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Navenna

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Flag of Navenna Republic of Navenna
Greater coat of arms

Repùblega de Navenna (Navennese)
Capital: City of Navenna
Population: 3,216,956 (2021)
Motto: Inpàvia è Speransà

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Navenna, officially the Republic of Navenna (Navennese: Repùblega de Navenna), also known as the Most Serene Republic of Navenna (Navennese: Serenìsima Repùblega Navennata), is a small sovereign state in southwestern Uletha bordering Plevia in the north, Mardoumakhstan in the east and Costa dei Scialecchi in the southeast. Located between the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the mountain chain in the east, the country covers a land area of 11,500.13 km² (4,440.23 sq mi) with a population of approximately 3.2 million inhabitants. The country shares its name with its capital, City of Navenna (Navennese: Sità de Navenna), which is home to approximately a quarter of the country's population. Navenna is a constitutional elective monarchy, with a Doge (Navennese: Dòxe) as its head of state elected by the upper house, and a prime minister as its head of government elected by the lower house and appointed by the Doge. The Doge is a largely ceremonial role while the prime minister leads the government of Navenna. Navenna is a member of the Association of South Ulethan Nations and the Assembly of Nations.

There are few surviving historical records that detail the founding of Navenna. Historians believe that the Navennese Lagoon may have been settled in the 6th or 7th century by immigrants from the north, possibly Nascilians. The city began as an independent trading post for trade routes between Plevian city states in the north and states in the southeast, and grew to prominence after the fall of the Meciran Empire in the 8th century. During the following years, the wealth of the fledgling republic grew due to its favorable position along important trade routes, and so did its influence, putting many cities on the mainland under its rule. In the 10th and 11th century, Navenna expanded south into Anoria, the name of the peninsula in the south of the country, integrating Anorian city states into Navenna with little resistance. During the 12th and 13th century, Navenna fought many battles against the Republic of Ƚovana, its main trading rival. In 1289, Navenna captured the city of Ƚovana and annexed its territory. Territorial gains were also made in Nascillia. The country grew rapidly during the 16th century, expanding southwards along the Mediterranean coast, securing valuable trading posts. At its height, the Republic of Navenna reached as far south as modern day Lustria. Due to a multitude of factors Navenna's wealth declined during the 17th century, resulting in rapid loss of territories along the Mediterranean coast. Since the 19th century, Navenna's borders have been relatively stable.

The country has an advanced economy based on finance, services and tourism. As an early industrializing country, Navenna used to have an economy based around mineral extraction and manufacturing. The decline of Navennese industry in the 1960s sent the country into a long economic depression. The depression was followed by sweeping economic liberalization that resulted in renewed economic growth primarily in the financial and service sector. Navenna ranks among the wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, although this has been partially attributed to distortions caused by disproportionate amounts of capital being moved through the country by various multinational entities operating in Navenna as a result of low corporate tax rates.[1] Various international economic institutions label Navenna as a major corporate tax haven.[2][3]


Etymology

The origin of the name "Navenna" is not entirely known. The earliest known mention of the name is from 722, using the form “Nāviena”. The name is believed to have been borrowed from the Proto-Romantian word nāvis, meaning "ship". The ending "-enna" is a common oeconym in Navenna. The name likely refers to the location of the city, being reachable only by boat.

History

Prehistory

The area that constitutes modern day Navenna is believed to have been inhabited for a very long time, likely since the Lower Paleolithic era. Artifacts dating back as far back as 800,000 years have been discovered in eastern Anoria. The petroglyphs of Falabiana are believed to have been made by modern humans some 35,000 years ago.

Early history

Origins

The origins of Navenna are uncertain, due to very few historical records and conflicting evidence. The land itself has been home to a multitude of tribes and minor kingdoms, with highly unstable borders. The Navennese lagoon is believed to have been inhabited for thousands of years, long before the founding of Navenna itself, by smaller groups who primarily sustained themselves through fishing and salt production. There are two mainstream theories among researchers regarding when the city itself was founded. The first theory posits that migrants from Plevia, possibly Nascilians, established a trading post in the lagoon in the 6th or 7th century, which then grew to become a city due to migration from the surrounding lagoon and mainland Navenna. This is supported by Nascilian texts detailing efforts to establish such trading posts along the northern Mediterranean coast, but no evidence exists to suggest the Navennese lagoon was the location of one. The second theory, which is based on local tradition, suggests that a major flood (referred to as El Gran Diƚuviòn, "The Great Flood") forced the population of the lagoon to relocate, leading to the founding of a city on higher ground close to the barrier islands of the lagoon. Local tradition posits that the original ruling oligarchy of Navenna were made up of the families that emigrated from the lagoon into the city, while families from the mainland did not get the privilege of ruling the city. Historically such floods have occurred regularly, and sources point towards such a flood occurring in the second half of the 6th century.

Asénsa de Dòxe Filadelfo Nùnxo by Jùlio Coiro

The First Republic

During its early years, Navenna is believed to have been ruled as an oligarchy by influential families. According to tradition, different families had sovereignty over different parts of the lagoon according to their land claims before the Gran Diƚuviòn. Because of this, the fledgling city state was dysfunctional and lacked order and vigor in its administration. The first Doge, Filadelfo Nùnxo, was elected by a council consisting of the ruling families in 655, to unite the fragmented city state under a single leader. Thus began a long tradition of influential and wealthy families electing the Doge to lead the country, effectively establishing an elective monarchy. This event is considered the beginning of the Republic of Navenna, and is commonly referred to as the First Navennese Republic (Navennese: Prima Repùblega Navennata).

It is not fully known when the name “Navenna” was first used to describe the city state. The earliest mention of the name “Navenna” comes from accounts of the Meciran invasion of the northeastern Mediterranean region, which occurred during the 8th century. Historical records of the Meciran sacking of Mirùn in 722 describe a city in the lagoon called “Nāviena”, which was a refuge for people fleeing from the Mecirans. The city was besieged by the Mecirans in 724, a siege that ultimately failed due to the difficulties of fighting in marshes and tidal plains. When the Meciran Empire collapsed in 766, the Republic of Navenna was able to exploit the power vacuum left by the Mecirans to assert control over the mainland, laying claim to cities in the modern day cantons of Navenna Lagunare, Malghexè and Alta Navenna. Mirùn and Malghexè would both grow to become important centers of power for the mainland. The city rose to become an important trading center for the northeastern Mediterranean region.

Middle Ages

Rise

The 10th century saw a slow expansion of Navennese influence into Anoria. Before its integration into the Republic of Navenna, Anoria was split between the Republic of Piavia, the Duchy of Seƚi and the Republic of Agheni. Through a combination of diplomacy and intimidation, the Duchy of Seƚi and the Republic of Agheni were both integrated into Navenna at the end of the 10th century, in 967 and 982 respectively. The Republic of Piavia resisted Navennese influence, and aligned itself with the Grand Duchy of Ƚovana, a rival merchant nation to the north of Navenna, for protection in 984. This had a domino effect on the nations of the region, who chose to align themselves with either Navenna of Ƚovana. While Navenna sought to claim cities and ports in the south along the Scialecchian coast, Ƚovana sought to secure itself against Navenna by seeking greater diplomatic ties with Plevian states in the north. In 1055, war broke out between the Republic of Piavia and the Republic of Navenna, which triggered a war between the two factions headed by Navenna and Ƚovana respectively. During the war, most of the remaining minor states of the region were either conquered or absorbed into Navenna and Ƚovana. The conflict was settled when the Navennese armada was destroyed outside the island of Fatamagia in the Tiruglian archipelago in 1068 which caused Navenna to surrender. As terms for the surrender, the Republic of Navenna was to refrain from all trading activity in the sea north of Ƚovana. This caused Navenna to shift its trade ambitions from the sea to the land. While maritime trade would still be a significant source of income for the republic, Navenna also saw potential in establishing trade routes towards the east across the Ulethan continent. During the end of the 11th century, Navenna pushed northeast into the mountains, establishing trade routes with Plevian states bypassing the Ƚovana-controlled waters.

The Navennese governing system saw many reforms in the 13th century, and Navennese democracy reached its height in 1288 with the establishment of the Citizens' Council (Navennese: Conségio dei Sitadìni). While progressive for its time, membership in the Citizens' Council was limited to residents of the city of Navenna itself. This established a de facto class system in Navenna, consisting of the "aristocrats" (Navennese: ristocràti), members of the Council of One Hundred who were often part of wealthy and influential families, the "citizens" (Navennese: sitadìni), residents of the city of Navenna who had the right to vote, and the "provincials" (Navennese: provinsiaƚi), the population outside the capital city who could only partake in local governing.

Golden Era

After the fall of Ƚovana, Navenna had established itself as the sole merchant republic of the region, and effectively monopolized all trade along the eastern Mediterranean coast. The wealth of Navenna rapidly grew during the 14th century, a time referred to as the golden era of Navenna. The golden era saw the establishment of the Shadow Council (Navennese: Conségio Onbrìa), whose role was to maintain the power balance between the Council of One Hundred and the Doge.

Early Modern Era

Navennese Renaissance

Decline

Personal union

Late Modern Era

Industrialization

Great War

Post-war Era

Geography

Community Noun project 4864.svg
Geography of Navenna
ContinentUletha (Western)
RegionRomantia
PopulationIncrease 3,216,956 (2021)
Area
• Total25,018.95 km2
9,659.87 sq mi
• Water (%)55.1%
Population density280 km2
333 sq mi
Time zoneWUT+4 (CUT)

Navenna is one of the smaller states in Uletha; the country covers about 25,018.95 km² (9,659.87 sq mi), of which 11,500.13 km² (4,440.23 sq mi) is land. Navenna measures approximately 275 km in length and and 88 km in width at its longest and widest point respectively. The country is located along the northern shore of the Mediterranean sea, and is considered part of the Ulethan region of Romantia. In Navennese, the region is normally referred to as the Upper Mediterranean (Mexànmar Soràn).

To the north, Navenna borders the hilly and densely populated Plevian region of Nascilia. To the east, the country borders Mardoumakhstan. The border follows a mountain chain that stretches from southern Plevia to southern Mardoumakhstan. Along the border with Mardoumakhstan Navenna's highest point can be found.

Navenna can be roughly divided into three distinct geographical regions. The land closest to the west coast is relatively flat and low-lying, and are home to the bulk of the country's population centers and agricultural production. This is where the two large lagoons of Navenna can be found; the Navennese Lagoon and the Caglian Lagoon. The coast is sometimes more jagged, such as west of Ƚovana where the craggy islands of the Tiruglian Archipelago can be found. The northeastern part of Navenna is dominated by tall mountains and thick mixed forests. Most of the population here is found in the valleys between the mountains where orchards and pastures dominate the useable land. In the southeast the jagged mountains give way for a mosaic landscape with rolling hills where fields and pastures are interspersed with forests.

A number of rivers can be found in Navenna. The longest are the Cesi and the Sane, at 92 km and 57 km respectively. Other major waterways are the Fior and the Atas. Navenna has a long history of waterworks, diverting rivers, building canals and reclaiming land. In the lowlands north of the City of Navenna exists a network of canals that historically provided a network for the transport of goods. Smaller streams were often redirected in order to serve as mill races for water wheels.

Climate

Navenna has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), characterized by hot and humid summers. Winters are mild and are marked by high precipitation.

Politics

Government icon (black).svg
Government of Navenna
Unitary parliamentary constitutional elective monarchy (de facto)
CapitalCity of Navenna
Head of state
• Doge
(Navennese: Dòxe)
Nestore Maestri
• Prime ministerEnzo Rigi
LegislatureParliament
• Upper houseCouncil of One Hundred
(Navennese: Conségio del Sénto)
• Lower houseCitizens' Assembly
(Navennese: Senblèa dei Sitadìni)
Lower house of Navenna2021.svg
JudiciaryPretùra Èrta deƚa Repùblega
Major political parties
Government (52)
  Partido Repùblegano (22)
  Partido Christico Democratico (17)
  Aleanxa Progresiva (13)

Confidence and supply (9)
  Partido Sociàle Christico (5)
  Unión Agraria (4)

Opposition (60)
  Sociàldemocratisi – Partido dei Laorànti de Navenna (14)
  Nóva Democrasìa par Navenna (14)
  Senèstro Unìo (10)
  Forum parel Nord (6)
  I Vérdi (4)
  Ƚibartà é Jùstìsia (3)
  Partiyasi Arrash / Partido Aràs (3)
  Confederasiòn Sindicàlista Nasionaƚe de Navenna (2)
  3P - Partido Pari Pensionati (2)
  Partido Pirati (2)
AN, ASUN

Government

The constitution of Navenna states that the country is a republic, ruled by a doge as the head of state, and a prime minister as the head of government. In practice, political scientists have described Navenna as a constitutional elective monarchy, with a representative parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch.

The position of doge is appointed by supermajority vote by the upper house of Navenna, the Council of One Hundred, and approved by the lower house, the Citizens' Assembly. Once elected, the doge rules for life unless dismissed from office by the Conségio through a similar vote. Historically the doges have had far reaching powers similar to that of a monarch, but today the powers of the doge are limited by the constitution to a mostly ceremonial and representative role. The mandate of the doge includes the annual opening session of the Conségio, and formally appoints or dismisses the grand councilor of the Conségio. The doge hosts visiting foreign diplomats and represents Navenna during state visits abroad. Diplomatic letters such as letters of credence are often signed by the doge.

The Council of One Hundred (Conségio del Sénto) is the upper house of the Navennese parliament. The powers of the Conségio are primarily advisory, and often take the initiative to review and propose amendments to laws proposed by the government. The Conségio cannot prevent normal laws from passing, but can veto any changes to the constitution of Navenna. Unlike the Senblèa, debates in the Conségio can be conducted behind closed doors. The Conségio has the power to both elect and dismiss the doge. The sessions of the Conségio are presided over by a grand councilor (gran consegièr), who is appointed through a majority vote by the council and serves for a four year term. 52 of the 100 seats of the Conségio are held by lords (sièri), who hold their seat for life or until they resign on their own, and are free to appoint their successor. The remaining 48 seats are appointed by non-partisan electors (eletori), who nominate members to the Council. In turn, the electors are appointed by the government whenever a new government term begins. Members of the Conségio are not allowed to partake in partisan politics and in accordance with the constitution must act "in the best interest of the Republic". Members are automatically expelled upon conviction of any criminal offence that results in imprisonment.

The Citizens' Assembly (Senblèa dei Sitadìni) is the lower house of Navenna and the legislative branch of the state. The Senblèa passes all laws, approves the prime minister and their cabinet, and supervises the work of the government. Bills may be brought before the Senblèa by ministers or members of parliament. Members are democratically elected through a party-list proportional representation system. The method utilized for distributing seats combined with a low election threshold of 2% has resulted in a long history of many small parties. No single party has ever achieved a majority in the Senblèa, and all governments have either been formed by coalition or by minority one-party governments. The Senblèa is presided over by a speaker (parladór), who is elected by majority vote by members of the Senblèa. Formally, the Senblèa has the power to veto the election of the doge, though this power has never been exercised.

The government of Navenna, the executive branch of the state consisting of the prime minister and their cabinet, is approved by the Senblèa through negative parliamentarism. The main functions of the government are to present bills to the Senblèa, implement decisions taken by the Senblèa and appoint electors for the Conségio. The position of prime minister is proposed by the speaker in consultation with the Conségio. By precedent, the leader of the largest party in the Senblèa is always proposed to become prime minister, provided they can gather enough support from the other parties in the Senblèa.

Navenna has universal suffrage for all citizens above the age of 18 for all citizens of the country. Elections for the Senblèa and the cantons are held every four years. Voters may choose to vote on a party only, in which case the party list is used to determine which candidates enter the Senblèa. Alternatively they may specify a candidate, or multiple candidates and rank them as they wish. Candidates do not have to be a member of a party to stand for an election, but independent members of parliament are very rare. In order for a political party to be allowed to be registered and stand for an election, they must collect certificates of support from a minimum of 16,000 voters.

Constituent Entities

Government Data - The Noun Project.svg
Administrative divisions of Navenna
First-level13 cantons
(Navennese: cantoni)
Second-level151 municipalities
(Navennese: comùni)
1 special district
(Navennese: distreti spesiaƚe)
Third-levelparishes
(Navennese: paròchi)

Navenna is divided into 13 cantons, which are further divided into a number of municipalities (Navennese: comùni). A canton can also contain special districts (Navennese: distreti spesiaƚi). The canton of Paramo contains Navenna's only special district, the Aras Valley (Navennese: Vaƚàda de Aràs), where the language spoken in bordering Mardoumakhstan has elevated status as alternative working language for the municipalities within the Aras Valley. The cantons of Navenna enjoy a degree of self rule and have their own tax base as mandated by the constitution. The extent of their responsibilities are further regulated by national law, thus the cantons are interdependent upon the national government.

Canton Flag Capital Number of municipalities Land area Population Population density
km² mi² km² mi²
Agheni
Canton flag of Agheni
Agheni 10 855 330 171,000 201 518
Alta Navenna
Canton flag of Alta Navenna
Mirùn 16 1,008 389 158,700 157 408
Anoria Sud
Canton flag of Anoria Sud
Càstio 13 1,408 544 102,045 72 188
Breselo
Canton flag of Breselo
Breselo 10 1,016 392 152,190 150 388
Fovènsia é Verana
Canton flag of Fovènsia é Verana
Fovènsia 8 722 279 152,400 211 546
Ƚovana Maxòr
Canton flag of Ƚovana Maxòr
Ƚovana 23 1,721 664 624,521 363 941
Malghexè
Canton flag of Malghexè
Malghexè 7 356 137 110,256 310 805
Montebiànco
Canton flag of Montebiànco
Guinevento 5 510 197 56,209 110 285
Našilia-Meletta
Canton flag of Našilia-Meletta
Meletta 8 1,058 409 261,004 247 638
Navenna Lagunare
Canton flag of Navenna Lagunare
Navenna 22 694 268 1,030,856 694 3,846
Paramo
Canton flag of Paramo
Paramo 11 1,011 390 120,899 120 310
Seƚi
Canton flag of Seƚi
Seƚi 11 722 279 193,900 269 695
Tesenso
Canton flag of Tesenso
Tesenso 6 419 162 82,076 196 507

Economy

Q159810 noun 509351 ccParkjisun economy.svg
Economy of Navenna
Mixed economy
CurrencyNavennese Ducat (∂)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• TotalIncrease $250.286 billion
• Per capitaIncrease $77,802
HDI (2020)Steady 0.929
very high
Industries and sectors
Services
  
78.4%
Industry
  
15.7%
Agriculture
  
2.2%
Other
  
3.7%
Largest companiesRosolini, BMN Group, SBNS, Renavali, bloom, Superiòr Retail Group, Enna, ARN Navennese Airways, SCR Group, ADTA Investìtori

Navenna has a globalized, high income mixed economy which features moderate growth and high GDP per capita. Navenna's main imports are raw materials, metals, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, transportation equipment, petroleum products, textiles and clothing. Financial services and unclassified transactions constitute a significant part of Navenna's exports. Other major exports include cars, machinery and equipment, chemicals, pharmaceuticals. Navennese agriculture meets 62% of the domestic food demand, but also exports dairy products, wine and olive oil. Tourism is a significant source of employment, especially in the southern parts of the country where some cities are reliant on tourism for the local economy. The historical city center of Navenna is a world renowned tourist attraction visited by around 5.2 million tourists in 2021.

Historically, Navenna has been a highly industrialized country with an economy based around mineral extraction and manufacturing. Mining and steel production flourished during the early 19th century, especially in the northern cities of Ƚovana and Meletta. The City of Navenna, Agheni and Seƚi have long been major port cities and centers for the Ulethan shipbuilding industry. The economies of Malghexè and Mirùn were historically linked to the textile industry. As manufacturing costs became higher, and the industry had to increasingly rely on imports of natural resources, Navennese industry became less competitive with many companies either moving their production abroad in search for cheaper labor, or went bankrupt. Ever since the recession of the 1960s, the manufacturing sector has been of lesser importance in Navenna, but a few significant companies remain. Renavali, a merger of Navenna's ship manufacturers operate a number of shipyards outside Navenna, such as in Goukamma, CCA. Rosolini is a major foodstuff conglomerate which owns multiple brands produced and sold all over the world, and operate subsidiaries in Qennes and Freedemia, among others. Some industries have survived by catering to niche markets, such as vehicle manufacturer Regòra which exclusively produces sports and luxury cars.[4]

Navenna's economy is primarily based around finance and services, and has been able to rapidly develop its economy through its favorable corporate tax policies. The country is also known for its strict banking secrecy, with major Navennese banks such as BMN and SBNS being accused of being safe havens for tax evasion, money laundering and other types of financial crime. Foreign multinational companies constitute a significant part of the country's total economic activity. This has caused Navenna to have a distorted GDP, since it includes income from non-Navennese companies[1].

Infrastructure

Navenna has a developed network of road and rail. Most major cities are served by the Navennese autostrade, a network of tolled motorways owned by the state but operated by the private company Autostrade per Navenna. The longest of these is the A-1 connecting the City of Navenna with Ƚovana and Plevia. Some cities are served by non-tolled expressways called superstrade. In 2019, there were about 683 cars per 1 000 inhabitants in Navenna.[5] While efforts have been undertaken to reduce car use and promote the use of public transport, car dependency has steadily increased since the 1980s.

The national railway network is state owned and operated by FDR. Most of the network is electrified. Most main railway lines along the coast nd between major cities are double-track, while railways going east into the mountains are mostly single-track. Navenna's sole high-speed railway connects the City of Navenna with the Plevian capital of Osianopoli via Ƚovana and Condona.

More than 90% of all airways traffic in Navenna is handled by a single airport, Aereoporto internasionaƚe de Navenna Xeƚo. The airport serves as the hub for Navenna's only airline and flag carrier ARN - Navennese Airways.

Demographics

Noun project 288.svg
Demographics of Navenna
DemonymNavennese
Official languagesNavennese
Recognized minority languagesMardoumakhian
Ethnicities
Navennese
  
81.2%
Mardoumakh
  
5.5%
Plevian
  
4.9%
Shelakh
  
3.1%
Other
  
5.3%
LiteracySteady 99.4%
Life expectancyIncrease 78.6 (male)
Steady 85.1 (female)

With an estimated population of 3.2 million, Navenna ranks among the smaller countries of the world in terms of population. Most of the population lives in the coastal central parts of the country; almost one third of the population can be found in the City of Navenna's metropolitan area, and the cantons of Navenna Lagunare and Ƚovana Maxòr are home to approximately half of the population. With a population density of 280 inhabitants per square kilometer, Navenna is among the more densily populated countries in the world.

Ethnicity

Language

Religion

Education

Health

The overall life expectancy at birth in Navenna varies greatly between sexes; 78.6 years for males versus 85.1 for females. This disparity has decreased over the last 25 years as male life expectancy has increased faster than female life expectancy. The total fertility rate of Navenna was 1.77 in 2018, and has decreased considerably since after the Great War. While the natural growth rate of the population is currently negative, population has been increasing throughout the 21th century thanks to a high immigration rate, primarily from other Mediterranean countries.

Navenna's healthcare system is based on mandatory health insurance. All citizens must take out their own healthcare insurance from any private for-profit or NGO insurance provider. Healthcare insurance is regulated by law; all insurance providers must offer a universal and affordable insurance package, and may not refuse or impose special conditions upon the applicant, except under very specific circumstances.[6] Risk variations are managed through a national risk equalization pool managed by the state, and insurance providers are incentivized to take on high risk individuals through compensation. Children below the age of 18 are automatically covered by their parents' healthcare insurance plan. Individuals below a certain income threshold receive subsidies from the state to help pay for healthcare insurance. Health expenditure per capita amounted to 5,344 USD per year in 2018.

Culture

Cuisine

Navennese cuisine has a long and rich history, having integrated elements of cuisines from neighboring cultures, primarily from Plevia, while maintaining a distinct Navennese identity. Navennese gastronomic culture is usually divided into two main geographical regions which have affected what ingredients are available, what cooking techniques are used, and which other cultures have had an influence. Cuisine from the coastal regions of Navenna is rich in seafood, beef and wheat, while the cuisine of the interior regions of Navenna are to a greater degree based around poultry, lamb, mushrooms and vegetables. Historically, game meat has been an important protein source in remote and mountaneous regions, and is still incorporated into some local delicassies. While regional differences have diminished greatly in modern times, with most dishes being available anywhere in the country, some local variation still exist, especially for cheeses and cold cuts since many local variants enjoy a protected origin under Navennese law.

Pasta forms the staple food of Navennese cuisine, typically made with wheat flower and egg. Stuffed variants such as rafióƚo and tortèƚi are especially common, usually with a meat, vegetable or cheese-based filling. Bread is another staple in Navennese cuisine, with a multitude of local bread variants. Tomatoes, peppers, onions, olives, artichokes, garlic, eggplants, broccoli, asparagus and zucchini are commonly used ingredients in Navennese dishes. Olive oil is widely used, both as a cooking fat and as a base for sauces. A common Navennese sauce is rùxene made with egg yolk, olive oil, garlic, lemon and chilli peppers (pevarónsini). Dishes are commonly spiced using black pepper, pevarónsini, parsley, chives and basil. Due to Navenna's history as a maritime republic with extensive trade networks, the country has enjoyed prolonged access to many exotic herbs and spices such as vanilla, cocoa and ginger which have historically been used in upper-class dishes. Peppers have since their introduction in the country become a staple ingredient, adding heat to many Navennese dishes.

Making cheese from cow, sheep or goat milk is an old tradition in Navenna, with a plethora of cheese varieties having been developed over time. Many Navennese cheese varieties have been exported and adapted abroad. Some notable cheese varieties include maseƚo, a soft cow's milk cheese named after its traditional point of origin, the town of Maseƚo; marxa fatisènte, a hard granular cow's milk cheese originating from Seƚi; sviƚéte, a semi-soft blue-veined cheese; and sanguinóxo Navennato, colloquially known as Navennese blood cheese, a hard delicacy cheese colored and flavored with red pesto.

Seafood has an elevated status in Navennese cuisine. Sea bass, sea bream, swordfish and tuna are common in traditional recipies, and Navennese supermarkets usually stock imported fish such as cod, haddock and salmon. Cuttlefish and squid are considered delicacies in Navenna, and squid ink is sometimes integrated into dishes. The most notable seafood delicacy is crùo, consisting of thinly sliced or diced raw fish usually served with vegetables and bread.

Notable dishes of Navenna include:

  • Crùo - an iconic dish from Navenna Lagunare, it consists of thinly sliced or diced raw seafood meats, typically tuna, shrimp, cuttlefish, octopus and salmon. Crùo is served as an antipasto on its own, or as a main course together with vegetables, bread and soup. Originally a delicacy reserved for the wealthy or only eaten during festivities, crùo is now widely available at restaurants specialized in preparing crùo dishes, and is served in a mulitude of ways. Crùo is commonly compared to sashimi.
  • Rafióƚo - stuffed pasta served with a variety of fillings, such as cheese, sage, onion, spinach, and poultry or beef meat. The pasta is served in broth or with a sauce.
  • Supìn d'ingiòstro (lit: "ink soup") - a fish soup made primarily with cuttlefish and squid, occasionally combined with crabs and mussels. Its name comes from the fact that the soup is colored dark using squid ink. The soup is commonly served with rùxene and bread.
  • Pasta aƚa pevaràsa - pasta served with clams, tomatoes and garlic, usually served with a sauce prepared with olive oil, pevarónsini, black pepper and white wine. Occasionally cheese is added.
  • Bixàto frito - fried eel, a typical dish in Anoria.
  • Manxo mirúno - a beef stew originating from Mirùn, typically prepared with onion, garlic, mushrooms and red wine.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Tamborello, E., Di Noto, L., Filipi, A. & Rubbo, G. (2015). Dark Money: Exploring The Offshore Financial Centres of The Global East. Ulethan Financial Studies, 16(5), pp. 233-265. UUI: UX-091:18261001018
  2. "Navenna named as 5th worst tax haven in the world". Presses Generaux. 17 June 2017.
  3. ASUNACB (2020). Report: Multinational Tax Schemes of Navenna.
  4. Hájek, T & Riley, H. (2009). Post-industrial Recovery and Apadtation: A Case Study of Post-industrial Economies in West Uletha. Human Geography Review, 22(1), pp. 805-822. UUI: RR-231:09128122106
  5. NavStat (2020). Ano in rasegnà - Infrastruttura è strapòrto 2020. Navenna: NavStat.
  6. Ministry of Health of Navenna (2018). http://www.minsn.na/en/sicurasion Retrieved 3 March 2019.