|History of Malesoria|
|Early history and Middle Ages|
|• Dacenian tribes||c. 700 BCE|
|• Hellanesian colonisation||3rd century BCE|
|• Princedom of Bëloti||10th century CE|
|• First Kingdom of Malesoria||1180-1519|
|• Fall of Topojë||1525|
|• First Malesorian Uprising||1756|
|• Principality of Lower Malesoria||1821|
|• Independence||7 February 1886|
|• Communist Malesoria||1947-1969|
|• 2nd Republic of Malesoria||1971-1985|
|• Modern Republic||1985|
The knowledge about prehistoric Malesoria is limited due to the scarcity of written records and the reliance on archaeological evidence. The earliest evidence of human presence in the territory of modern-day Malesoria dates back to the Middle Paleolithic era, with traces of stone tools and animal remains found in the caves near.
During the Neolithic period, around 6,000 to 4,000 BCE, agricultural practices emerged, leading to the establishment of settled communities. The cultivation of crops, such as wheat, barley, and legumes, and the domestication of animals became essential for subsistence. Excavations at sites like Dhaliq, Parrëdezi, and Njashtëmi have uncovered Neolithic settlements, pottery, and agricultural tools.
The Bronze Age marked a significant development in technology and trade. Advanced tools, weapons, and jewellery were produced, indicating the use of more sophisticated metallurgical techniques. The discovery of large tumuli (burial mounds) and grave goods at sites likeand the Tumulus of Gjofkëndi provides insights into the social hierarchy and burial practices of the time.
From the late Bronze Age onwards, the Dacenians emerged as the dominant culture in the region. They established a series of tribal states in the western Iviran region. Dacenian hillforts, along with fortified settlements, have been discovered, indicating the defensive nature of the communities. Archaeological findings suggest trade connections with neighbouring cultures, such as the Moorsh people. It is believed that present-day Malesorians are the descendants of various Dacenian tribes. However, due to the lack of written records, the knowledge of their origin, and specific political or social organisation is limited.
During the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, the Dacenians came into contact with the expanding Hellanesian colonies along the Iviran coast. Their influence gradually spread, leading to the Hellanisation of certain southern Dacenian regions. The first recorded encounter of Hellanesians and one Dacenian tribe, the Leuseti, comes from the First Periplous of the Iviran Sea, an ancient manuscript written in the late 4th century BCE. By the end of the first millennium BCE, several Hellanesian colonies were established in the, notably Artoporos (present-day ) and Somnos (present-day ). Following internal conflicts and external pressures, prominently the Antharian independence in the late 2nd century CE, the Hellanesian-controlled area was fragmented into smaller entities, mostly in the form of semi-independent city-states. The authorities encouraged trade, and the major cities served as important centres for commerce, facilitating exchanges with other Hellanesian territories and neighbouring regions.
Around 250 CE, Artoporos and the surrounding area were incorporated into the Antharian Kingdom, whereas the other city-states of the Kiran Valley, united under the short-lived Despotate of Asionos, showed fierce resistance. The Fall of Motos (present-day) in 298 CE marked the end of the Antharian conquest of the Malesorian Iviran coast.
Meanwhile, rural areas of the Central Highlands were the subject of different attempts at tribal organisation which would eventually lead to the first mention of the unnamed Malesorian tribe in the 3rd century. The Malesorian name was attested for the first time in 306 CE in the works of Hellanesian historian Bimocles, affirming that Malesorian rulers had both peaceful interactions and conflicts with coastal city-states, particularly those of Somnos and Tersalia. From the early 5th century on, these Malesorian unstable, consanguineal associations were often challenged by frequent raids of various Slevic hordes.
The rise of the Surs under Prince Igor the Bold in the late 7th century posed a significant threat to Malesorian tribal lands. The invasions under his rule disrupted the existing social and political order, leading to a period of instability. Until the early 10th century, Antharians, Kartlegians, Surs, and the nomadic Semic tribes exerted their influence over the Malesorian lands. The Semic principality of(Malesorian: Maveshë) played a significant role in hindering the Sur Southern Campaign in 705–714 CE, attempting to reach the .
In 921 CE, the first notable Malesorian state, the Princedom of Bëloti, emerged in the western present-day Malesoria. A beneficiary of trade routes between the Hellanesian south and the Slevic inland, the Bëloti family expanded their territory to the(Malesorian: Liqeni i Tëredes), impending the Iviran Principality and Po'ion territories to the east. The Battle of (1012–13) marked the definite end of the Bëloti advancement to the east for the next two centuries. In the 11th century, several Malesorian regions became recognized as separate or autonomous dominions. The tribal rulers contended over territories, usually without a sense of ethnic unity.
The significant historical development in the region occurred in 1180 when Ardit of Zal unified three Malesorian principalities into the First Kingdom of Malesoria. King Ardit introduced a centralized administration, established a feudal system, and implemented various reforms to strengthen his rule. His son Dritan pursued military campaigns against neighbouring states, including the Romanish Kingdom and the Despotate of Burraj, further extending the kingdom's territory. The dynasty of Zal encouraged the development of art, literature, and education, maintaining good relations with Antharia and Qennes.
Second Kingdom of Malesoria
First Republic and First Civil War
Second Republic and Second Civil War
|Geography of Malesoria|
|• Total||175,156 km2 |
67,628 sq mi
|Population density||95.94 km2 |
248.49 sq mi
|Extreme points||Zymëshim (2,938 m) Iviran Sea (0 m)|
|Time zone||WUT +5 (no DST)|
Malesoria is a representative democracy organised as a unitary, semi-presidential republic. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. The current constitution was approved and adopted in 1996. Most of political research institutes and think tanks rate Malesoria as a "flawed democracy" in 2023.
Executive functions are held by both the government and the president. The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister who in turn appoints the Council of Ministers.
The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Assembly (Asambleja), consists of two chambers, the Senate (Senati) and the Chamber of Deputies (Dhoma e Deputetëve), whose members are elected every four years by simple plurality.
The justice system is independent of the other branches of government and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts with the Supreme Court being located in Portat e Arta, thus serving as the judicial capital of the country.
|Government of Malesoria|
|Unitary semi-presidential republic with bicameral parliament|
|Head of state|
|• President||Rrezag Prona-Mashkalla|
|• Prime Minister||Udhmir Bislimi|
|• Speaker of Assembly||Granit Shkëmbi|
|• Upper house||Senate (Senati)|
|• Lower house||Chamber of Deputies (Dhoma e Deputetëve)|
|Assembly of Nations, Association of South Ulethan Nations|
|Economy of Malesoria|
|upper-middle income mixed economy|
|Currency||Malesorian rreth (MRR)|
|Monetary authority||Bank of Malesoria|
|GDP (PPP)||2023 estimate|
|• Total||$313.26 billion|
|• Per capita||$18,641|
|GDP (nominal)||2023 estimate|
|• Total||$110.24 billion|
|• Per capita||$6,560|
|HDI (2022)|| 0.779|
|Principal exports||metals and metallic ores, construction materials, processed foods and beverages, fruits and vegetables, tobacco, textiles|
|Principal imports||machinery and equipment, crude petroleum oils, food products, cars and car parts, plastics|
Industries and sectors
Main export partners
Main import partners
| $63.12 billion (2022)|
$88.74 billion (2022)
GDP growth rate
|4.1% Apr 2023|
3.9% Q1 2023
-1.7% of GDP (2022)
The economy of Malesoria has undergone significant transformation since the country's transition from a centrally planned system to a market-oriented economy in the 1980s. While challenges remain, Malesoria has made notable progress in various sectors and has experienced economic growth and increased integration with international markets. Malesoria's economy is classified as an upper-middle-income economy in 2023.
Due to their high population, modern infrastructure, and favourable geographical location, the cities of Talrasin and Portat e Arta comprise the economic and financial centre of Malesoria. The country's most important infrastructure facilities take course through both of the cities, connecting the north to the south as well as the west to the east.
Agriculture has traditionally been an important sector in Malesoria, employing a significant portion of the population. The central and southern portions of the country have fertile land and favourable climate for agricultural production. More than 26% of the land is used for agricultural purposes, and one of the earliest farming sites in Uletha has been found in the southeast of the country. Key agricultural products include fruits, vegetables, dairy products, livestock, and tobacco. Efforts have been made to modernize the sector, improve agricultural practices, and enhance productivity.
Since the fall of the communist regime, the secondary sector has seen considerable changes and diversification. Although still lagging behind neighbouring countries, Malesoria has developed various industries, like electronics, manufacturing, and textiles. The construction sector has experienced expansion, driven by infrastructure development projects and private investments. The energy sector has seen improvements in hydroelectric power generation and renewable energy initiatives. Additionally, Malesoria has significant mineral resources, including chromium, copper, nickel, and lithium.
The tertiary sector is the country's fastest-expanding sector. About 35% of the population is employed in services, which accounts for 59% of the country's GDP. Since the end of the 20 century, the banking industry has been a prominent component of the tertiary sector, and it has remained in good health overall thanks to privatization and solid monetary policy. Tourism, in particular, has emerged as a major driver of economic growth. Malesoria's natural beauty, historical sites, and coastal areas attract a growing number of visitors each year. In 2019, it directly accounted for 6% of GDP, though including indirect contributions pushes the proportion to just over 15%. The government has focused on promoting tourism infrastructure and investing in the development of tourist destinations.
As of September 2023, Malesoria had an estimated population of approximately 16.8 million people.
- Population growth of the metro area in the period between 2013 and 2023.
- Part of the Portat e Arta metro area.