|This list is incomplete. It will be expanded in the future.|
The zylandic language is in the kernel lower-kalmish with influence of dutchic, ingerish and danisk or other west- or northgaerman languages. So it is meanwhile an own and different branch of the tree of western gaerman languages. Some french words are overcome from the french-speaking times of the kingdom of Zylanda and some latinian words and few words of other languages are incooporated in zylandian. In Zylanda the language is named as "sassn".
From 1487 (the first settlement in Zylanda) til 1655 (as the kingdom were established) there are spoken many dialects of western and northern gaerman orign. Main language was a common lower kalmish, but the other languages changed it and had influence of the common zylandic language, established roundabout 1600.
First printed text 1518 was the "folk book" of Uulenspeegl (owl-mirror), short storys of a intellectual fool. 1524 Dr. Mattn Klodda from the new university in Aaby published the bible in zylandian language and this book has a high grade of influence for a standard zylandian language.
In the first time of the kingdom (1655 til 1800) the language of the upper-class was french and so some french word were taken in the language of Zylanda. But with the upcoming citicens and civic pride the french language go back more and more. 1834 the king first make the official opening of the parliament in zylandian language.
Zylandian is written in latinian letters with some addings:
- ø = as the gaerman or turkish Ö, taken from danish language
- x = as in Latina for the gaerman "sch" or the englisch "sh"
- y = as the german or turkish Ü
- ks = if "ks" is meant, it is written so, not with "x" or "chs" (like "akst" for engl."axe" or "foks" for engl. "fox" or germ. "Fuchs"')
Long or short spoken vowels can have a different meaning in words, so aa, ee, ii, oo, uu, øø or yy ever means a long spoken vowel. In doubt to say clear, that a vowel is short, then the consonant after is doubled. Diphtonges are ""äi", "au" and "eu". "Ei" most is changed to "ee".
The letter "v" is not usual - either a word is written with "F" or with "W". All words are written with minuscles, only the begin of a sentence and Names are written with capital letters. "X" is taken like the latinan use and spoken as german "sch" or english "sh", but are used only in few words (as xool = Schule / shool) - most of this words with sch- in hi-gaerman in zylandian begin with sk-, sl-, sp- or st-.
The Akademii før sprook (language academy) every ten years give out a book with the official orthographie and its eventually changings, the last in 2010. The sentence of the akademy is: "Write, as you speak - but all in the same manner, so we understand another". Etymological ballast so has no priority and formerly french words as "chaiselonge" now are written as "xeeslong".
As in german or in english/ingerlish the conjugation of the zylandian verbs can be irregulary, the vowels in this verbes change after the rules of the "ablaut". Irregulary are often the most used verbs.
The incorporation of personal pronomen in the singular forms within the verb is significant. So the language lost her redundance in this manner and both items are spoken and written as one unit. This shortened units are the same in regulary sentences as in questions.
This is for foreigners the heaviest problem, to learn the zylandian language, because the "regulary" forms of verb and personal proverb is used only in very special situations.
|ik heff||heffik||ich habe||I have||"Ik heff" is the very accented form|
|do has||hassu||du hast||you have|
|hei (sei) hett||hettei (hettse)||er (sie) hat||he (she) has|
|Ik bin||binnik||ich bin||I am||"Ik bin" is the very accented form|
|do bis||bissu||du bist||you are|
|hei (sei) is||isse (issi)||er (sie) ist||he (she) is|
|ik freet||freeti||Ich esse||I eat|
|sei muss||mussi||sie muss||she must||"sei muss" is the very accented form|
|giv mi||gimmi||gib mir||give me||"giv mi" is the very accented form|
The zylandian language has three classes of words: masculinum, feminium and neutrum. Often masculinum and feminium go together in a personal class and neutrum as an inpersonal class.
To be seen as subject of a sentence, before the word stands a marker ("de" for masculinum and feminium or "dat" for neutrum) like the english "the". In not definded situations this is "een, eene, een" (like "one"), where the feminine form is different.
As in english, the zylandian substantive lost all of the indogaermanic casus. The relations are set with praepositions. There are practically no declinations. The object of a sentence has the same marker as the subject (de, dat, een, eene). Normally the subject stands before the object - but the reversed form is possible, you can use free the sequence of the sorts of words.
The plural most is with a "n" or "s" as suffix. Here are several influences at work - too from the latinian language. If the substantive ended with a vowel, most "n" is used. By ending with "s", "d" or "t", then too most "n" is regulair. If the substantivve ended with an other consonate, "s" is usual most.Examples are katt - kattn (cat), hus - husn (house), stroot - strootn (street), fru - frun (woman), odder - odders (otter), peer - peers (horse), rose - ros(e)n (rose), fisk - fiskn (not fisks) (fish)
The suffix agens -er at the end of most words is shortened to "a". General zylandic substantives have a tendence to be shortened in speakers use. So from "fisk" is "fiska" (fisherman) or "smeug" is "smeuka" (smoker).
The comperarion often is irregulairy like "gaud - beeter - best" (gut - besser - am besten / good, better, best). "fiin - fiiner- fiinsten" is the regulary comperation with the suffixes -er for comperative and -sten for superlative. Adjectives ended in the masculinum with -en or -n, in the feminium with - e and neutrum with -e or -et (groot (great) then -> de grootn man / de groote fru (woman) / dat grootet land or fiks (fast) then -> de fiksn peer (horse), de fikse boon (railway), dat fikse car)
In other manner as in hi-gaerman or lo-gaerman in zylandian language numbers between 21 and 99 are not spoken like "zweiundwanzig" or "tweuntwintich" (both means twentytwo), but as in ingerish and other languages as "twintichtwee". This changing was under the influence of the french kings and 1742 King Charles ordered the new speech by decret, as he heard 26, but meaned was 62 and he lost 36 guldens, if he not correct understand a craftsman with his invoice, who spoke zylandian. Not to take notice of this law costs this 36 guldens and so the people changed the usual speech - and many do this with the meaning herself, because it is more logical.
|meun||Guten Morgen, guten Tag||good morning, good afternoon||is saying all day long|
|sløøp gaud||Gute Nacht||good night||means "sleep well"|
|tang, wer so gaud||Danke, bitte||thanks, please||please = "be so good"|
|nech for dat||"da nicht für"||"not for this"||saying after thanks, from latinian "da nada"|
|een, twee, dre, feer, fiif||eins, zwei, drei, vier, fünf||one, two, three, four, five||numbers|
|søs, søbn, och, nain, tain||sechs, sieben, acht, neun, zehn||six, seven, eight, nine, ten||numbers|
|fadda, modda, brooda, syssa||Vater, Mutter, Bruder, Schwester||father, mother, brother, sister||relations|
|catt, foks, wlp, leuw||Katze, Fuchs, Wolf, Löwe||cat, fox, wolf, lion||animals ("wlp" without vowel)|
|wissl, swiin, kau, peer||Wiesel, Schwein, Kuh, Pferd||weasel, pig / swine, cow, horse||animals|
|goos, meuw, aant, heun, swalf||Gans, Möwe, Ente, Huhn, Schwalbe||goose, gull, duck, fowl, swallow||birds|
|ääx, eek, lind, ørl, wiid||Esche, Eiche, Linde, Erle, Weide||ash, oak, linden, alder, willow||trees|
|hend, arm, knee, been, kop,||Hand, Arm, Knie, Bein, Kopf,||hand, arm, knee, leg, head,||parts of body|
|haa, foud, duum, tain||Haar, Fuss, Daumen, Zähne||hair, foot, thumb, teeth||parts of body|
|røød, greun, witt, swatt, jell, bluu||rot, grün, weiß, schwarz, gelb, blau||red, green, white, black, yellow, blue||colours|
|stroot, bohnhoff, iisenwech, snellstroot||Straße, Bahnhof, Eisenbahn, Autobahn||street, station, railway, motorway||transportation|
|søø, sii, heugl, steen||See, Meer, Hügel, Berg (Stein)||lake, sea, hill, mountain (stone)||landscapes|
|wiis or wix, holt, kamp, watt||Wiese, Wald, Feld, Watt||meadow, wood, field, mud flat||landscapes|
|beer, woda, tai, coffi, snaps||Bier, Wasser, Tee, Kaffee, Schnaps||beer, water, tea, coffea, spirits||drinking|
|brod, fleex, kaas, karniggl||Brot, Fleisch, Käse, Kaninchen||bread, meat (flesh), cheeese, rabbit||eating|
|Smyggebryggeholm, Spegelsøø||Schönbrückinsel, Spiegelsee||Nicebridge Island, Mirror Lake||Places in Zylanda|
|Odderndørp, Gniddelfelt, Røødnelf||Otterndorf, Knittelfeld, Roter Fluss||Otter Village, Battlefield, Red river||Places in Zylanda|
|lytt, groot, lang, kort||klein, gross, lang, kurz||small, great, long, short||others|
|mau, heu, gau||lahm / schlecht, Heu, schnell,||not so good, hay, fast,||others|