The origin of the name Maliorska is still unclear. The most popular theory says it is a combination of words mali ("little") and oral ("eagle") with Slevic possessive adjective suffix -ska/sko. This theory is based on a fact that eagle was a common emblem in medieval Mallyorian state, and is present on historical and contemporary version of the national flag. Ingerish word Mallyore comes from Escadian name Mäljoria and it is in usage since late 19th century. In older Ingerish documents, the country was inscribed as Mallyoria or Maliorland.
|History of Mallyore|
|• Lower Egalian culture||c. 800 BC|
|• Višeslavović dynasty||861|
|• Kingdom of Mallyore||894|
|Union with Escadia||1153-1918|
|• Sibinj Charter||1153|
|• Edict of Toleration||1611|
|• Duchy of Mallyore||1799|
|• Independence||12 June 1918|
|• Blue Revolution||1942-1943|
|• Modern Republic||1973|
|• Egalian Union foundation||1982|
The area known as Mallyore today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period. Fossils dating to the middle Palaeolithic period have been unearthed in northeastern Mallyore, with the most famous and the best presented site near Banovci. Remnants of several Neolithic and Aeneolithic cultures were found in all regions of the country. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory of Mallyore is Grabovac, dating from the Lower Egalian culture of the early Iron Age, around 800 BC.
The ethnogenesis of Mallyorians is uncertain, and there are several competing theories. It is postulated that the Slevic groups who would form Mallyore migrated to these areas in the second half of the 3rd century AD, together with other Egalian Slevic tribes. Pagan Slevic sites have been found in the northwestern parts of the country.
In late 8th century, the Christization of the area by Pretannic and other West Ulethan missionaries began. However, the transition from paganism was a long and tough process which lasted for almost three centuries. The first organized written language was Old Church Mallyorian, used mainly by first priests.
Principality of Črešnja
According to the De Administrando Regno written by Pretannic scholar Cepheus in 9th century, the first Mallyorian state was organized during late 8th century in Črešnja valley, on the northern border of present-day Mallyore and Escadia. Duke Domagoj enlarged territory to river Banava on south and established Sibinj, the capital of Principality of Črešnja. In early 9th century, Držislav I and Časlav defeated Zalivnians and Escadians, extending Mallyorian power. Višeslav overthrowed Časlav's son Mutimir in 861, founding the Višeslavović dynasty.
Kingdom and the Great Union
By the end of 9th century, Maroje the Great (Mallyorian: Maroje Veliki) controlled the area between Udesa and Banuj rivers. He proclaimed himself as a king of the Kingdom of Mallyore in 894, supported and recognized by West Ulethan church authorities. During his rule, the state reached a peak in terms of both area and population. Dmitar Krešimir succesfully opposed Egalian raids, but rising Escadian power threatened his reign. In the Banuvian Wars, the Kingdom of Escadia gained fertile lands in the north. Prior to mid-12th century, Mallyorian kings controlled a territory similar to present-day Mallyore. The Kingdom was often trembled by uprisings and rebellions, resulting in frequent Surian and Escadian attacks.
When king Držislav III died under doubtful circumstances, his wife Helen the Beautiful (Mallyorian: Jelena Lipa) married Escadian king Vyndenira I to save kingdom from Surian invasion. The Union was confirmed by Sibinj Charter (Mallyorian: Sibinjska poveja) in 1153. Although Jelena Lijepa arranged the real union, Escadian kings often misinterpreted the deal after her death. In the beginning, the influence of Mallyorian nobility was strong and they enjoyed extensive rights, mainly through autonomus Mallyorian parliament Sabornik. The rivalry between Mallyorian and Escadian noble houses was intense, causing occasional crises. Several peasant uprisings enfeebled the House of Zrinski, the most powerful Mallyorian noble house, leading to a decline of Mallyorian importance in the Union. By the end of the 14th century, the Kingdom of Mallyore lost all formal autonomy and was split between Escadian counties.
During First Escadian-Surian War (1536-1549), most of the Mallyorian territory was occupied by Surian troopes. After defeating Surians in the Battle of Zalomin, Mallyorian noble Matija Glavinić helped to end the siege of Rilg. Consequently, the Mallyorian nobility regained some power and land, but Mallyore remained unequal in the Union.
In the second half of the 16th century, the territory of Mallyore saw an economic and cultural prosperity. Today, this period is known as the Mallyorian Renaissance: many artists, writers and architects created their famous works, leaving valuable heritage. Trade across Egalian Lake flourished, and some Mallyorian merchants sailed all to the Mediterranean and Pretannic Sea. Nikolovac grew into the second largest city of the Union and most important commerce hub, while Skroj, under Mallyorian control since Escadian-Surian wars, was a crucial port on the Egalian Lake for the Surian Empire. The waves of famine and plague in 1591 and 1616, respectively, slowed down the growth, but Mallyorian area remained one of the most developed parts of the country.
At the threshold of 17th century, the church reformation movements found a stronghold in city of Skroj and Pobanavje region, especially in Banavski Brod. Escadian government strongly opposed local Ballatian movement and fought the protestants. The situation escalated in 1603, when army massacred 900 people in Banavski Brod. The oppression ceased in 1611 with Mrkop Edict of Toleration (Mallyorian: Mrkopski edikt toleranciji) which guaranteed limited freedom to other religions.
With the administrative reform in 1640, the Mallyorian lands were united in one region (Escadian: krai, Mallyorian: županija). Two years later, the attempt to create separate Mallyorian parliament ended with public hanging of organizers in Nikolovac. Absolute authority of Vaalmo IV suppressed efforts to modernize the country and give more rights to the ethnic minorities like Mallyorians and Banuvians. Policies of intensive Escadization and centralization restrained a pursuit for freedom.
In 1676, many coastal cities and towns stood against new ship tax which caused momentous Rastušje uprising. Subsequently, Escadian government imposed an embargo on all ports in the County of Mallyore and redirected trade routes to Banuvian part of Egalian coast, mainly to Varvent. Important commerce hubs like Nikolovac, Svetivan and Skroj were heavily affected, creating extensive economical consequences. Many people emigrated to Varvent and Rilg, or started to smuggle. The ban was withdrawn only seven years later.
The 18th century was an era of stability and progress. The Escadian-Mallyorian Kingdom[note 1], also known as the Great Union expanded to the east, increasing Escadian domination and influence in the wider region. Although Mallyorian lands did not have much political power, the position of Mallyorian cities, merchants and nobles improved. Taami the Great (1714-1750) maintained strong army and powerful bureaucracy under his control. His son Vaasemaa of Otena accepted intellectual and philosophical ideas from Western Uletha, opening many schools and universities which were promoting science, literature and art. Serfdom was completely banned in 1749, just before his death.
In 1788, Mallyorian, Escadian and Drabantian scholars and intellectuals conceived Encyclopædia Egallica, the first general encyclopedia in Central Uletha, which helped in collecting common knowledge and popularization of science.
Duchy of Mallyore
After the death of king Vyndenira XIV in 1796, the Union was quivered by the wars of succession. Mallyorian and Drabantian nobility took a chance and imposed the Act of Varvent, enacted on 5 May 1799. Disunited Escadian nobles ceded Northern Banuvia region to Drabantia and autonomous duchies of Mallyore and Banuvia were established. Consecutively, duchies recognized Valdemaa I as a monarch of Escadian-Mallyorian-Banuvian Kingdom, also known as the Second Union.
The agitation in the Union encouraged Zalivnia, backed up by the Surian Empire, to overtake the land around bordering Udesa river. This area with substantial Zalivnian minority dating from Early Medieval Period was crucial for inland trade with the rest of the world via port of Skroj. Burdened with internal affairs, Escadian government did not provide adequate defence, leading to the Zalivnian occupation of the most of Udesa river valley in late 1801. By 1803, newly-established Mallyorian Home Guard pulled off Zalivnian troops from Promin area, but could not achieve the same elsewhere. Languid Escadian government offered a truce to Zalivnia, which led to peace treaty in 1807. As a result, the Duchy of Mallyore lost important port of Skroj, as well as the land around towns of Maliorski Brod and Smričac, leaving sizable Mallyorian minority outside the homeland.
The Parliament of the Duchy of Mallyore, Sabornik, was restored soon after the Act of Varvent, chaired by elected Duke of Mallyorian Lands. The Duchy had autonomous finances, judiciary, trade policies, administration, educational system and police. Military and foreign affairs were shared with Escadian and Banuvian part of Monarchy, as well as a part of common finances.
The creation of the Duchy sparked off the National Revival movement (Mallyorian: Maliorski narodni preporod) in the first half of the 19th century. Many libraries and cultural institutions as the Mallyorian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Mallyorian: Maliorska akademija znanosti i umitnosti) and Matica maliorska were opened. Mallyorian language was standardized as a counterweight to Escadian, along with promotion of national literature and culture. Numerous newspapers and books were published, boosting national spirit and education.
Along with cultural impulse, the Duchy faced rapid industrialization and urbanization. Nikolovac and Banavski Brod experienced population boom, causing housing shortages. Infrastructure developed swiftly, as a dense network of rails and roads was built. Autonomous trade deals and liberalization accelerated Mallyorian economy, raising the gap with the rest of the Kingdom. In the end of 19th century, social inequality was in rise which led to mass protests and demonstrations, often encouraged by central Escadian government. Mallyorian Parliament demanded higher autonomy and lower payment to the royal treasury. In 1904, the government of the Duchy of Mallyore fought for better status, but it was not granted for Duchy of Banuvia, as central government considered it as an integral part of Escadia. Nine years later, the governments of two duchies tried to run independence referendums, but the organizers were arrested and Banuvian Parliament was dissolved. Finally, boosted with international support and political crisis in Escadia, Mallyorian government held a new referendum in 1918, with vast majority of 94% voting for independence. The first president Jakša Franković proclaimed sovereign Republic of Mallyore on 12 June 1918.
Early independence and the Great War
Although 1920s brought economical growth, political turbulences in neighbouring countries contributed to feeling of instability and fragility. Right-wing government openly endorsed Banuvian independence movement and opposed communist forces in Escadia. The peak of tension was the Eight-Day War in 1929 (Mallyorian: Osmodnevni rat), suspended by international forces. Since then, Mallyore kept closed borders and paused diplomatic relations with Escadian communist regime.
Rising worldwide discord in early 1930s did not affect Egalian region in the beginning. Howbeit, the global economic recession caused by the Great War conduced to the election of far-right populist government and rising nostalgia about lost territories, especially lands in Zalivnia where noticeable Mallyorian minority was still living. The situation was particularly uneasy in Udesa river valley where local conflicts started to pop up on the both sides of the border. The situation escalated into open combat in September 1938 when protests of Mallyorian population in Skroj resulted in 12 casualties. By the end of the year, Mallyorian troops occupated the lands lost in Udesa Wars of 1800s, maintaining status quo in the following years.
The disastrous drought striked whole region in 1942 and 1943, causing additional turmoil and mass demonstrations against the government. Želimir Boravica, one of the generals of the army, turned his unit against the government and started the Blue Revolution. This coup d'état was later connected with the communist government of Escadia. Boravica assembled workers and middle class promising the end of the war, better social situation, food, free housing and new jobs. In late 1943, he set up a 'temporary socialist regime' which lasted more than 30 years.
In 1945, the international community reacted to end the Mallyorian-Zalivnian conflict by forceful establishing of two zones in the occupated area, under direct responsibility of the AN. Zone A, consisting of city of Skroj and surrounding area, was ceded to Zalivnia in 1951, while Zone B, comprising upper Udesa valley, became a part of Mallyorian state once again. Gradually through 1950s, the authoritarian socialist regimes of Egalia had been improving the relations, leading to the enhancement of minority rights.
Socrealism and modern history
The era of Boravica's authoritarian rule was called socrealism, regarding his famous statement: 'Socialism is our only reality and we must defend it under any circumstances.' By the end of decade, all political parties were banned, privately owned companies and estates were nationalized and the economy was based on planned market socialism, closely related to Escadia and Suria.
After the April Resolution in 1954, Boravica detached from Escadian and Surian government, introducing workers' self-management (Mallyorian: radničko samoupravjanje), which created better economic conditions than in other socialist states. In the era of socrealism, Mallyore went through new wave of industrialization and urbanization, resulting in centralization of all functions in Nikolovac and neglecting other parts of the country. Between 1944 and 1975 Nikolovac's population grew 89%, while whole country had a growth rate of 18%. Nonetheless, Boravica's government faced weaker economic growth than countries with free market and democracy, generating dissatisfaction and illegal emigration.
The political climate was repressive during the 1950s, including numerous show trials and hundreds of thousands of political prisoners, but became more open and tolerant after the April Resolution. The Liberalization March in 1962 was brutally stopped with several casualties. In 1973, after Boravica's unexpected death, economic and political difficulties started to mount and the government began to crumble. Several left-wing parties won the first democratic election after 1940 and started implementing social democracy. The financial crisis and lack of political leadership in mid-1970s contributed to instability and short-term governments. 1977 parliamentary election brought conservative-liberal majority to power, implementing free market program with liberalization and deregulation. Mallyorian economy started to grow rapidly again in early 1980s, catching up the developed countries. The period of transition from socrealism to free market and democracy is called the Mallyorian Restoration.
By the end of century, emigration rates had dropped and economic growth had caused a wave of immigration, primarily from Escadia. Today, Mallyore is a high-income advanced economy with very high development indices, a high standard of living, performing favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of a market economy with a comprehensive social security system.
|Geography of Mallyore|
|• Total||41,409.15 km2 |
15,988.16 sq mi
|Population density||102.79 km2 |
266.22 sq mi
|Ethnic groups||Mallyorian (86.2%) Escadian (5.1%) Zalivnian (3.4%) other (5.3%)|
|Time zone||WUT +6 (no DST)|
Mallyore is located in the geographical region of central Uletha, lying mostly between latitudes 50° and 53° N, and longitudes 86° and 90° E. To the west, it borders Zalivnia, delimited by river Udesa. To the north, Egalian Lake forms natural border with Drabantia, while river Črešnja marks border with northern Escadian region of Banuvia. The eastern part of outline bordering Escadia ends in Southern Mountains, which also make border with Surian constituent Republic of Bardash to the south. The territory covers 41,409 km2 (15,988 mi2), excluding Egalian Lake area.
Three physical features dominate Mallyore: the Egalian Lake and its lowlands; the Central Valleys of major rivers such as Banava, Rumina, Udesa and Črešnja, where the vast majority of people lives; and the remote mountainous areas, dominating in the south. Elevation ranges from the shores of the Egalian Lake lying at 112 metres (367 ft), to the Southern Mountains with the highest peak Velika Madra at 2,480 metres (8,136 ft).
Northern Mallyore and Central Valleys have temperate climate that has been described in various sources as humid continental (Köppen Dfb). Southern mountainous regions have more severe climate with colder winter and more precipitation (Köppen Dfc).
Mallyore has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Winters have average temperatures of −8 °C (18 °F) and are characterized by stable snow cover, bright sunshine, and short days. Severe spells of winter weather with cold winds, extreme temperatures of around −30 °C (−22 °F) and heavy snowfalls are common. Summer starts in June and lasts until August. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. Summers have average temperatures of around 20 °C (68 °F), with extremes of 37 °C (99 °F). Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather.
The lowest temperature of −38.5 °C (−37.3 °F) was recorded on 29 January 1962 in Mrkop, and the highest temperature of 40.1 °C (104.2 °F) was recorded on 11 August 2012 in Svetivan. The average annual precipitation varies from 600 mm (24 in) in lowlands to 1,400 mm (55 in) mountains.
The environment on the north and the south of the country somewhat varies. In a typical northern, coastal landscape, a mosaic of forested hills alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. Densely populated valleys are consisted of urban areas and valuable arable land. The south is sparsely populated, with vast intact forests covering mountains.
Mallyore has high proportion of land covered by forests, accounting for 52% of total land area.
The Republic of Mallyore is a unitary state using a parliamentary system of governance since 1918, with interruptions during socrealist period. The head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and has an important integrative role. The president of the Republic is chiefly representative role, but also plays as a commander-in-chief of the national military forces.
A unicameral parliament Sabornik, whose tradition dates from medieval period, holds legislative power. The number of MPs varies between 150 and 160, with 157 of them earning their place in March 2020 parliamentary election to serve four-year term. The executive and administrative authority is held by the(Mallyorian: Vlada Republike Maliorske), headed by the Prime Minister and the council of ministers or cabinet. It is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies.
For a long time after restoring democracy, the two largest political parties in Mallyore were center-right Mallyorian Democratic Party (Mallyorian: Maliorska demokratska stranka, MDS), and left-wing Social-Democratic Union (Mallyorian: Socijaldemokratska unija, SDU). In the last decade, smaller non-traditional, third way parties have experienced a surge, namely environmentalist Green Option (Mallyorian: Zelena opcija) and laissez-faire party Focus (Mallyorian: Fokus), as well as several populist and regional parties.
Law and judiciary system
The Republic of Mallyore has a civil law legal system in which law arises primarily from written statutes, with judges serving merely as implementers and not creators of law. Its development was largely influenced by West Ulethan legal systems. The law is divided into two principal areas, private and public law. Mallyorian legislation is fully harmonized with the legislation of other Egalian Union members. The main law in the country is the current constitution originating in 1974.
The main national courts are the Constitutional Court, which oversees violations of the Constitution, and the Supreme Court, which is the highest court of appeal. There are also administrative, commercial, county and municipal courts.(Mallyorian: Ured državnega odvitnika) is the judicial body constituted of public prosecutors empowered to instigate prosecution of perpetrators of offences.
Law enforcement agencies are organised under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior which consist primarily of the national police force. National security service is the Security and Intelligence Agency (Mallyorian: Sigurnosno-obavištajna agencija, SOA).
Mallyore has established diplomatic relations with most of the world countries. It maintains a dense network of embassies, consulates and permanent diplomatic missions abroad. In distant and smaller countries, Mallyore is often represented through the Egalian Union Delegation system which substitutes individual member embassies.
The country is well integrated in all important international organizations, it is a member state of Assembly of Nations since its foundation and a founding member of Egalian Union.
Historically, Mallyore was always closely related with Escadia, but it also maintained a web of trustworthy allies in West Uletha. Since the creation of the Egalian Union, ties have been strenghtened with other members, chiefly Zalivnia and Drabantia through various intergovernmental infrastructural and scientific projects. A complete freedom of movement and trade between member states has been introduced in 1994, helping the integration in the region.
The(Mallyorian: Oružane snage Republike Maliorske, OSRM) consist of the Air Force, Army, and Navy. The OSRM is headed by the General Staff, which reports to the Defence Minister, who in turn reports to the President. According to the constitution, in case of immediate threat during wartime, the President issues orders directly to the General Staff.
Compulsory conscription was abolished in 1988. Prior to that year, military service was obligatory for men at age 18 with conscripts serving six-month tours of duty, reduced in 1976 from the earlier scheme of nine-month conscription tours during socrealist regime. Today, the country maintains around 20,000 active personnel and 3,000 voluntary conscripts.
Mallyore is divided into 9 counties (Mallyorian: županije) and capital city of Nikolovac, having a status of both a city and a county. The counties subdivide into 82 municipalities.
|County||Seat||Number of municipalities||Land area||Population||Population density||GDP PPP per capita in $||As % of
|Economy of Mallyore|
|high-income market-oriented economy|
|Currency||egal (EGL, Ⲉ)|
|Monetary authority||Mallyorian National Bank|
|• Total||$191.37 billion|
|• Per capita||$44,809|
|• Total||$133.54 billion|
|• Per capita||$31,374|
|HDI (2021)|| 0.884|
|Unemployment rate||3.3% (January 2023)|
|Principal exports||machinery, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, food products|
|Principal imports||raw materials and fuels, machinery components, food products, chemicals|
Industries and sectors
Main export partners
Main import partners
| $77.24 billion (2022)|
$70.08 billion (2022)
GDP growth rate
|1.9% Nov 2022|
3.7% Q4 2022
-0.8% of GDP (2021)
Mallyore consistently ranks high in terms of GDP per capita due to its highly industrialised economy, and well-developed social market economy. Before 1980s, many of Mallyore's prominent industry firms were nationalised; in recent years, however, privatisation has reduced state holdings. A balanced budget, low public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, competitive commercial banking sector, and innovative e-services are hallmarks of Mallyorian market economy.
The economy of Mallyore is open and export-oriented, making it strongly influenced by the conditions of its exporting partners' economies. Escadia has historically been the main trading partner, making Mallyore vulnerable to rapid changes in the Escadian economy. As a member state of the Egalian Union, Mallyore has gained closer ties to other E6 economies, reducing its economic dependence on Escadia. In the 2000s, Pretany climbed up to the position of the principal trade partner, whereas other West Ulethan economies and Suria also play an important role in international trade. In 2019, Mallyorian exports were valued at 136.1 billion EGL, with 132.8 billion EGL worth of imports.
In 2022 GDP (PPP) was $183.66 billion or $43,150 per capita. Real GDP growth in 2022 was 4.0%. The average net salary of a Mallyorian worker in December 2022 was 2,586Ⲉ ($1,403) per month, and the average gross salary was 3,907Ⲉ ($2,099) MLS per month. As of January 2023, the registered unemployment rate in Mallyore was 3.3%.
The economic output is dominated by the tertiary (service) sector, which accounted for 67.5% of GDP, followed by the secondary (industrial) with 30.4% and the primary (agriculture) sector accounting for 2.1% of GDP. In December 2019, Mallyore had 2,249,511 registered workers, while the national public debt accounted for 31.3% of the national GDP.
Finance and banking
Comprising almost 40% of national GDP, the Nikolovac region is the main economic centre of the country and one of the leading in the region. Several West Ulethan companies have their regional hubs in Nikolovac, contributing to the high capital flow and trade. Nikolovac Stock Exchange is one of the oldest in Central Uletha, dating back to the 17th century.
The largest banks are Bank of Nikolovac (Mallyorian: Nikolovačka banka), represented throughout the Ulethan continent, followed by Commercial Bank (Mallyorian: Komercijalna banka), VPB and state-owned Mallyorian National Bank (MNB). Many international banks operate in Mallyore, chiefly from other Central and West Ulethan countries. Mallyorian banking sector is highly developed and still increasing. Regional currency, egal (EGL), is very stable, especially after 2010s economic crisis. In many sectors, Surian atyln and Pretanic pauddle are also present.
The most of energy consumption, production and transmission are controlled by the national company MEP. National production of energy sources covers nearly 70% of national demand, while the rest is imported. Mallyore partially relies on imported natural gas and oil, notably from Suria. Small natural gas reserves in the northeastern plains had already been exploited, but potential offshore exploration in Egalian Lake has been debated recently.
In 2021, 53% of energy consumption came from non-renewable resources, mainly fossil fuels. The government's target is to make half of energy consumption come from renewable resources by 2025. Since the 1990s, Mallyore is largely encouraging wind and solar power, now becoming one of the world leaders in production of renewable energy. In 2018, 28.9% of electricity was generated by water, 10.2% by wind and 1.3% by solar power.
The motorway network in Mallyore is well-developed and built mostly in last 30 years. By the end of 2019, Mallyore had completed more than 850 kilometres of highways (autoceste) and expressways (brze ceste) following various national and Pan-Egalian corridors. The busiest routes are the A1, connecting Rakovac and Zalivnian border via Nikolovac and Skroj, and the A4, connecting Nikolovac and Rilg in Escadia, passing near Banavski Brod. A widespread network of state roads acts as a motorway feeder line while connecting all major settlements in the country.
Mallyorian rail network is extensive and one of the densest in the world. Almost half of the tracks are electrified, and more than a third of them are double or multiple-line tracks. Mallyorian Railways (Mallyorian: Maliorske žejeznice) is the main railway operator, with about 60 million passengers carried every year. The first higher-speed rail routes connecting Nikolovac with Sibinj and Banavski Brod were introduced in 2008, with trains reaching the speed of 230 km/h (143 mph). In collaboration with the Zalivnian government, Nikolovac and Svetivan are connected with the major Zalivnian cities of Skroj and Ulinje by higher-speed railway since 2013.
King Krešimir Airport in Nikolovac is the leading and largest airport in the country. In 2020, it handled 13.1 million passengers with routes connecting Nikolovac with all major Ulethan destinations. Banavski Brod Airport saw a significant rise in low-cost and charter flights recently, reaching a number of 1 million passengers for the first time in 2018. Other international airports include Promin Airport and Svetivan Airport, respectively.
The Port of Nikolovac is a major cargo and passenger port on the Egalian Lake. It is an important waterway connection for both Mallyore and Escadia, with international ship traffic via Ina river. The Port of Svetivan is the second largest lake port, valuable for the western part of the country.
Mallyore offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. More than 9.4 million tourists visited Mallyore in 2019, and the most attractive destination is the capital of Nikolovac, with its famous Gothic cathedral from the 13th century, a large and well-preserved medieval town on the hill and a 19th-century city centre. A lot of cultural amenities, museums, galleries and venues can be found in the New Town (Mallyorian: Nova varoš) neighbourhood, built across Rumina river mostly in Neoclassical style. The Nikolovac Castle and Baroque Lower Town (Mallyorian: Donja strana) neighbourhood are a memorable addition to the list of popular sights.
Mallyore is also famous for many other historic cities, castles and fortresses from different historical epoques, namely Matošćan Castle and Djević Castle. Large historical centres are preserved in Nikolovac, Banavski Brod, Sibinj, Rakovac, Svetivan, Promin and Križan.
The whole country is rich with thermal and mineral springs with many spas, giving it the nickname 'The Land Of Thousand Springs'. Some of the most famous spa towns are Šarlinske Toplice, Vrutci and Stupičke Toplice near Nikolovac. They also usually offer congress and gambling tourism; Mallyore is one of the countries with the highest percentage of casinos per 1,000 inhabitants in Uletha. The in Nikolovac is the most popular and oldest casino in the region.
One of Mallyore's main tourist attractions are the Southern Mountains, especially the Risak and Glavina mountains. They feature many rare plant and animal species and offer numerous skiing, hiking and mountaineering opportunities. Rivers and streams in the mountains of southern Mallyore are often used for rafting and other white-water-based activities and sports.
Many medieval and traditional folklore festivals take place in various cities and villages. The Svetivan Summer Festival is famous for a weapon dance called Maroška. Autumns of Stoška (Mallyorian: Stoške jeseni) and Dances of Rakovac (Mallyorian: Rakovački plesovi) attract many domestic and international tourists as well. The Ortholic shrine of Božanovci gathers many pilgrims from the country and region.
The Entrio Festival is one of the world's most renowned electronic music festivals held yearly in Sibinj. Other acclaimed music festivals include a three-week rock festival in Kastilac and Musicinno Fest in Banavski Brod.
In 2019, the number of international visitors exceeded 7 million, most of them arriving from Escadia (28%), Suria (26%), Pretany (14%), Zalivnia (9%) and Drabantia (8%).
According to 2020 census, Mallyore had a population of 4,241,366. Estimated population for January 2023 is 4,270,843 and the annual growth in the same year was 0.34%. With 118 inhabitants per square kilometer (34.0/sq mi), Mallyore ranks average among the Ulethan countries in population density. The most densely populated are Nikolovac and Banavski Brod metro areas.
The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2019 was estimated at 1.59 children born/woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lower rates in the world. The life expectancy in 2021 was estimated at 80.52 years (77.23 years male, 83.62 years female). The recent population growth in the last decade has been accelerated mainly by immigration from Escadia, Suria and Eastern Ulethan countries.
In 2020, the main ethnic group were Mallyorians (86.4%). Escadians are the largest ethnic minority (5.9%). Historically influential since the Union times and autochthonously present in Rakovac County, most of Escadians in Mallyore today have immigrated during last three decades. Other notable ethnic groups include Zalivnians (3.4%), living in Poudešje region; Banuvians (2.2%), a Slevic minority in northern Mallyore; Bardash (0.9%) and Sur (0.6%) people, mostly the emigrants from Surian regime.
As a secular state, Mallyore has no official religion. Freedom of religion is a right defined by the Constitution which also defines all religious communities as equal in front of the law and separated from the state.
According to the 2020 census, 65.2% of Mallyorian citizens identify as a member of Ortholic Church, the lowest percentage since the first census in 1864. More than 350,000 people are affiliated with Reformed Christic Church, namely in Pobanavlje region. Ekelan Church members are predominantly of Zalivnian, Sur and Bardash ethnicity. Iviran Mallyorian community can be traced back to Early Medieval Age, historically present and significant in larger urban areas. 13.1% of the population describes themselves as irreligious and 4.9% decided not to respond.
In poll taken in 2010 less than two thirds of respondents (62%) stated that they believe in a God. 21% of them answered that they believe in some sort of spirit or life force and 17% said they don't believe in any sort of spirit, God or life force. A poll taken in 2014 showed that only 12% of Mallyorians aged 19-35 attend church regularly.
The only official language of Mallyore is Mallyorian, the first language for 4.9 million people worldwide and 92% inhabitants of the country. Modern Mallyorian is a South Slevic language which developed from Proto-Slevic and Old Mallyorian language through years. It has been standardized during 19th century in the period of the National Revival.
Mallyorian language is an example of synchronic digraphia; both Romantian and autochthonous Velitic script are formally used. Although authorities recognized Romantian script as preferred in public administration, due to historical reasons and importance, Velitic script kept co-official status. The law does not regulate scripts in standard language, or standard language itself by any means, leaving the choice of script as a matter of personal preference and to the free will in all aspects of life (publishing, media, trade and commerce, etc.). A survey from 2015 showed that 61% of Mallyorians favour the Romantian script, 18% favour the Velitic one and 21% have no preference. The preference of Romantian script is higher in urban areas (72%) than in rural ones (47%).
Minority languages such as Escadian and Zalivnian hold co-official status in the settlements in which the size of the minority population meets the legal threshold of 15% in two consecutive censuses.
The deaf community uses the Mallyorian Sign Language.
Mallyorian language gained equality with Escadian in the Duchy of Mallyore by the Act of Varvent in 1799. Sixty years later, Sabornik (the Parliament) proclaimed Mallyorian as the only official language on the territory of the Duchy, while Escadian remained important in trade and administration.
A 2017 survey revealed that 89% of Mallyorians claim certain knowledge of at least one foreign language, up from 80% in 2007. The most popular foreign languages are Ingerish, Escadian and Surian.
Literacy in Mallyore stands at 99.8 per cent. Primary education in Mallyore starts at the age of six or seven and consists of eight grades. In 2004 a law was passed to increase free, noncompulsory education until 18 years of age. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Secondary education is provided by gymnasiums and vocational schools. Nationwide leaving exams (Mallyorian: državna matura) were introduced for secondary education students in the school year 2006–07. It comprises three compulsory subjects (Mallyorian language, mathematics, foreign language) and optional subjects. It is a prerequisite for university education.
Attending public primary and secondary schools, as well as institutions of higher education, is free. Students only pay directly for textbooks, basic equipment, cafeteria food, student dorms and other necessities, although state also gives thousands of scholarships each year. In addition, the state pays health insurance for students. There are very few private schools in the country.
Education in Mallyore has a long history, with the first university being University of Banavski Brod, founded in 1396. Largest and the oldest continuously operating Mallyorian university is University of Nikolovac, founded in 1529.
Healthcare in Mallyore is financed through both social security contributions and taxation. Health insurance is compulsory. Healthcare is delivered to all citizens and residents by mixed public and private system and public, university and semi-private hospitals. In 2019, Mallyore spent 8.9% of its GDP on healthcare. Mallyore ranks high in the world in life expectancy with 76.2 years for men and 82.6 years for women, and it had a low infant mortality rate of 2.3 per 1,000 live births.
Because of its geographical position, Mallyore represents a blend of different cultural spheres. It has been a cross-roads of influences from Western culture and the East. The National Revival movement was the most significant period of national cultural history, as the 19th century proved crucial to the emancipation of the Mallyorian language and saw unprecedented developments in all fields of art and culture, giving rise to a number of historical figures.
Mallyore is categorised as having established a very high level of human development in the Human Development Index, with a high degree of equality in HDI achievements between women and men. Recognition of same-sex unions in Mallyore has gradually improved over the past decades, culminating in registered civil unions in May 2012, granting same-sex couples equal inheritance rights, tax deductions and limited adoption rights.
Arts and literature
Architecture in Mallyore reflects influences of bordering nations, especially from Escadia and Suria. Large squares named after culture heroes, well-groomed parks, and pedestrian-only zones, are features of these orderly towns and cities, especially where large scale Baroque urban planning took place, for instance in Nikolovac, Banavski Brod and Sibinj. Subsequent influence of the Art Nouveau was reflected in contemporary architecture.
Besides the architecture encompassing the oldest artworks in Mallyore, there is a long history of artists in Mallyore reaching to the Middle Ages. The 19th and the 20th centuries brought about affirmation of numerous Mallyorian artisans, helped by several patrons of the arts such as bishop Josip Juraj Leizenger. Mallyorian artists of the period achieving worldwide renown were Hrvoje Hratković and Jurica Meštrović.
The Svetivan tablet, a stone inscribed with the Velitic alphabet found in Svetivan monastery and dated to 1047, is considered to be the oldest surviving prose in Mallyorian language. The beginning of more vigorous development of Mallyorian literature is marked by the Renaissance and Marko Maretić. Besides him, Renaissance playwright Maroje Knežić, Baroque poet Ivan Gametić, Mallyorian national revival poet Ivan Žuranić, novelist, playwright and poet Vatroslav Bogut, children's writer Ivana Velić-Baronić, writer and journalist Marijana Žlezna, poet and writer Gustav Gorjanić, expressionist and realist writer Miroslav Lange, poet Tin Vidanović and novelist Denis Domjanić are often cited as the greatest figures in Mallyorian literature.
Music and theatre
Mallyore has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Mallyorian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Mallyorian music. Mallyore has renowned composers of contemporary classical music, Fran Lajc, Josip Dežman, Viktor Heredy and Milko Bijaković among them. One of the greatest Mallyorian composers, Franjo Šulek, was also among the most significant musicians of the 19th century. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes and rhythmic patterns of the national folk music.
During the medieval era, secular music was as popular as church music. Harmony singing is a deep rooted tradition in Mallyore, and is at least three-part singing (four voices). The Mallyorian Philharmonics, founded in 1714 as part of the University of Nikolovac, is among the oldest such institutions in the world. The struggle against escadization during the National Revival movement brought important music pieces, including the first national opera Poj u boj za narod svoj in 1822 and the national anthem Divna li je zemja naša, according to Pavao Krunić's 1809 poem. The early 20th century emerged Impressionism and unique Mallyorian Jazz. The most popular music genres in the 21th century are pop, rock, dance and rap.
The theatre appeared in Mallyorian lands in the late Middle Ages. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the National Revival and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern Ulethan theatre art. The Mallyorian National Theatre and National Opera and Ballet House in Nikolovac are the most important theatre venues in the country. Today, street theatre and puppetry are very popular forms, especially among the younger population.
The freedom of the press and the freedom of the speech are guaranteed by the Constitution. MRT (Mallyorian Radiotelevision, Mallyorian: Maliorska radiotelevizija) is national public broadcasting company. The most watched main news program is TVM24, followed by EGT and Viva. The best-selling daily national newspapers are Dnevni, Jutarnje novine and Nikolovački visnik founded in 1895.
The tradition of Mallyorian cinematography started in 1897 when Miran Vojčić was successful in creating one of the first cameras in the world. Mallyorian cinema developed rapidly after the independence in 1918. Since then, Mallyore has produced numerous directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved fame in the country and world.
Mallyore has also emerged as a hub for video game developers in Uletha, with the country now being home to dozens of studios. Among the most successful ones are nDixis and MIt Games. Today, the most globally successful Mallyorian games include Light Warrior, The Fury Drive, Checkpoint: Maze and others.
Mallyorian cuisine, influenced by the diversity of landscape, climate, history and neighbouring cultures, has evolved through centuries due to social and political change. It is closely related to other Central Ulethan and Egalian cuisines, notably Escadian and Zalivnian. Traditional cuisine is based mainly on pork, poultry (chicken, closely followed by duck and turkey), flour, potatoes, cabbage, and milk products. The freshwater fish from the Egalian Lake and major rivers contributes to the diversity of meals. The principal ingredients and way of preparation are shared throughout country, but regional varieties of dishes exist.
Popular traditional cottage cheese-filled dough, štrukla, is often considered as a national dish. The preparation of štrukla (often in pl. štrukle) regionally varies: they can be steamed, boiled in water, fried or baked. They are often served with either meat and gravy, or a sauce of breadcrumbs.
Hiža is the most distinctive type of Mallyorian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. Preserved mostly in rural areas, they attract a lot of tourists and gastronomy lovers every year. Beer consumption is an indispensable part of Mallyorian culture. Time-honored pubs and biergartens, usually called pivnica, are ubiquitous, and are frequently part of local architectural heritage. Historically associated with higher social class, wine consumption in Mallyore arose mostly in last 150 years. The most of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines, but regional wine varities ride out.
Notable Mallyorian dishes include:
- makova štrukla - baked štrukla filled with cottage cheese, eggs, sour cream and poppy seed
- slatka štrukla - baked, then boiled in salt water štrukla filled with apple and walnut
- Nikolovačka štrukla - steamed štrukla with sour cream, parsley and tarragon filling
- kupusnica - a soup made from sauerkraut and sausage
- varišnik - paprika-based potato stew with diced potatoes, onion, ground paprika, and some bacon or sliced spicy sausage
- krvavica - a blood sausage made from any parts of a butchered pig
- užganci - fine-grain polenta served with milk and honey; traditional "poor man's food"
- sleđ na uju - herring marinated in oil with onion, popular in Knežina region
- žarena pastrva - poached or baked trout
- "Maliorski geografski atlas" by National Mallyorian Geographic Society, 1972
- "Teoretika maliorskega imena" by Institut za povist, 1949
- "Maliorska i eskadska heraldika u srednjemu viku" by Josip Rešetin, 1988
- "Razvoj grabovačke kulture" by Snižana Korić and Branko Maat, 1966
- "Povist kršćanstva u Maliorana", 1.dio, by Juban Oršić, 1997
- "Državni kontinuitet i maliorsko državno pravo" by Dragojub Bakčić, 1974
- "Višeslavovići, od 861. do 1152." by Igor Rambanija, 2009
- "Demografija sridnjovikovnega Maliorskega Kraljevstva" by Utiha Banović, 1991
- "Život Maroja Velikega" by Jona Babić-Diklo, 1999
- "Sibinjska poveja i njezin uticaj na povist Maliorana - kako ujosmo u Uniju s Eskadskom" by Zigmund Jadris, 1977
- "Halubinski i Ožegovački ustanci" by Leopold Gortan, 1958
- "Teritorijalna i politička dezintegracija maliorskih zemâlj u 14. stoliću" by Dominik Vangić, 1988
- "Pomorstvo i trgovina u sridnjovikovnoj Maliorskoj" by Ivan Hanžetić, 2003
- "Kamo plovjahu maliorski trgovci?" on mirnaplovidba.mo
- "Krvavi početci crkvene reforme u Pobanavlju" by Branka Stambolić, Maliorski povisnik, 1995
- "Temeji religijskega liberalizma u modernoj povisti" by Maša Fazanski-Nestorić, Pravni institut Franjo Kulak, 1976
- "Osvrt na Devetolipanjska višanja" by Zolte Miričić on povisniportal.mo, 14th July 2015
- "Poslidice Rastuškega ustanka" in "Maliorski otpor u Uniji krozan stolića" by Pjerino Pakaj, 1957
- Escadian royal families, Luke Daame, 1966
- "Uticaj ukidanja kmetstva u Uniji na društveno-povisna zbivanja" by Renko Zlaam, 1940
- Encyclopædia Egallica, Mallyorian State Archive
- "200 lît Egalske enciklopedije" by Mallyorian History Institute, 1988
- "Povisna zbivanja krajen 18. stolića" by Zorana Babiš-Urličić, 2003
- "Historijat eskadskega plemstva, 2. dio" by Grozdan Aameta, 1988/89
- "Povist Maliorske od Varventskega akta do neovisnosti" by Dragojub Bakčić, 1976
- "Razvoj industrije u Drugoj Uniji" by Renko Zlaam, 1937
- Ekonomska raščlamba eskadskega, maliorskega i banuvskega dila monarhije" by Ivica Zorov-Matečić, 2004
- "Banuvsko pitanje - nekad i danas" by Petar Fijuk, 2011
- "Analiza rezultât referenduma za neovisnost 1918. po kotarih" by Mallyorian History Institute, 1999
- "Eskadski civilni rat - pogled s maliorske strane" by Juraj Dobrinić, 1935
- "Krhka demokracija dvadesetih" by Lorena Bogojubek, 2014
- "Tridesete u Egaliji" by Karlo Potočar, 2001
- "Uzroci i poslidice sukoba u Poudešju" by Luka Reštar, 1994
- "Iskra eskadskega komunizma i njen uticaj na Egaliju" by Antun Zineski, 1980
- "Plava revolucija - dobro osmišjen plan?" by Krešimir Fabijanić, 2018
- "Zatopjenje odnosa u regiji pedesetih" by Ernst Kašin in Vojak i pišak, 1961
- "Antologija socrealizma" by Matija Jubić and Vedran Baturek, Naša povist, 2005
- "Socialist movements in Central Uletha" by Anthony Bears, 1999
- "Poslidice Travanjske rezolucije na Maliorsku" by Matko Zlarinac, 2011
- "Demografska povist Maliorske u 20. stoliću" by Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- "Sićanje na Marš liberalizacije" by Branka Stambolić, Maliorski povisnik, 1998
- "Pozitivne i negativne stvari Maliorske obnove - vridilo li je?" on povisniatlas.mo
- "Migracije u razdoblju 1975.-2010." by Željko Stanković, 2014
- Popis stanovništva 2013., Mallyorian Statistic Bureau
- "Od 1918. do danas - politika i politikantstvo" by Lorena Bogojubek, 2012
- Ustav Republike Maliorske, ustav.mo
- Popis 2020., Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- The Comparison of Central Ulethan Economies, George Powson, 2015
- "Analiza uticaja eskadskega gospodarstva na maliorsko" by Nikolovac Economic Heritage Institute, 2017
- Trgovinska bilanca u 2019., Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- Godišnji statistički bilten 2019., Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- Anketna stopa nezaposlenosti, sičanjsko izvišće 2021., Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- Osnovni statistički podatci, Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- "Porast financijskega sektora u poslidnjih 20 lît" by Tihomir Staničić, 2013
- "Kojim valutama se najviše trguje na maliorskim burzama?" on financijskapismenost.mo by Zorica Didinko
- 2019 Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Mallyore (in Ingerish)
- "Rentabilnost i održivost maliorskih autocêst", Građevinski institut Maliorske, 2011
- The Rails and Railways of the World, Marc LeGrange, 1991
- "Kralj Krešimir priša magično čislo od 13 mijûn putnîk" on maliorskaavijacija.mo
- "Maliorske luke na pragu 21. stolića" by Zoran Ječak, 1999
- Turistički dolasci i noćenja u 2019, Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- "Dvorci i tvrđave Maliorske", Matija Kadies, 1996
- Godišnji bilten Maliorske turističke zajednice, 2018
- "Problem kockanja u Maliorskoj - uzroci i rišenja" by Dijana Tomčić-Makin, 2017
- "Ča vidit i radit na Risku i Glavini" on upoznajmodomovinu.mo by Ilona Bariček, 2018
- Turistički dolasci i noćenja u 2019., Mallyorian Statistic Bureau
- "U koga i ča Maliorani viruju?" on nikolovackivisnik.mo, 2010
- "Ankete i upitnici o viroispovisti i religiji" by Mallyorian Statistics Bureau, 2014
- "Maliorski geografski atlas" by National Mallyorian Geographic Society, 1972
- "Romanica ili velitica - budućnost ili prošlost?" by Tončica Znaor in Jutarnje novine, 19th October 2015
- "Razvoj standardnog maliorskog jezika u 19. stoljeću" by Teuto Stelčić, 1978
- "Koliko Maliorani govoridu strane jazike?" by Ivančica Danski on zivim.mo
- "Smrtnost dojenčadi u 2019." by Mallyorian Statistics Bureau
- "Značaj Maliorskega narodnega preporoda u današnjimi okvirimi" by Dragojub Bakčić, 1981
- "Urbana arhitektura Sridišnje Ulete" by Zdenko Zdilar, 1999
- "Pismenost u Maliorân, 1.dio" by Nenad Faar, Znanje, 1992
- "Velikani maliorske književnosti" on citamoknjigu.mo
- "Narodna glazba kroz vikove" by Rastislav Majurek, 1981
- "Atlas maliorskih velikân" by Mallyorian History Institute
- "Maliorsko višeglasno pivanje od 12. stolića do danas" by Jubica Derenčik, 1978
- "Ča se sluša u Banavskemu Brodu" on banavski.mo by Ivana Znaić, 2018
- "Povist kazališća i glume" by Anamari Dešić, 1992
- "Uzlet lutkarskega i uličnega kazališća" by Gorjan Amaćin, Kazališni vinac, April 2014
- "Napriduje li maliorska kinematografija?" on svitdanas.mo by Ida Bilančić
- Official name of the realm in period 1153-1799 was Kingdom of Escadia and Mallyore, often shortened as Escadian-Mallyorian Kingdom or just Escadia