History of Fayaan

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Early Colonization

Dutch private merchant ships explored the Fayaan coasts around 1570, and the explorer Erik Meulenaers explored the western coastal lowlands on an expedition in 1473. He reports on the good agricultural conditions in the region, but also on a hostile attitude of locals. Fayaan is first shown on a Dutch sea map in 1587.

The colonization of Fayaan started as a private initiative of wealthy Dutch merchants around 1500 CE. Few written resources detail the early colonization of Fayaan, and there is still much debate under historians when exactly permanent settlement started. A wooden beam in the church of Noordkaap bears an inscription of 1492. Oral tradition sets the foundation of Noordkaap in 1489. This is the earliest proof for settlement, although this date remains contested.

The first written documents mentioning colonies in Fayaan date from 1532 (on a map from Ingerland, showing the cities of Noordkaap and Witzandmond). A major colonization period occurred between 1540 and 1600, with many colonists settling on the western coast. Most colonists were luck were lucky seekers and religious groups, flying the Dutch and Ingerish regions and trying their fortune in the colony. Private merchant companies founded several cities along the western coast, claimed pieces of land and provided logistics for the colonists to come to the colonies and to start farms. In return colonists paid heavy taxes and the promised richness in the colony proved to be a disappointment for all but a few. Already from the start two companies became much more powerful than the other: the Dutch-speaking Koloniale Kompagnie van Archanta Minor (KKAM) and the Castellanese speaking Sociedad Colonial de la Selva (SCS).

When colonisation started, Fayaan was formally part of the Suo Empire (now Bai Empire), but it was a remote region of little interest for the empire. Backed by the money of the merchant companies, colonisation met with little resistance from the indigenous population (mainly Kue). Internal stubbles between Bai and Tran made that there was little interest from the empire to take action against the early colonists. By 1580 the merchant companies had set up complex defence systems in their territories, and it became practically very difficult for the Suo/Bai to retake Fayaan. There is much uncertainty about the fate of the original indigenous Kue population. Probably most Kue fled the area to the south, but many others remained and worked as cheap labour at farms and estates. There is still an impoverished Kue minority in Fayaan, which traditionally works in the hardest jobs in the rural areas.

During the early colonisation, there were few interests in the east of Fayaan. A few small villages were settled along the coast but most only lasted a few decades. This region was also neglected largely by the Suo/Bai empire, and also by the Kue. The indigenous population were nomadic hunter-gatherers of the Ouisx, Corxich and Huny tribes (the Huny also having a few permanent settlements along the coast).

Golden age of colonialism (1610-1700)

During the early 1600s, the Fayaan colonies were well managed agricultural lands, producing valuable subtropical goods for their merchant companies. International trade routes transported these goods to the homelands, and the Fayaan ports flourished. Other Archanta nations, and especially the Bai, used the markets of the Fayaan cities to sell their goods to the merchant companies, bringing more wealth to the colonies. Colonial cities grew fastly, and guilds, merchants and craftsmen build monumental houses. Rural landowners exploited agricultural workers and made fortunes with growing spices and fruits; many agricultural estates enslaved indigenous people from nearby villages.

During the early 17th century a total of 18 colonies existed in Fayaan, but through the merging of merchant companies and their colonies, only 12 colonies remained by 1680. Colonies were governed by governors, and society was strictly hierarchical with a lot of power for merchant guilds and agriculture estate owners. The Noordkaap Colony was the first colony to introduce a form of democracy in 1630: landowners and guilds formed a colonial parliament (Staten Generaal) that co-ruled the colony with the colonial company. Under pressure of their wealthy citizens, 10 of the 12 colonies adopted such a system by 1685; local parliaments were named Staten Generaal, Colonial Council, Casa Colonial, Koloniaal Huis, Asamblea Colonial or Estados Colonial.

Economic crisis and Ingerish and Florscantan rule 1690-1755

Ingerland control of Castellan colonies

With the growth of the colonies, also conflicts with neighbouring states increased. Several smaller conflicts between the Dutch and the Bai during the 1660s and 1670s resulted in the peace treaty of Duinburg (1677) in which the Bai recognized Dutch rule over the colonies. More important were the conflicts between Castellan and Ingerish over the region during the late 1680s, in which Ingerish sought control over the Castellan cities in Fayaan (and neighbouring states). Several smaller battles were followed by the Sea Battle of Selva (July 4th 1690) in which a united Ingerish and Florescentan fleet defeated a much weaker Castellan fleet. Ingerish troops occupied most Castellan territories in their 1690-1691 military campaign, and tensions with the Dutch merchant colonies also increased. Disputes between Bai, Ingerish and Florescentan brought Ingerish ambitions to a halt. With the Muinon Treaty of 1712 between Bai, Ingerland and Florescenta, also the self-governing nature of the Castellan colonies was re-established, although they remained under the protection of Ingerland.

Florescenta control of Dutch-speaking colonies

The conflicts with Ingerland, Florescenta and Bai of the late 1600s and early 1700s had a negative impact on the economy of Fayaan. Increasing piracy and protective measures of many Uletha countries further weakened the position of Fayaan merchants. Castellan Colonies were under protection of Ingerland, making relationships complicated with both Ingerland and Castellan. In 1716, Florescenta troops invaded 6 of the Dutch-speaking colonies during the Fayaan Spring War. With empty treasure chests, the colonies could not buy mercenaries and were easily defeated. The resulting treaty of XXXX allowed the colonies limited self-governance under Florescenta protection. This left Noordkaap as the only independent Fayaan colony by the end of 1716, and all other colonies lost most of their self-governing power and were mere exploitation dependencies of Ingerland and Florescenta.

Economic crisis

With famine and poverty ruling the Fayaan colonies, an exodus started. Especially many lower and middle-class people from the cities and independent small farmer left Fayaan colonies between 1719 and 1731. Modern historian estimate the population decreased by about 55% in this period.

Noordkaap was left as the only independent colony, and its administrating merchant company, KKAM, took advantage of the economic crisis. KKAM had already acquired some agriculture lands in most other colonies, but in the 1730s and 1740s, they bought all over Fayaan (and also other parts of Munion) agriculture estates for extremely low prices. This was the basis for strengthening their power and would eventually lead to KKAM becoming one of the richest companies in the contemporary world.

Liberation Movement 1755-1789

By 1755 social unrest in the colonies increased as the result of a combination of general discontent over Ingerish and Florescentan rule, economic downturn and a failure of the new governments to build an efficient state structure. Especially in Ingerish protected (occupied) regions farmers started militia to protect themselves from looting by gangs. Many militias were financially supported by the KKAM and local KKAM estate holders were often the first to strive for political reforms - historians are still debating if this was an intentional move of KKAM to weaken Ingerish and Florescentan power or not. On July 11th 1757 KKAM announced the Free Port Law (Vrijhaven Wet) which allowed farmers and merchants of all Munion to sell their goods in KKAM harbours (in practice Witzandmond) at the 'domestic tax' rate. With KKAM taxes less than halve of Ingerish and Florescentan taxes, soon many farmers all over northern Fayaan (and to a more limited scale also in the south and some other Munion regions) shipped goods through Witzandmond, illegally avoiding Ingerish and Florescentan ports.

Florescenta-Noordkaap war (1762-1765)

With Florescentan ports especially hit by the Free Port Law, the Florescentan governor declared war to Noordkaap in 1762 (Florescenta-Noordkaap war). Initially, Florescentan troops booked several minor successes with the naval attacks on Duinburg and Noordkaap and sacking of both cities in march 1763. Noordkaap sponsored militia in Florescentan territories however weakened Florescentan colonies and more and more FLorescentan troops were needed to protect its own territory. On 20th June 1763 militia surprise attacked Huysburg and burned down the governor's mansion with its large stock stores. While governor Alvarez was able to escape from the attack, the position of Florescenatia was definitively weakened. With little resistance Noordkaap forces conquered (or liberated) most of the Florescentan territory by the summer of 1765. Not interested in a remote colony with little profit, Florescenta yielded its Fayaan colonies in the treaty of Huysburg (August 7th 1765). By this treaty, Noordkaap and KKAM formally gave back the colonies their self-rule, but in practice, they remained under control of Noordkaap. The agriculture-based economy slowly restored over the next years, making the Dutch-speaking colonies again relatively wealthy.

Ingerish-Militia War (1766-1789)

Avoiding a war on two fronts, Noordkaap had not intervened in social conflicts in the Ingerish protected colonies. Ingerland had also invested more in their colonies, with more Ingerish colonists living in Fayaan.

During the early 1760s, local militias fought Ingerish troops but were not very successful. On August 7th 1766, the ammunition depot of Puerto Cruz exploded, killing about 2000 men with many more wounded, of which many Ingerish soldiers, and destroying the harbour. Modern historians still disagree whether it was a Noordkaap action, a militia action or just an accident. Consequences for the Ingerish were large: trade collapsed and income from the colonies decimated. Merchants and farmers of the Santa Cruz Colony were unable to sell their goods, and famine broke out during winter 1766-1767. On 19 April 1767 a militia of merchants took over the governor’s palace in Santa Cruz and declared the independence of the 'Colonia de Santa Cruz' (the first Santa Cruz Revolution). The uprising was soon defeated by the much better organised Ingerish troops, also because the rural KKAM supported militia hesitated to intervene. Much of the Ingerish protected territory fell into chaos over the next years, with local militia controlling the countryside and Ingerish troops trying to control the cities. Ingerland hesitated to invest large amounts for the rebuilding of the Puerto Cruz harbour because of the limited profits they could make in Fayaan and the limited strategic importance, and this further decreased profits from their Fayaan colonies. By 1780 Ingerish controlled less than 30% of their rural territory but still remained in control of most of the cities. With Ingerland less and less interested in their protectorates in Fayaan, also because of their decreasing interests elsewhere in the Munion region, the governor of the colonies could not count on additional troops. After failed crops in 1788 and militia blocking roads to Santa Cruz, a famine broke out in spring 1789. Tensions rose and finally culminated in the Second Santa Cruz Revolution. On May 2nd 1789 about 5000 Santa Cruz citizens stormed the Colonial Palace and Fort of the city. Governor Westwood fled to Puerto Cruz but was captured by a local militia on May 4th and decapitated on the central square. The Ingerish army resisted some few weeks, but by summer 1789 the last Ingerish troops withdrew from Fayaan, leaving the Ingerish/Castellan colonies in the hands of local militia.

Unification of the First Republic 1789-1831

Admission dates of Fayaan States:

State Name Admission date Former Political association Capital
Noordkaap 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony Witzandmond
Huysburg 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
 ???? 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
 ???? 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
 ???? 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
 ???? 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
 ???? 11/07/1801 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate
Klaarbron 11/07/1806 Dutch Merchant Colony; Florescenta protectorate Klaarbron
Santa Cruz 11/7/1823 Castellane Merchant Colony; Ingerish protectorate Santa Cruz de la Selva
Yldago 15/11/1831 Castellane Merchant Colony; Ingerish protectorate; Pirate State
El Triumfo 12/12/1831 Castellane Merchant Colony; Ingerish protectorate; Pirate State
Villa Ronda 12/12/1831 Castellane Merchant Colony; Ingerish protectorate; Pirate State
Hoogland 11/7/1861 Conquered indigenous tribal area
Gloriosa 11/7/1861 Castellane Merchant City, Conquered indigenous tribal area
Struiskust 11/7/1861 Conquered indigenous tribal area

Reforms of Noordkaap 1789

Inspired by the revolution in Santa Cruz and elsewhere in the hot summer of 1789, also the lower and middle class of Noordkaapstrived for reforms. A general strike from June 11th to 19th paralyzed the Witzandmond harbour. The harbour workers guild formed a militia which took over parts of the fort of Witzandmond on July 2nd but was defeated a few hours later. Noordkaaps government wanted to set an example with 131 alleged militia members being executed on Witzandmonds Parade Square on July 4th. With the governor wanting to avoid a full-scale revolution, the Staten Generaal was called together on July 11th 1789, and also lower class guilds were allowed access to the meeting. Over the next ten days, social reforms were discussed in a very tense atmosphere, with a few thousand harbour workers, land-labourers and craftsmen protesting outside the assembly hall. Finally, on July 21st the new 1789 Noordkaap Constitution (1789 Grondwet van Noordkaap) was approved. This constitution allowed for modernisation of social and civil rights and was the start of the writing of the Civil Laws (which were finished by January 1790). The Constitution also introduced Plural Voting and established the abolishment of slavery (which was de factor already very rare in Noordkaap). With this constitution being a very liberal reform, it set an end to feudal structures in Noordkaap. In addition, liberal trading laws favoured the further development of Noordkaap as a merchant nation, while the political power of the Trading Companies (KKAM) was definitely broken (although their economic power remains large until today). Critics argue that it ignores the rights of indegenous people and especially the Kue, setting the basis for the discrimination of non Ulethan people in the 19th and 20th century.

1801 Confederate Consitiution

The liberal reforms resulted in a further increase in the wealth of Noordkaap, although it still suffered from international protective measures. Afraid of local militia and the chaotic situation in the former Ingerish colonies, the other Dutch-speaking colonies sought the protection of Noordkaap. After a failed revolt in Huysburg in 1797, several colonies adopted their own version of the 1789 Constitution. Seeking protection through unification, the governers of 7 colonies met in the private farming estate of the Governor of Noordkaap in June 1801 to discuss the formation of a formal union. After a few weeks of discussion, they agreed on to form the Confederate Union of North Munion and wrote the 1801 Confederate Constitution. Their plan and constitution was presented on July 11th 1801 (not be a coincidence this day, as it was the anniversary of the Free Port Law) to the joint parliaments of the colonies in the Parliament Hall (Staten Generaal Paleis) at Witzandmond, and was approved by each parliament that same day. This 1801 Confederate Constitution sets the rights of each the member states and arranges the political structure. The Union State General (Unie Staten Generaal) was founded (and elected by plural vote) and the Union President was elected every 3 years. July 11th is still remembered as the formal fouding date of the Union of Fayaan.

1806: Union of Fayaan

Shortly after the 1801 constitution, the Bai regained interest in the Confederate Union of North Munion. One of the main reasons was the use of Munion in its name: Bai always considered this name to be theirs, and the name had a spiritual meaning to them. With the Bai being weakened by internal troubles, and the Union being still a young state, none of both wanted a military conflict. On January 21st 1806 both came to an agreement in the 1806 Treaty of Chidong: the Union was recognized as an independent State by the Bai but agreed to change its name and allowed special trade to access to Bai traders. A heavy debate followed in the State General about a new name, and finally, President Mars had an original proposal which was widely accepted: Unie van de Kolonies Onder Fayaan or Union of the Colonies of Fayaan. With the original transcripts of the parliament being lost, it is unclear today why this name was chosen. Hendrikus Fayaan (1492?-1538) was an early colonist active in Noordkaap and Huysburg but he is much less important than other early colonists. It is suggested that the estate in which the Confederation was negotiated was at that time called the Fayaan Estate (Landhuys van Fayaan; today it is called the Presidential Estate or Presidents Landhuys) but this is uncertain. The new name was offically established on July 11th 1806, during the celebrations of 5 years of the Union.

At the same time, the famous 22nd article to the constitution was added, which sets the conditions under which new states can join the union. That same July 11th, the State of Klaarbron joined the union as 8th member.

Economic growth

Modern liberal governing and careful planning of international relationships allowed the young union to strengthen its economy. Trading treaties were made with Ingerland, Dutch, Castellan and Bai, and the ports of Fayaan became the turntables for the (then limited) intercontinental trade. The inland agricultural economy suffered still from international protective laws and low prices for agricultural goods in the international market. Large scale introduction of cotton in 1809 failed by 1821 after three consecutive dry years. Fayaan lemons were more successful and gained name as a very qualitative luxury product and were popular amongst the elite in Bai. A first ostrich farm (Paulus Volstruishoef) was established in the east in 1815, and soon luxury ostrich ornamented hats and clothes were exported to Uletha and Bai. This ostrich farm was probably the first successful large farm estate in eastern Fayaan. Although economic growth meant renewed wealth and poverty decreased, live standard in Fayaan was still considerably lower than in the large cities of Bai and Uletha.

1823: Santa Cruz Joins the Union

While economic and social progress was large in the Union, the former Ingerish protectorates suffered from chaos and violence. After the 1789 Santa Cruz revolution, militia governed and there was no centralized government. Around 1800 some wealthy Castellane merchants invested in the port of Puerto Cruz, although it never regained the grandeur it had before 1766. Travellers report that about 40% of the city of Santa Cruz was an abandoned ruin in 1804. Slowly recovering from the political and economic troubles, a city council of Santa Cruz was reestablished in 1809, followed by a State Council (Estados Generales Colonia de la Selva) in 1812. Worried about the unstable situation with its neighbours, the Union started to invest in Santa Cruz. They sponsored a state militia in 1814 and helped to reconquer some rural territory from the local militia in the 1816 military campaign. Not only had the union an increasing power in Santa Cruz, but also more and more citizens were favourable towards the union because of their role in establishing peace. In 1822 the Estados Generales requested the join the union, which was officially granted on July 11th 1823. At the same time, Santa Cruz also adopted a liberal state constitution, and although it was rather different from the constitutions of the other Union members, it meant the end of feudal rule and slavery.

1831: El Triumfo, Yldago and Villa Ronda join the union

While law and order were reestablished in Santa Cruz, the other former Ingerish protectorates El Triumfo, Yldago and Villa Ronda remained lawless during much of the early 1800s. Many Bai and Kue outlaw fled to this region, searching for a new life. Violence was omnipresent and the law of the strongest ruled. Some attempts of Bai to reestablish a government failed because of the lack of good roads, the difficult terrain and the lack of dedication from the Bai - who still considered this a remote area where a commander could not get any honour. An important turning point was the sacking of a Fayaan merchant fleet by the pirate El Diablo Amarillo from Yldago in 1817. A union fleet was sent to the region in 1819, and by 1821 Fayaan troops had settled in several coastal ports to protect the merchant interests. Further struggles with outlaws continued over the next few years. General Jozef Kloondijk and General Juan de la Flores conducted a large military expedition in 1824, and re-established order in much of Yldago and Villa Ronda. When pirates from El Triumfo lead by Jozef Corneliszoon sacked some Bai cities in modern-day Kuehong in the 1824-1825 winter, Bai threated the Union if they would not intervene. A large military campaign lead by General Yperszoon in late 1825 conquered the entire El Triumfo coast, and in 1826 Fayaan puppet governments were established in all three former colonies. Unable to military control their own territory, they soon decided to join the union and were officially allowed so on November 15th (Yldago) and December 12th (El Triumfo and Villa Ronda) 1831. Contrary to the former Union expansions, this was not accompanied by festivities and most politicians were critical about these events.

First Republic 1825-1924

Eastward expansion 1825-1861

The liberal economic policies of the young Fayaan Union were combined with investments in ports and road infrastructure. Investors were attracted from overseas, who saw the opportunity to make a fortune outside their often conservative and protective home countries. The growing upper class was seeking new investment opportunities. With the territory east of the interior mountains largely unexplored – El Gloriosa was the only real city in the east, interest in exploiting the eastern highlands and East Coast lowlands increased in the 1820s.

More and more cattle (and ostrich) ranches were founded by 1825-1828. Soon conflict arose with the indigenous population – especially the Ouisx. To protect farmers, a highland horse brigade (Hoogvlakte Paardenbrigade) was founded in 1834. With more conflicts arising with the Ouisx, a large-scaled military campaign was started in 1842. Most of the Ouisx forces defeated in a few months’ time, and many Ouisx cities were destroyed. It was not until February 20th 1845 that a peace treaty was agreed with the remaining Ouisx leaders, that incorporated their territory in the union. Ouisx – like other indigenous tribes - had very limited civil rights in the Union. It is estimated by historians that about 70% of Ouisx settlements were destroyed during the conflict, while probably about 60% of the population died.

Having cleared the field in the highlands, the union turned its interest to the greener coastal region. This region was mainly inhabited by the hunter-gatherer Corxich and the farming Huny. Although the Huny were successful farmers and had a long-established trade network along the coast and with the Corxich and Ouisx, their society was badly organized and hereditary conflicts between their leaders in the last decades had weakened them a lot. Several smaller conflicts between the Union and the Huny were fought out between 1845 and 1855, while raids of the Highland Horse Brigade had largely destroyed the Corxich society. Treaties with Corxich were made in 1853 and 1855, in which they gave up most of their land. In 1856 a larger Huny upraising took place, followed by another Fayaan military campaign. Smaller uprisings occurred in 1858 and 1860. The last Huny leaders surrendered on February 9th 1861, which marks the date of last indigenous independence in Fayaan.

On July 11th 1861, the Staten Generaal issues the Eastland Decree (Oostland Decreet) which organised the territory of the east in three different states (Hoogland, Gloriosa and Struiskust).

New capital and further centralization 1865-1895

Although Fayaan was fairly prosperous during much of the first half of the 19th century, there were regular tensions between the states (mainly along the linguistic borders). Several political crises occurred during the 1850s and 1860s, with the Staten Generaal being paralysed by division. The then-president Marc Aerendts, became aware that only a big national project could ensure the long term survival of the union. Backed by some rich merchants, he launched a promotion campaign for his ideas of a new capital city in 1865, and after convincing the Staten Generaal the new capital was founded symbolically on July 11th 1868. The city was baptised as Fayaan-Stad, Ciudad de Fayaan and Fayaan City. Although the city was founded in Castillan speaking territory and was meant to be multi-lingual, mostly Dutch and Ingerish speaking people migrated to the city. Many Ingerish who felt threatened by the Castellane in their former protectorate cities moved to Fayaan City, which meant the end of the Ingerish minority in those cities. By 1875 Fayaan city counted about 12% Ingerish, 80% Dutch and only 7% Castellane. During the same time period, the federal government invested in further centralization. Central administration and tax administrations were strengthened. The Federal State invested in road and railroad infrastructure, as well as ports.

Economic crisis 1895-1924

A combination of global protectionism, industrialisation in Uletha that caused a drop in food prices, and increasingly difficult relations with the Bai lead to a slow impoverishment of Fayaan in the late 1800s. The expensive campaigns against indigenous people, some failed infrastructure works (including the attempt to build a national road system, but most works were destroyed by some hurricanes), and the need for increased defence against the Bai had drained the national treasure and the liberal pro-merchant low tax rates were abandoned. By the turn of the century, Fayaan was an impoverished nation. Between 1920 and 1930 there was a net migration out of Fayaan. Especially many poor Castellan farmers left the country, as they still had the right to resettle in Castellan. The economic crisis led to political stability. Between 1915 and 1924 in total 8 national elections were held, with no less than 17 different governments.

Union with Munion 1924-1938

When the Bai territories in Munion became independent in 1922, negotiations started for Fayaan to join the territory led by Congress for the Development of Muinon (CDM). With promises for a bigger market, and hoping that Fayaan ports would attract most of the Munion trade, the Staten Generaal decided to join Munion on August 1st 1924. But this proved to be a disappointment and the Fayaan economy didn't restore. With tensions rising in Munion in the late 1920s and the pro-Kuehong Muinon National Alliance (or Kuehongese National Alliance) seizing power, public opinion in Fayaan became more-and-more anti-Munion. Anti-Bai measures of the Munion government were received very negative by the Fayaan states, who believed that strengthened economic ties with Bai would be the solution for the economic crisis. When the Munion civil war broke out around 1934, the Fayaan states soon announced independence. With the Highland Horse Brigade and several units of the former Fayaan army protecting Fayaan, it suffered little in the Munion civil war. The military was sponsored by some wealthy Fayaan citizens living abroad after the exodus of the 1920s. During the civil war, Fayaan was governed by the military with General Juan Jimenez acting as president. In 1938 Munion formally split up in Fayaan, Cinasia and Kuehong.

Military Rule - Second Republic 1938-1968

Military Rule and Industrialisation 1938-1955

The military played an important role during the Munion civil war, and military leaders took formal control of Fayaan when Munion split in 1938. During the 1920s and 1930s many young people left the country. Especially in Ingerland and the Federal_States some of the Fayaan refugees became successful and an intellectual wealthy elite originated. This elite had supported the Fayaan military financially during the civil war, and this support continued after the new Fayaan independence. On September 7th 1938 General Juan Jimenez was formally appointed as president. The military junta also re-established the Staten Generaal, although it had little power.

The military junta soon decided on major economic reforms. Extremely low trade taxes were combined with laws giving foreign companies many rights when investing in the Fayaan industry. Large investments from the Fayaan-exodus were attracted, but also many investors from the Federal_States, Bai and many other countries were attracted. In 1940 the government launched a large government investment scheme aiming at the development and improvement of the road and railroad infrastructure. This put the government in large debt with foreign investors (especially from the Federal_States). The first motorway was opened in 1942, while the national railroad system (which was neglected over the past decades) was modernized by 1946.

This economic policy was very successful and the Fayaan economy grew fast between 1938 and 1950. Unemployment was decimated (from over 35% in 1938 to only 3.8% by 1945). Fayaan specialized mainly in food processing industries, furniture production, car assembly, metallurgy industries and transport (port) hub. This economic growth didn’t go in parallel with a similar increase in wealth of the lower and middle class. Although famine was eradicated and most people had a decent house, wages for were still low.

Under the military rule, civil rights were severely limited, and the Kuehong and other indigenous populations were discriminated. Political parties were prohibited, and opposition leaders were imprisoned and executed. It is estimated that about 91 000 citizens spend some time in jail as political prisoners, while about 6250 political prisoners were executed during the Second Republic. Little figures exist on the casualties under the Kuehong and indigenous population. Estimates vary from 8 000 to 120 000 death, most from starvation and deseases.

Verbanck Rule 1955-1960

When Jimenez suddenly died on January 3rd 1955, he was succeeded as president by General Johan Verbanck. Verbanck, then already 73, was a hero of the civil war and acted in different political functions in the Jimenez administration, including Minister of Foreign Affairs (1942-1948) and Minister of the Interior (1952-1955). Verbanck was however also an economic hard-liner and under his rule, civil rights were even more limited. A political crisis over reforms of the school system in 1957 resulted in the suspension of the Staten Generaal, which lasted until 1961.

A hurricane in August 1959 destroyed much infrastructure works: the brand new Witzandmond Airport was destroyed and many port facilities and factories were damaged. With different foreign industries not willing to invest much more in Fayaan, unemployment raised fastly. The low wages, higher unemployment rate and hot weather of summer 1960 resulted in social unrest in the big cities. Mass protests and a general strike (Septemberprotesten) broke out on September 3rd 1960. At first, Verbanck send the army to break down the protest, which resulted in an estimated 650 deaths, but soon many young soldiers joined the protesters. On Oktober 1st some young officers commit a coup (Oktobercoup) and seized power in Fayaan City. Verbanck fled to the south of the country but perished in still unclear conditions near the Munion border. It is often claimed he wanted to search for refuge in Munion, while others claim that Everaert-loyal officers had him assassinated while he tried to regroup presidential forces.

Everaert Rule 1960-1968

With the Oktobercoup being badly organized, they failed to take control of the country. The central military committee appointed General Wannes Everaert as president on October 3rd. With different reforms being promised, the general strike ended on Oktober 7th, and by Oktober 10th the Everaert-loyal troops controlled the entire country. Everaert (°1924) was a popular general, who had most of his military training in Ingerland. Born on a farming estate in Noordkaap he was especially popular with the Dutch-speaking population.

During early 1961 Everaert reformed the government and re-established the Staten Generaal. The different union member states were also given the right to form a regional government and parliament (although their political power remained low). Economically he decided on a less right-winged policy, with the re-establishment of many liberal laws. In 1962 he started a major reform of the school and university system, and he opened universities for the middle class by a scholarship system. Creating a well-educated population is probably his biggest legacy. In 1963 the first aeroplane factory was opened, and Everaert continued to modernize industries during the next years. This was met with scepticism from foreign and interior investors, who were not happy with increased state interference and were afraid that Everaert would become socialist. The wealthy therefore sponsored more and more (illegal) political movements, and the call for democratic reforms grew.

Pressure on Everaert and the military rule raised during the summer of 1968, also because of the international youth and student protests that also sparked tensions in Fayaan. Unexpectedly, Everaert announced the end of the military rule on September 20th 1968, and democratic elections were held in December of that same year.

Third Republic 1969-2020

The growing republic 1969-1990

The 1698 elections were won by the Workers Party (Werkliedenpartij/Partido Laborista) over the National Party (Nasionale Party/Partido National, with Everaert as leading figure) and the Socialist Party (Socialistische Party/Partido Social). In January 1969 the newly-elected President Wit reestablished a modern version of the 1801 Confederate Constitution (1969 Constitution). Fayaan again became a confederate state with the states having much governing power. Over the next 20 years Fayaan developed as a strong democratic confederation.

During the first decade of the third republic, the economy grew fast. By 1980 Fayaan had probably the highest living standard of Archanta. From 1969 on, the Wit administration kept a liberal economic policy and international trade was supported. Fayaan ports thrived as international trading hubs, while the industrial sectors also strengthened. The food processing sector remained strong, with canned vegetables and canned and fresh fruits remaining important export products. Heavy industry lost some importance, although car manufacturing remained important. Technological industries grew fastly, with television and radio factories, but especially a lot of automatisation and machine factories. Over the next years, the tertiary sector of Fayaan grew strongly, mainly because of the availability of a well-trained workforce as a result of the Everaert school reforms; Fayaan insurance and banking companies became world players.

A first tourism development plan was launched in 1972, followed by several other plans in the next decade that set Fayaan on the map as a tourist destination. First tourism developments focused on beachgoers, but in 1974 the first safari park opened. From the late 1970s on also cultural tourism developed, focussing first on the 15th- and 16th-century city centres and later also on Bai temple tourism.

In 1979 an economic development plan for the east coast and eastern highlands was launched. Although at first not very successful, the basic infrastructure was raised that enabled the eastern coastal cities to grow; this is often cited to be the basis for the later economic growth in the east.

Economic crisis of the 1990s

High living standards and related high wages made the Fayaan economy less competitive, resulting in closures of many large industries (especially in metallurgy, machine production and car assembly). The lack of substantial energy resources and high international energy prices further impacted on the Fayaan economy. During the late 1980s and early 1990s unemployment started to rise and by 1994 Fayaan was officially in a recision. Meanwhile more and more refugees fled to Fayaan. This combination led to the rise of right-winged nationalist parties and renewed nationalist feelings. Although a citizenship-based segregation system was already in force since the First Republic, segregation laws were strengthened during the 1990s. Large refugee camps were established at different locations. Refugees (and historic Kuehong) had different (lower/no) social protection laws and minimum wages, and manufacturing industries were established at/near refugee camps to compete with lower-wage countries.

International protests against this segregation system and the treatment of refugees grew by the late 1990s. Although the Assembly of Nations condemned Fayaan several times, boycott attempts failed. Fayaan was politically supported by the Bai states and their allies, who prevented such boycotts.

Fayaan Technology 1998-2003

In 1998 the government launched the ambitious 5 year Fayaan Technology plan, which exist of a large investment plan in the military technology and communication technology sector. With limited regulations for these sectors, specific intellectual property protection measures, low tax rates and government investments in infrastructure, soon many large companies established new sites in Fayaan.

Tiger Years 2003-2010

The economic redevelopment following the Fayaan Technology Plan brought prosperity to Fayaan, a period often called the Tiger Years. The country developed as one of the world leaders for high tech industries and ICT services. Especially the cities in the east of the country modernized and developed fancy business districts.

Together with this renewed wealth, politics became more liberal. Segregation laws were eased: Kuehong citizens got more rights (although still no voting rights) and most got a residency permit and were free to settle outside refugee camps. Refugees and people without citizenship (mainly historic Kuehong and other Munion ethnics, who lost citizenship during the civil war) were still largely forced to live in refugee camps but the situation in those camps improved dramatically. By 2018 about 28% of the refugees that resided in camps in 2003 got a residency permit and left the camps, while another 21% were returned to their country of origin; this resulted in the closure of many large refugee camps.

Green Tiger 2010-2020

Fayaan industries started to focus on more sustainable production, following international trends. First steps of greening the economy were taken around 2008, and in 2010 the government launched the Green Tiger plan, that focussed on renewable energy and water resource protection.