|• Mayor||Riko Lazákom-Gomez|
|• Total||1312.6 km2|
|• Census (2020)||8,000,000|
Geography and Climate
The city lies on the bank of the river Kime. The terrain is relatively flat with only some smooth hills. The most notable peak is the castle hill on the old town, which provided an easily defensible shelter in ancient times. The terrain turns slightly more hilly away from the river bed to the north-west and south-east of the city. To the west of the city, the Zāle river ends in a protected wetland area. Pyingshum experiences humid subtropical climate (Cfa).
DIAGRAM: POPULATION DEVELOPMENT
The area around today's Pyingshum was inhabited by various tribes without apparent cultural connections or language since the stone age. There have been findings of ancient tools and cave drawings as well as primitive clothing. Earliest housing and farming facilities found date back to around 9,000 b.c.
200 until 950: Tyússen
During this time the first small cities along the northern Kime were forming, amongst them the ancestor of today's Pyingshum, Tyússen. This settlement was developing on a major hill carved by the river Kime, which is today known as the Castle Hill in Kūtokkyaen-Pang. There are no physical remains of this city.
950 until 1249: PH
The region entered a temporary dark age due to intense wars. Several small potentates in the region tried to seize power from each other. Eventually, in the 1240's after a large battle, Abdi-Likk and his troops captured the city of Tyússen on today's Castle Hill. Damaged by the intense fighting, they started rebuilding much of the town in the following years. However, meanwhile the Krun'a merchant family, who had more or less ruled over the city previously, managed to secretly gain support amongst opponents of Abdi-Likk, and prepared for a surprising re-capturing of the city. In 1249 they stormed the still unfortified city with the unified troops of many formerly hostile fighters, and killed all members of Abdi-Likk's clan. They built a new city, "Pyilsshum'yu", at the feet of the hill, and a military bastion on the hill top.
1249 until 1620: Early Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty
The Krun'a clan founded the new Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty lineage, in which many of the collaborates who enabled the recapturing of the city were included via marriages and other arrangements. The city at the feet of Castle hill continued to grow and generate revenue for the Pyilser-krun'a clan. Many remains of this old Pyingshum can still be seen today in Kūtokkyaen-Pang. The bastion ontop Castle Hill over time grew into a luxury residence.
The Pyilser-krun'a lineage, which in the 17th century would go on to unify and rule the modern Kojolese nation state, at this point controlled only an area of about 1,000 km² immediately around Pyingshum.
1620 until 1668: The Thousand Kingdoms' War and Kojolese Unification
Main article: The Thousand Kingdoms' War and Kojolese Unification
The escalating war between the Kojolese kingdoms and a great famine in 1620 was also felt in Pyingshum. Due to a good balance of handling the mass influx of foreigners to the city and surroundings while at the same time upholding military strength against concurring kingdoms, Pyingshum was not as heavily damaged as many other major cities and emerged from the struggles in good conditions. Because the kingdom happened to do quite well economically and gained influence after the wave, Surb Rēkku from the Pyilser-krun'a dynasty intensified his aspiration to gain more control over the other kingdoms in the area from the early 1630's on, and his kingdom slowly expanded.
1668 until 1828: High Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty
After the Kojolese unification under Surb Rēkku, Pyingshum became the capital of the new Kingdom of Kojo. The country entered a phase called "High Pyilser-krun'a Dynasty", which was marked by a large draw of administration, science and trade to the new nation's capital, where it flourished. The large influx of new inhabitants from all over the country into the already crammed city made Surb Rēkku commission an extension of the century-old city wall. He also initiated the construction of the "Beautiful Princess Nobun'ga Bridge" ("Mēonra Nabun'ga Kamul") in the new western part of the city, which posed the first permanent construction crossing the river in the area.
Around the beginning of the 19th century, the King commissioned the first planned expansion of the city in post-medieval times, with the erection of Jiuefum Bei, "Rectangle Quarters", in today's Goengyuē-Pang. For the most part however, the monarchy was not overly concerned with mindfully facilitating the population growth caused by the first effects of early industrialisation.
1828 until 1939: Revolution and First Constitution
Despite the revolution and downfall of the monarchy being fuelled by rising dissatisfaction among the working class throughout all of Kojo, the decisive events took place in the capital. While it lead to the demolition of the royal palace ontop of Castle Hill, most parts of the old town remained intact.
After the democratic constitution was passed by the new parliament in 1834, it was decided not to construct the new government buildings in the old town, but to build a new planned city quarter to the north-east of the city. This was also done with leaving room for future growth in mind. The road layout as well as the architecture was supervised by lead city planner and architect Tunmaldu-Oejaén Ozuman. This area still attracts visitors today who marvel at the distinct Ozuman Style.
Although the city planners knew that over time the two city centres would probably merge and together form the centre of a much larger city, the unexpected quick rise of industrialisation drew so much people into the city that the city doubled in size in only a few yeats. Railway traffic increased as well, with many different railway termini springing up all over the city. The first section of metro line 1 began operation in 1898.
For an overview over the development of railways, see the respective chapters.
In the 1970's the general shortage of residential and especially office spaces in Pyingshum was everything but declining, and with globalisation there was a special need for large scale office developments to accommodate global enterprises. Building modern skyscrapers across the city was perceived as undesirable, since this would have severely disrupted the city's skyline and architectural merit. Therefore it was decided, under the impression of the principle of functional structuring, to move Aku-Dyanchezi from Doíku-Pang further south, to invest heavily into new automobile and public transit infrastructure, and to give modern architects a playground to build glass high rises in front of the relocated railway station on the area formerly used by railways and industry. Basic developments were finished alongside with the first office towers in the 1980's, and the last empty blocks were being filled in the late 1990's. Due to ever growing land value and office space demand, old mid-rise buildings from the early stage of development are now increasingly being taken down and replaced with new towers, leading to a mixture of architectural styles from the 80's to contemporary ones.
Architecture, layout and spatial planning, monuments
Mayor and City Government
The mayor is elected by a city-wide popular vote with a run-off between the two strongest candidates in case no candidate reaches half of the vote in the first round. The current mayor, 54 year-old Riko Lazákom-Gomez, is not party-affiliated but attested to ideologically align with BF and AFK. He was elected in 2017. The term length is six years with no fixed term limit other than the mandatory retirement age of 70. The mayor presides over the city council meetings. The mayor's vote is tie-breaking. The mayor appoints the sub-mayors and decides on their fields of responsibility, however the city council has to approve them. As a result, the mayor usually tries to build a sort of government coalition with fractions in the city council and appoints candidates associated with them, similar to ministers in the national government. Unlike on the national level however, the mayor can formally give instructions to the sub-mayors. Also unlike on the national level, the sub-mayors usually (with the exception of I and V, who directly head an agency in their department which also aids in coordinating the other agencies in the department) do not command a dedicated agency akin to a ministry, instead directly managing their subordinate agencies. The organisation chart to the right displays the structure of Pyingshum's administration to the buéro-level. For detailed information about the role of municipal, regional and national governance, refer to the respective article.
After the 2018 council election, Mayor Lazákom-Gomez negotiated a coalition of MDK, BF and AFK. As aresult, the 1st Vice-Major is a MDK member and the 2nd Vice-Mayor from BF. The other departments were also handed over to different sub-mayors.
The Mayor of Pyingshum enjoys a high profile not only among the city's populace but on the national stage as well. With no autonomous territorial authority between the nation state and the municipalities, mayors and hibu-chiefs are the only major political voice underneath the national government - and, as opposed to the Chancellor, often elected directly by the electorate, such as the case in Pyingshum. Directly representing about a fifth of Kojo's population and leading the economic and cultural heart of the nation, the Mayor of Pyingshum is recognised in public discourse as about as relevant as important ministers. Historically, this is reflected in a strong rivalry between the Mayor of Pyingshum and the Chancellor of the Kojolese Republic, even when both offices were occupied by politicians from the same party.
The council consists of 97 councilmen and -women, elected every four years by proportional representation in 10 voting districts. Those are congruent to one Dengshō each, with the exception of the inner city, which is divided into one district north and one south of the river Kime. In every voting district, every party or voters' asociation can put up a list of candidates for election, indicating the party's preference regarding their order. Independent candidates can run as well. Every voter can either cast three votes for any candidate(s) they like, even if they run on different party lists, or cast all three votes for a party list with no regards to the candidates. Independent candidates are elected if they gain enough votes in their voting district equivalent to at least 1.03 % of the city-wide vote. The number of seats a party wins on the city council is proportional to its share of all votes cast for its lists city-wide; only parties with a share of votes larger than 4 % are considered. The number of seats of a party allocated to a party's district list is proportional to the share of that list's votes from all votes for that party city wide. The seats on a party's lists are allocated to candidates in the order of their number of votes. If councillors leave the council more than 3 months before an election, the seat is filled by the candidate with the next most votes on the list.
The 2018 municipal election resulted in the following seat distribution:
|Party||Share of votes||Seats|
|RK (centre-conservative)||23 %||22|
|MDK (social-democratic)||20 %||19|
|BF (green)||19 %||19|
|AFK (liberal)||14 %||14|
|GD (socialist)||11 %||11|
|GAN (authoritarian-right)||5 %||5|
|MKL (nationalistic-ecologists)||4 %||4|
|Independent candidates||4 %||3|
Dengshōs and Pangs
Pyingshum is made up of nine boroughs (Dengshō), which in turn are divided into a total of xx Pangs. Unlike most other cities in Kojo, not all power is vested in the central city government. Pyingshum is one of only two Kojolese cities that have a second local layer of government on the borough-level. They have some competences in the area of road construction, amenities, ordinances, building permits etc. While elections of the local borough-councils are analogous and simultaneous to the city-council, the borough mayors are not elected by the people directly but instead elected by the respective borough-council. They are also not head of the local administration but instead perform mostly representative functions. Unlike the city council and mayor, sitting on a borough-council or being borough-mayor are honorary offices with small expense allowances instead of fixed remunerations. The borough-councils further appoint members of neighbourhood-boards. They are made up of about five to 30 adept residents of the Pang who advise the borough- and sometimes city-council on local matters.
For a list of and information about all Dengshōs and Pangs in the city, refer to the main article: Administrative divisions of Kojo#Pyingshum-sur.
The most common mode of transportation in Pyingshum is public transit, at 34 % of all trips. Walking, private motor vehicles and cycling follow at 30 %, 23 % and 13 % respectively. At 3.7, the average number of trips per day and person is slightly higher than the national average of 3.5. There are 280 cars per 1,000 inhabitants. 43 % of households, accounting for 59 % of the population, have access to at least one privately owned car.
Many national motorways radiate out from the city. They end at the ca. 40 km long, central ring motorway G100 that encompasses the inner city. Several tangential motorways form a less circular, second ring of motorways through the suburbs.
Since the rise of motorisation, rising motor traffic has been dealt with in two complementary ways: on one hand the city tried to meet the demand by building high-capacity car infrastructure, mostly from the 1940's till 70's, often at the costs of local neighbourhoods. On the other hand, car usage in the inner city has always been discouraged in a number of ways. Since the 60's, many narrow streets in central neighbourhoods have been turned into pedestrian and bike priority or only streets. The vast public transportation network has constantly been upgraded to provide attractive alternatives to the private car. There is virtually no free public parking, and high fees are imposed on car ownership in the inner city in general. Like on most national highways, users have to pay tolls to use them. In Pyingshum during rush hour, additional congestion charges apply which can up to double the toll or even quadruple the toll on the G 100 compared to the national standard. Most of the city is also designated as low-emission vehicle zone. It is possible to buy-out one's vehicle from this ban by paying, depending on the vehicle's emissions, a fee from 3,500 Zubi up to 15,000 Zubi (~600 int$) per month. The car sticker given out to these exempt vehicles is also known as "Daiamondoshi-medal", because most of them belong to a super rich elite who resides in Daiamondoshi-Pang and are willing to pay these exorbitant amounts to be able to show off their prestige cars.
Rail Network and Major Stations
The growth of the railway network is closely tied to the general history of the city. The first lines were built by private companies in the second half of the 19th century, with most companies building one or more terminus stations. Throughout the 20th century, several stations were moved further out of the city center and railway lines extending into the city were dismantled and replaced by underground metro or later Papáchē lines. Limbē-Dyanchezi was opened in 1909 to take over most services to Ozuman Chezi in Daiamondoshi-Pang, Kibō-Dyanchezi in 1929 to replace Humenyamin Chezi, also in Daiamondoshi, and Aku-Dyanchezi in several phases in the 1970's as a replacement for the overburdened old Akuchezi in Doíku-Pang. ALready in the 1960's, many suburban railway lines that until this point terminated somewhere on the edge of the inner city were connected with new underground tunnels to form the Papáchē network.
There is a wide range of public transportation systems enabling inhabitants and visitors of the city to move around without the need for a car. While being operated by several different companies (even excluding niche services such as shuttle busses or sightseeing tours) they can be used using an integrated fare and ticketing system that encompasses all of Pyingshum-iki. This system, as well as passenger information and coordination between the different agencies, is provided by the regional administration of Pyingshum-iki. For public transportation systems aimed at long distances, please refer to Long-distance Rail or Airfare.
Regional trains run on regular 1,435 mm gauge railway tracks usually shared with other freight or passenger trains and are mostly used to travel between Pyingshum and neighbouring towns and cities. On some relations inside the city, they can be used as an express alternative to the Papáchē, however all services terminate at one of the three railway termini. Regional trains are operated by Kojo Hyengshō Sanan (KHS, Kojo Railway Company), which is owned by the national government. Services are subsidised by the Pyingshum-iki region.
(Service pattern and map)
Papáta Huwochē (Express Trains)
Originating from suburban main line services terminating at the city's terminus stations, the opening of tunnel sections underneath the inner city in the 1960's marked the entrance of the new Express Trains (lit. "Express Liners", Papáta Huwochē or short Papáchē, named in reference to the more local Metro services). As a result, they run on the same type of tracks and electrification as standard main line trains, however the tunnel crossections are incompatible and the two networks are independent in everyday operation. They mostly serve passengers from the suburbs or immediate neighbouring towns who want to travel to or through the city center. While lines A, B, D and E were built and are owned and operated by the Kassulgōsaei Papáta Huwochē Sanan (KPHS, Capital Region Express Train Company), whose shares are owned by the city of Pyingshum as well as other municipalities in Pyingshum-iki served by the network, lines C and F are owned and operated by KHS. This is because the infrastructure of the ring line C and the tangentional line F was developed by KHS out of the circumventional main line ring and a freight bypass in the 1980's and 2000's. Especially the infrastructure of line F is still used by some freight trains today.
(Service pattern and map)
Chitakyoe Huwochē (Metro)
The Pyingshum Metro (Chitakyoe Huwochē, lit. "underground liners", short Chitachē) is one of the oldest underground railways in the world. The network is used to get around the inner city and covers an area approximately equal to the railway ring line. With some older lines operating on narrow gauges akin to tram lines, later lines were built at standard gauge. Tunnel crossections however are much narrower than main line standards, and electrification takes place via a third rail on most lines. The Metro is operated by Pyingshum Kōkyō Susyong Unzuó (PKSU, Pyingshum Public Transport Authority), which is solely owned by the city of Pyingshum.
|4||Spring Bud||80 m|
|Green||120 m||Self-intersecting circle line, name change at Milaen'yum.|
|6||Electric Green||100 m|
|8||Medium Spring Green||120 m|
|10||Blue Bolt||120 m|
|11||Blue (RYB)||80 m|
|13||Electric Ultramarine||120 m|
|15||Magenta||80 m||Platform length extendable to 140 m|
|The first section of line 1 opens in 1898 and connects the planned city expansion from the middle of the 19th century, Daiamondoshi-Pang, to the old town. Until 1905, line 2 and 3 are constructed and line 1 prolonged to the old Akuchezi. As old railway termini are relocated and enlarged, the metro is expanded to ensure swift connections into the city center, most notably by line 5 from the new Kibō-Dyanchezi to Kahyuemgúchi re Chezi. Line 4 connects the railway line terminating at the presidential mansion to the city center. By 1920, the network's coverages is increased even further by additional lines. Line 7 offers the first east-west connection south of the Kime and is intended to form a complete circle line in the future. This is achieved by 1940. Also by 1940, line 4 gets an additional western branch to the new Limbē-Dyanchezi.|
|Between 1940 and 1960, besided several extensions, some major reconfigurations occur. The north-western branch of line 4 becomes its own line, with quadruple tracks between Zaeppa and Huályoe, before turning south towards Gyu-Pang. With Pamyung-Pang being redeveloped into an ultra-dense residential quarter, line 7 is split here, with line 7 now continuing on a new tangential line further to the west and the former branch to Limbē-Dyanchezi becoming its own line 9 with new tracks continuing further north. Expansion of the network until 1980 is then largely influenced by the planned construction of a dedicated highrise CBD in Chinkágaldosim-Pang and the relocation of the southern station. Most notably, the southern branches of line 5 and 9 swap, enabling a direct connection from Limbē-Dyanchezi to Aku-Dyanchezi. Line 9 is massively prolonged through the east of the city to form a self-intersecting circle line. Since the late 70's, the planning for the Papáchē network also influences future plans for the metro network, which after the opening of the Papáchē will play an even bigger role in distributing suburban traffic from the Papáchē stations thoughout the inner city instead of offering direct access from the suburbs into the city center. Between 1980 and 2020, additional capacity and coverage is added, most notably by finishing the planned metro expansions around Chinkágaldosim-Pang and constructing line 15, the newest line of the network, as a dedicated connector between Limbē-Dyanchezi and Aku-Dyanchezi. After its opening, the southern branches of line 5 and 9 are swapped again back to their configuration before the 1970's. For the next 20 years, a number of tangential (5, 7) and radial (6/11, 10, 12, 13) epansions are projected and in various stages of planning or construction.|
Shigájanchoel (Light Rail)
Until the middle of the 20th century, Pyingshum had a dense tram network serving the inner city as well as some suburbs of that time. With the expansion of the Metro and later the rise of private motorisation, the network got cut back over the decades until only three lines remained. Slow expansions of those recommenced in the 1990's and from 1998 to 2009 a new tangential line was opened in the western suburbs, resulting in the modern network of four unconnected tram lines. While the three legacy lines run on a narrow gauge auf 1,060 mm, the new western line runs on standard gauge. The three legacy lines have very short stopping distances and are mostly used to access the neighbourhoods they run through. In that sense, they are an intermediate between a metro line and a high-frequency bus route. The new western tram line also closes some coverage gaps regarding rail-bound transit, but is also used for a fair share of longer, interborough transit. Like the Metro, all tram lines are operated by PKSU.
Busses are an indispensible part of the public transportation network. Especially in the suburbs, where population density is not high enough to justify a close-knit rail network, they feed passengers to Metro and Papáchē stations. In more central areas, where competition by rail-bound transit is high, there is a wide variety of services to further improve local accessibility or offer transfer-free rides between areas not directly connected by alternative modes of transit. Busses are either operated by PKSU or, especially for services crossing the city boundary, the respective service providers of neighbouring municipalities.
There are seven categories of bus services with different stopping patterns and service characteristics, each recogniseable from the line code.
|Standard Bus||200-599||Run on intervalls of 10 to 30 minutes, up to 60 minutes in the periphery during fringe hours.|
|Neighbourhood Bus||1-9 for Dengshō + five letters||Smaller vehicles covering otherwise not well accessible areas with meandering routes and connecting them to a near by transit hub. Frequencies of 15 to 60 minutes.|
|Metro Bus||M + 01-99 + small letter to distinguish leg||Like standard bus, but on a core section very high frequencies (one bus every 1 to 3 minutes) are achieved, usually by overlapping several legs of services, and slightly wider stop spacing.|
|Shuttle Bus||P + 01-99||Connects specific destinations with none or only few stops inbetween, often on tangential routes and via motorways. Usually low frequency of one bus every 15 to 30 minutes.|
|Event Bus||E + 01-99||Like Shuttle Bus, but only for the duration of a specific events with high attendence and with higher frequency.|
|Replacement Bus||T + number or letter of replaced line + small letter to distinguish different services||Replaces a rail-bound transit line, usually during maintanance.|
|Night bus||G + number of replaced line or 200-670||See Night Service.|
Although there is no complete shutdown of the regional trains during night hours, most lines do not run between 1 and 5 am. Notable exceptions are a number of KC services from Pyingshum to large neighbouring cities, which ensures about one to two trains an hour on the important radial main lines.
Papáchē and Huwochē lines run all night on Friday and Saturday night, as well as before holidays, albeit on reduced frequency of one to two trains per hour per Papáchē branch (resulting in about one train every 10 minutes on the core sections) and about 10 to 15 minutes on Metro lines. There is no night service during Sunday night, when most lines are replaced by night busses. During the week, all Papáchē and Metro lines each shut down for two consecutive days: On Monday and Tuesday night from about 11 pm to 5 am, all Metro lines are inspected and smaller repair works are carried out. During this time, Night Busses replace the closed lines with slightly higher frequencies than on Sunday nights. On Wednesday and Thursday night, the same applies to the Papáchē lines.
Most bus lines as well as the Shigájanchoel cease operation at night. To ensure a basic coverage, a less tightly knit network of night busses with different route alignments replaces them. Standard or Metro Busses that do not cease operation at night simply have their line number prefaced by a G.
Fares and Ticketing
Surcharge for regional trains
Interactive Map (Chitachē and Papáchē)
As the nation's largest city and main railway hub, most IC and CC lines terminate in or sometimes pass through Pyingshum. All long-distance trains that serve Pyingshum stop at one of city's three main railway stations (Dyanchezi), with some trains of CC 95 and 96 calling at Zuede-Fuwō Chezi instead being the only exception.
|Terminal and sector||Gates
Pyingshum International Airport, around 50 km to the south of the city center, is the region's principal airport and also functions as a hub and intercontinental gateway for all of Kojo. It served 67.3 million passengers in 2022, making it the busiest airport in Kojo by far both in terms of passenger and freight volume. It is a relatively new airport with its main terminal in the shape of a six-armed starfish. In its center, it features a large tropical garden open to all levels with a cylindrical waterfall entering through an orifice in the roof construction.
The first airport in the city was the Kū A'éropō, opened in the north-east of the city center with a circular airfield in 1916. Its later runway had a usable length of around 1.5 km. In 1939, a second airport was constructed to the south-east of the inner city, named Longte Puechaésa A'éropō. This larger airfield allowed for two parallel runways with a usable length of up to 3.2 km. This became important in the 1960's and onward, when the jet age radically transformed civil aviation and enabled more and more people to fly. The hexagon-shaped main terminal, opened in 1964, is emblematic for that time period and preserved as a historic building to this day. Over the years, as air traffic continued to grow and Kū A'éropō became unfit for most air traffic due to its short runway and noise pollution, more and more side terminals were added at Longte Puechaésa.
It became apparent in the 1980's that further expansions at Longte Puechaésa were unfeasible due to lack of space. Similar to Kū A'éropō, the adverse impacts of noise pollution also became a heated subject of discussion. This also impeded the nation's ability to establish an internationally competitive hub airport. As a result it was decided to construct a large new airport far outside the city boundaries. Quick access to the city and the rest of the country was ensured by planning a dedicated branch line to offer direkt regional train services to the city center and with a high-speed circumvential line, allowing trains from all over the country to bypass Pyingshum with a stop at the airport, already in mind. The first two runways and the first terminal building T5, which nowadays is used by low-cost carriers, opened in 1998. At that point, the airport was only yet accessible by road and bus, as the rail lines were still to be constructed. Still, this added capacity enabled the full closure of Kū A'éropō and the conversion of its airfield into green space and into part of the railway corridor connecting the east of the nation more directly to Kibō-Dyanchezi.
The main terminal building T1 as well as the regional rail connection to the airport opened in phases between 2003 and 2005. This newly added capacity allowed Longte Puechaésa to close for scheduled air traffic in 2004. Consequently, Longte Puechaésa's southern runway was converted into a park area and all side terminals and parking areas were turned into new neighbourhoods and commercial areas. Longte Puechaésa's last runway remains in use for special freight deliveries, government and private flights to this day. The tangential high-speed rail line to the new hub airport opened in 2006 and 2008 to the west and east, respectively. In 2012, Terminal buildings T2 and T3 opened to be primarily used for domestic and short-haul flights. Especially since the 2010's, other international airports in Kojo, most notably Kippa and Yoyomi, experienced a steady decline in passenger numbers due to the large offer of direct flights from the new capital airport and its proximity and high accessibility.
Since 2020, a new midfield addition to terminal 1 is under construction with an expected opening date of 2028. There is also room for an additional second midfield expansion, with demand forecasts indicating demand for such an expansion by the late 2030's. Even more longerm, there are expansion options for T2 towards T1, for a new terminal between T1 and T5 as well as a redevelopment of T5 itself. In 2023, the C arm of T1 is the first arm to be temporarily shut down for a thorough renovation, with the other arms following consecutively.
The river Kime is an important route for freight shipping. Passenger ferries play only a very minor role due to the high number of bridges, however there is a large number of sightseeing tours, especially along the scenic river banks in the inner city and the Sunmyuel Tyanhā, as well as a small number of river cruises.
Pyingshum's ports, from north to south, are:
- Moebi Nafahang (1 basin, with rail)
- Kókōburyu Nafahang (4 basins, with rail)
- Chin Tákoechiwe (1 basin, no rail)
- KART Nafahang (1 basin, no rail)
- Sunmyuel Tyanhā, Mómauel-Pang (sightseeing and river cruises only)
- Kansokkuwīdoling Nafahang, Róng'yeda-Pang (2 basins, private yachts only)
- Porāgu-Parishíla Nafahang (11 basins, with rail, Geolymp)
- Éngkai Kū Nafahang (1 basin, recreational use only)
While Pyingshum accounts for only about a fifth of Kojo's population, its share of the national GDP is almost one third.
Agriculture, fishing or mining play only a very minor role in Pyingshum's urban economy.
While the manufacturing industry accounts for a smaller share in Pyingshum's economic output than other cities in Kojo, it remains a consequential sector overall. Including construction, it accounts for 13 % of the city's GDP and employs a similar share of the workforce. Construction, food and material processing and machinery production as well as niche products contribute over-proportionally to the secondary sector compared to the Kojolese average.
The dominance of the tertiary sector in Pyingshum is even more pronounced than in the rest of the county and other developed nations. It makes up 86 % of the city's economy and employment, with a higher spread of income among workers in this field compared to the primary and secondary sectors.
As a global city, the finance and consulting industry has a strong foothold in Pyingshum. Most larger Kojolese companies have their headquarter in Pyingshum, and the city is the prime location for Kojolese branch offices of international companies. Much of the associated office space is located in the high-rise district Chinkágaldosim-Pang. The Pyingshum Stock Exchange is also situated there. Due to its primacy, Pyingshum is also the nation's largest host of conferences, fairs and leisure events. This is exemplified by various large-scale venues.
Being the most visited city in Kojo, tourism is not only relevant for its directly associated industries such as hospitality, but also for the city's well developed retail, gastronomy, culture and personal service industries. The most pricey retail areas are situated in Daiamondoshi-Pang, where not only the wealthy residents of the neighbourhood themselves but also affluent visitors from all over the world frequent the many exclusive boutiques, delis and jewellers. It is estimated that about 10 million international visitors come to the city every year (spending an average 3.8 nights and 2990 Zubi (130 USD) per night), with an additional 6 million overnight guests from inside Kojo (average: 2.0 nights). The number of domestic day visitors (excluding regular commuters) is thought to be around 40 million, however these numbers are difficult to estimate.
Education and research is also a major economic factor for the city. University students from all over the country and abroad come to study at one the city's many institutions of higher education, both because of their quality of teaching and the high quality of life in the city itself. Consequently, Pyingshum is a highly attractive location for all kinds of research institutions.
Being the nation's capital, the public sector is often assumed to make up a big share of the city's economy. While the national government and parliament contribute heavily to Pyingshum's relevance in Kojo and abroad, for example by attracting a large number of international governmental and non-governmental organisations, public service employment is actually not much higher than in most other cities in the country. This is because for the most part the lower agencies of the national administration, which make up the vast majority of actual employment, are spread throughout the country. The city once calculated that the lower number of children in Pyingshum compared to the national average and the consequentially lower number of school teachers being employed in Pyingshum by the national government in itself alone offsets all employees working in the Chancellery, ministries and parliament. In absolute terms however, the municipal government alone is by far the largest employer within the city, like in most places in Kojo.
The transportation industry also plays a larger than average role in the city's economy. This is mostly due to the high number of logistic businesses as well as the high share of public transportation. As a result, the Pyingshum Kōkyō Susyong Unzuó (Pyingshum Public Transport Authority) is the second largest employer in the city.
- National and International governmental institutions
- National and International NGOs
- Pyingshum-iki institutions
- Pyingshum-sur institutions
- Embassies: see Kojo#Foreign diplomatic missions in Kojo
Education and Research
The city's largest university is Ginjin Ōnagara. 256,900 students are enrolled here. The institution was founded in 1677, at the suggestion of King Surb Rēkku, to strengthen Pyingshum's position in the yet to be unified region of today's Kojo, and was hence named "Rēkku-tami to ishimwaru Ōnagara" (lit. "The University that is owed to King Rēkku"). The old main building is still preserved at Mēonra Nobun'ga Kamul Gúwan in Kūtokkyaen-Pang. After the revolution in 1828, the university was renamed several times until, in 1837, given its current name "Ginjin Ōnagara" ("Free People University"). A new campus was built outside of the city north of Daiamondoshi-Pang, and since 1894 the previous main building is occupied by the Kojolese People's Scientific Society. As the university grew, several new campi around the city were founded. They are not completely congruent with the faculties, but usually most rooms for one faculty are found on one campus, with every campus being able to serve the students' basic needs. The campi are named from I to IIX.
For an overview over all Universities in Pyingshum and Kojo, please refer to the main article.
Culture and Leisure
Major parks and cemeteries, beaches, environs
- Bikkimolno-Dyangfuē (short "Bikkifuē", Zoo), 1900, Bikkifuē-Pang.
- Guóhuwei-kenzai (Botanical Garden), 1846, Lí-Pan.
Sport and Event Venues
- Pyingshum Exhibition Centre, over 1 million m², 1956.
- Pyingshum Conference Center, 1986, Chinkágaldosim-Pang next to Aku-Dyanchezi
- (Old Fair Ground, 1920, Kissha-Pang)
- Kū Aenkaiwe (Pyingshum Old Stadium), 1958, Wakawushi-Pang. Covers 36,000 m² and seats around 50,000 people. Does not conform with modern standards and expectations for a large international stadium. Mostly used for 2nd league sport matches or as an fallback option.
- STAR Kaijōmengwe (STAR Event Hall), 1989, Kyáoling-Pang. Mass events like concerts, indoor-sport etc. Up 70,000 visitors depending on layout.
- Geolymp. For the 1984 Geolympic Games an industrial harbour area was redeveloped:
- Pyingshum Ashkal Aenkaiwe (Pyingshum World Stadium). Building footprint of 70,700 m², can seat up to 85,000 spectators.
- ASA Hall. 11,000 seats, used for indoor ball sport like Badminton and Basketball.
- Baein-Kamkā Ring, 9,000 spectators. Used for the martial arts competitions during the Geolympic games, now Ice Skating.
- Other facilities (re-)built for the 1984 Geolympic Games include
- Aquatics center, Tai Aku-Hyengkōsa Chezi. 17,000 spectators.
- Dōka Dowe
- Izaland Airlines Hall
- Doldae Onagara
- Humenyamin Arihangwe (Amber Archery Hall)
- Magittā Fuézyadoenwe (Nacre Shooting Hall)
- Éshkim Taitaiwe (Great Fencing Hall)
- Al-Abadi Yaélaimankaikal (Al-Abadi Cycling Race Track)
- Jōbun Chigai-Showugan (People's Art Museum), 1847, Ōnagara-Pang. One of five national museums, mostly Kojolese and some foreign artists of all periods
- Modan Chigai-Showugan (Museum od modern Art), 2002, Gankakuchō-Pang. Contemporary art.
- Jōbun Lishi-Showugan (People's History Museum), 1888, Goengyuē-Pang. One of five national museums, dedicated to the national history
- Pyingshum Lishi Showugan (Pyingshum History Museum), 2009, Kūtokkyaen-Pang. Incorporating old structures of the royal military barracks and modern buildings. Dedicated to the development and history of the city.
- Pyingshum Chénbyue (Château Pyinshum), 1964, Kūtokkyaen-Pang. Former palace of the Pyilser-krun'a dynasty that was left in ruins since the revolution. Open-air museum about the obsolete Kojolese monarchy.
- Kojo-Hoppon Hakubutsukan (Kojo-Hoppon Museum), 1980, Kūtokkyaen-Pang. Explorerin the relation between Kojolese and Hopponese history and culture in the past and present.
- Ashkal so Lánche Whowugan (Museum of the World of Insects), 1913, Lí-Pang. Adjacent to the Botanical Garden.
- Demomínzu so Showugan (Democracy Museum), 1976, Goengyuē-Pang. Located at the People's Square next to Parliament.
- 1984 so Ōkurā nijúinde Showugan (Museum dedicated to the Great Fire of 1984), 1991, Gankakuchō-Pang. Museum accompanying the memorial site.
- Shínchopō so Showugan (Museum of the Constitution), 1942, Daiamondoshi-Pang. Located on the central circus, exhibitions about the Kojolese and other international constitutions.
- Sukálpuchā nijúinde Showugan (Sculpture Museum), 1996, Ōnagara-Pang. Located in the Fíngmaru Kenzai.
- Kū Gekkwae (Old Theatre, former Royal Theatre), 1812, Kūtokkyaen-Pang, 480 spectators
- Jōbun-Myeru so Gekkwae (Theatre of the Republic), 1839, Daiamondoshi-Pang, 1130 spectators
- Gēshusamnengwe (Opera House), 1860, Gankakuchō-Pang, 1950 spectators
- Pétanyaé Gekkwae (Pretanic Theatre), 1897, Hintajuemba-Pang, 650 spectators
- Yínyuē-Taitaiwe (Concert hall), 1901, Senjahi-Pang, 3850 spectators
Libraries and Archives
- Zággai Besoegawan (National Libary), 1944, Kami so Kuruchi-Pang. Most comprehensive library in Kojo, hosting one print of almost every Kojolese publication ever made since its opening as well as a large international collection.
- Ashkal so Besoegawan (World's Library), under construction, Kami so Kuruchi-Pang. Project by the World-Archive Organisation, aiming to collect and safely store compressed hardware-backups (such as in the form of quartz-chrystals) of the world's great scientific and poetic literature, news and artworks.
- Zággai Altífō (National Archive), 2003, PH-Pang. Dedicated to storing and preserving all unique objects of value to Kojolese cultural or historical identity that are not on exhibit in art museums or similar. Ranging from war machinery to mummies and earth probes.