the syllable structure. There are three ways the final syllable(s) of a verb (including modal verbs themselves) can look like:

  • M-u (the final u finishes off a syllable starting with a versatile consonant) (Type 1)
  • F-u (the final u finishes off a syllable starting with a fixed consonant) (Type 2)
  • -V-u (the -u stands alone after a syllable ending in a vowel) (Type 3)

FC=fixed cons., can only stand at beginning; M=Versatile cons.; V=Vowel

Depending on the types above, modal verbs might simply change the -u to another vowel, keep the -u, or attach themselves to the stem (e.g. leave out the bridge vowel completely).

i.sau - to want á.u - to can o.myu - to try e.kkyu- must ("soft"; in order for something else) -must ("hard"; under any condition) (u).rau - NOT; U only when there is a fixed consonant before final -u, e.g. syllable needs to be completed. ue.meru - begin -.ngu - to end i.salnu- shall, is supposed to, imperative in K.I. o.rau - passive

To be

For nouns and adjectives, the verb "to be" usually does most of the inflection such as tense marking, negating etc. that are not done by the particles (which can express a wide range of aspects such as possessiveness, reasoning or change). Like in Ingerish, "to be" can also indicate existence or location. The following table gives an overview over the several translations of "to be" in Kojolese, depending on the registry and the use as a copula.

Copula
"X is Y"
Location
"X is there/exists"
T.I. linaé(lu)
usually omitted
K.I. ku uru
R.I. nambu

Affixes

Affixes are used to create compound words with a more nuanced meaning compared to the base word. Unlike Particles, they do not influence the grammatical but the contentual function of a word and are not separated by a space mark. They can be added after (suffix) or before (prefix) the base word.

Changing word class

To
From
Verb Noun Adjective
Verb - root (sometimes full verb)+-doen/-molno/-sói/-hīchon...: standard nominalisation
stem+sha/cha: "doer"
-u/e/i.mfel (not to be confused with Ingerish -ing or -ed form, usually carries different meaning than equivalent simple noun-modifying clause ("analytical" instead of "analysing")
Noun -yu/-shu turns noun into action most commonly associated; actor -> to act
To make something <noun>; large array of affixes and prefixes, see below the table
...
- -daeki creates common adjective
...
...
Adjective to make something <adjective>: -ku/-jaeyu/-yōnshu
to become <adjective>: PH.
-msol creates common noun: liberal<ism>
sha/cha a person that is...
-

verb root: drop the final syllable
verb stem: drop the final u when preceding consonant can be put at the end of a syllable, otherwise change u to i.

Place names

  • -sul common for towns and cities
  • -uel common for villages
  • -kwen bath, spa town
  • -tsūm like -dom in dukedom, kingdom etc
  • -chae added to aforementioned suffixes to create the general word for village, city etc.
  • -chi market
  • -nai rock, mountain
  • -gwo valley, side of a mountain slide
  • -rū valley, plain between to mountains

Streets

  • -roekka bypass, through-pass
  • -tyambun planned street running orthogonal to purposeful axis
  • -tyam'mi planned scenic park-avenue, usually with trees and visual axis
  • -daitō large representative boulevard
  • -kesha major road
  • -toku neighbourhood road
  • -michi common street
  • -sol path, old trade route
  • -tsu narrow alley
  • -kal (race) track
  • sal large representative ring road
  • Gúwan square

Qualitative

  • zóng(shin)- central (main)
  • shi- central (region)
  • shad-(vowel) / shadd-(syllable with versatile cons./h, cons. replaced by dd) / sha-(syllables with fixed cons., fixed cons. doubled) far
  • dō- regional
  • ta- large, big, major, of a different scale
  • ko- small, minor
  • hakk-/hang/, (-vowel/w->y/y, -consonant) special, out of the ordinary, unusual
  • sō-/sōf (-cons., -vowel) ordinary, normal, usual, general
  • soém/soémi (-vowel.,-cons.) semi-, half, hybrid
  • bol- all, overview
  • miji- inter-
  • bué- intra-
  • sochi- out of, foreign
  • arha- first, starting point (arhazi, arhawe)
  • nakkō- prior (nakkōzi, nakkōwe)
  • a'-(cons.) / ā-(w, y) / apy-(vowel) next, subsequent(ajji, azi, āwe)
  • baélj-(vowel) / baél- last ending point(baélzi, baélwe)
  • icch- inwards, impact, to (be) hit, arrivals
  • hyoel- to buy, to win for one's side
  • ota-/oda- to let go/give away/to loosen
  • maekk- outward, to go away/to flee/to depart
  • oso- like Ingerish re-, "again" or "back"
  • saekk- / sae-(dbl. cons.) to go on, continue, to not end

Noun specifiers and generalizers

  • -we generic building, example: hyosilwe, office building; Gēshusamnengwe, Opera house; Yínyuē-Taitaiwe, theatre ...
  • -sha creates a profession etc. from a noun or sometimes from a verb: Demomínzu<sha> -> Democracy<crat>
  • -saē -fare, as in shipfare, airfare; -layer/-level, as in federal level, surface layer
  • -lai -craft as in aircraft, motorcraft
  • -ka palace, residency (archaic)
  • -kaso research institute
  • -zi some type of public transportation, usually rail: Chezi, Norikichezi, Dōzi, Dyanchezi
  • -kanú shop
  • -díso place, site (construction site etc.)
  • -gyu area, site (industrial/commercial area, landuse etc.)
  • -gwo plant, as in "power plant", or work, as in "waterworks"